Bibliography on the Move

August 2, 2011

Note for all Readers:

My bibliography on the history of cosmography has grown so large that I had to move it to another weblog:

http://nikolina4cosmography.wordpress.com/

Have fun,

Nicole

Vermeer: The Geographer

September 10, 2010

By courtesy of the Staedel Museum, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

http://www.staedelmuseum.de/sm/index.php?StoryID=21&ArtistID=626&b=v.

Priestley’s Sundial

April 24, 2010

These are two views of a sundial which once belonged to Joseph Priestley.  Photos by Larry Knight.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Priestley

The Scyths and Geography

February 16, 2010

The Scyths and the History of Geography

The Greeks and later the Romans were well acquainted with the Scyths.  They despised them as Barbarians and had no personal interest in them;  but they traded extensively with them.  The Greeks imported grain, honey, furs, leather and above all slaves;  they exported ceramics and other civilised goods.  The Romans and the Persians recruited mercenaries amongst the Scyths.

The Greeks built cities on the North Coast of the Black Sea where this trade was carried out;  when these territories fell under the control of the Roman empire, and later of the Goths, trade continued.  Scythian imports into the Greco-Roman world have left no traces for historians but the Greek antiquities on the North Shore of the Black Sea are well known, and have been documented, especially by Russian archaeologists.

All ancient Greek and Roman geographers placed the Scyths in the Crimea and the Pontic steppe.  And there they remained into the middle ages.

The Age of Exploration forced European geographers to re-write the map of the world which they had inherited from antiquity.  The ancient geographers had a most abbreviated view of Asia.  They thought that the Caucasus and the Himalaya were the same mountain range;  they imagined India and China as no bigger than Greece;  they did not even suspect the existence of vast territories north of China.

Late medieval and early Renaissance geographers had many resources at their disposal to draw a new, more accurate map of the world.  Ancient geography, for all its limitations, provided a starting point.  Christian missionaries were less secretive about their geographic competence than the ancient traders.  Explorers provided written materials full of geographical details.  The astrolabe, the compass, etc and improving mathematical knowledge (in particular the calculation of longitude) provided scientific underpinnings for the new maps.

In their attempt at reconciliating ancient geography with reports of recent explorers, the geographers of the late medieval and the renaissance period ran into difficulties over the Scyths — who where merely a historical name by that time.  In this period the territories once occupied by the Scyths had been through many political vicissitudes;  most recently they had been incorporated into the Kievan Rus’, and were now part of the Golden Horde.

Sometime during this period from the explorations of the 13th century to the Enlightenment, the Scyths were displaced by geographers from southern Russia, to the north of China.  This displacement was not questioned by modern historians, and has caused much confusion about the Scyths.  They were now perceived to have been Mongolians — a race unknown to the Greeks and the Romans — and not Finno-Ugrians.

The purpose of my research is to trace the confusion over the Scyths through the writings of explorers like Plano di Carpini, Marco Polo, Columbus, and the geographers who used them as sources to re-write the map of the world, such as Waldseemueller, Muenster, Mercator — right into the Age of the Enlightenment.  I intend to evaluate the means which the sources used to locate cities and nations (the compass, etc) and the quality of their information;  next I will evaluate the competence of the cartographers who schematized this information.

Printing was invented in the middle of this period, and had a profound impact on cartography;  this also will be the object of investigation.

Somewhere in those five centuries, I hope to identify how this displacement of the Scyths took place.  I also hope to find out why generations of scholars have failed to reconcile the very clear information of ancient authors about the Pontic origins of the Scyths with the mistaken perception of the Renaissance geographers who shipped them off to Siberia without benefit of a critical examination.

Two articles are planned:  a major one dealing with the philology and the metrology of travelers’ reports and Renaissance cartography;  a lesser one dealing with issues of text transmission when classical scholars from the seventeenth century to the present have accepted the displacement of the Scyths, and totally scrambled the original documents;  there may be also some independent philological notes:  Adversaria Scythica.

This research will also involve a detailed discussion of Deguignes, and his massive work on the Huns.

The Pontic Rhos: Intro

February 16, 2010

Names, like words, have their history.  Toponyms in particular carry not only their own etymology, but the history of the geographical or human entity which they represent.  For the study of sources, it is imperative to determine the value borne by a certain toponym or ethnym at a given point in time.

In the early days of the Roman Empire, the name of the Franks was applied to a Germanic people, living along the Rhine according to their ancient tribal fashion;  they were one of many such groups, allies of Rome who supplied the Empire with mercenaries.  By AD 500 (when Clovis was crowned) the Franks were a Christian kingdom covering most of present-day northern France, and a good chunk of the Rhine valley;  the people over whom they ruled were a mixture of Romanized Gauls (the majority), Germanic tribes, and some displaced people from the East:  Syrians, Alans.

By AD 800 (when Charlemagne was crowned), the Franks ruled over an empire which stretched from the Atlantic to the Oder and the middle Danube, from the Mediterranean to the North and Baltic seas.  This empire used Latin for most communications:  administration, religion, literature.  The language of the Franks was spoken only by a handful of people, descended from the original Germanic tribe.  The languages spoken in the Empire included Basque and Celtic in the West, Avar and Slavic in the East, and many others besides.

By 900, the Empire of the Franks was defunct;  its nomenclature entered the realm of history, and survivals.  On its ruins there emerged two substantial political formations, the Saxon Empire which was a continuation of Francia orientalis, but under a totally different hegemony;  in the west, the long lived Kingdom of France gradually emerged, which carried the name of the ancient Franks, but had very few ties with it.  On the periphery the kingdom of Hungary, the kingdom of Provence, the principalities of Northern Italy and the Slavic East, in particular Polabia, took a separate course.  Modern Europe was born.

The language of the Franks is now only known through the remnants which have survived in the rather inappropriately named French language:  this is fundamentally late Latin, with some Celtic substratum, and what linguists call an adstratum of some 800 Frankish words.  Survivals include place names like Frankfurt, Franconia, etc.  Survivals include such “French” words as guerre, gant (war, glove).

Farther afield, the name of the Franks and the empire over which they ruled was used for centuries after the empire vanished as a generic term for anything or anyone from Western Europe, whether France, Germany and even Italy.  In both the Byzantine empire and the Muslim world, this remained until after the Crusades the name of the Christian West.

I encountered this problem of terminology during the course of my research on the cross-bow (Petrin 1992).  In medieval Arabic and Turkish sources, the cross-bow is frequently called the Frankish bow.  The cross-bow had of course nothing to do with the nation of the Franks;  in this context, the Muslim sources mean the “European” or even more precisely “Western European” bow, that is the bow engine.

The history of the name Rhos = Rus’, the source of modern “Russia”, is just as complex, but even more poorly documented in its early stages.  The purpose of this article is to recover and organize this fragmentary information.  Unfortunately this etymological research will run counter to the accepted early historiography of the Slavs.  On the other hand, historians should have paid more attention to an obvious fact:  the name Rhos – Rus’ is clearly not Slavic in origin;  its phonologypoints to a rather different linguistic system.

The name Rhos was first recorded during the ninth century;  it
referred to a nation or a political formation (more probably the
latter) somewhere in the Pontic steppe.  The earliest dated
citation which I have found comes from a Frankish source:  the
Annals of St. Bertin.  The date is 839;  the event is a visit to
the Frankish emperor Louis the Pious by a Byzantine embassy;
they are accompanied by some envoys of a nation or state called
the Rhos.  The annals provide little information but it seems
evident that these people were not unknown to the Franks;  the
one useful bit of data is the word “chagan” which these Rhos give
their king.  This Oriental word, to which we will return, points
unequivocally to the East;  scholars who have speculated that
these mysterious Rhos might be Scandinavian have not really read
this text.  The Vikings did not call their rulers Chagans.

The next event on record is securely dated to June 860;  no
longer friends of the Byzantines, the Rhos attacked
Constantinople with their small but very fast boats called
akitia.  A number of sources describe the unpleasant incident,
and refer to the Rhos as a Scythian people:  The Anonymous
Chronicler of Brussels, Genesius, Nicetas of Byzantium, sundry
military writers.

We have descriptions of the Rhos in Muslim sources (in particular
ibn-Rusta and Gardezi).  They have a king called Khagan Rus to
whom merchants pay a tithe, their lands are swampy with many
rivers, they have no horses, but are expert boatmen.  They have a
rich economy based on furs, the slave trade (their neighbours the
agricultural Saqlaba whom they abduct and sell to the Khazars and
the Bulkar).  They also raid the Saqlaba for grain.  They wear
linen and gold.  They have Saqlab mercenaries.  They are pagans.
Later Muslim geographers, such as Al-Bekri, no longer carry
notices of these Rhos.

The wealth of the Rhos, described in the Muslim sources, is
confirmed by archaeology:  valuable Byzantine and Arab coins from
the seventh and the eighth centuries have been recovered from the
Pontic steppe in the hundreds of thousands.  The Rhos seem to
have simply hoarded this money:  when they needed food, like
grain and pork, they raided their poor Saqlab neighbours!!  They
could have paid for this food with all the money which they
buried in the ground.

Later the Kievan Rus’ was to build an entire civilisation upon
the basis of this same wealth (namely furs, wax, honey, amber):
beautiful buildings, costly books, incredible art, and other
appurtenances of gracious living.  Somehow the Rhos — or at
least their leadership class — don’t come across as an engaging
people;  not surprisingly historians have ignored them, even
those who have cheerfully retrieved these amazing coins from the ground.

The heading of the notices in ibn-Rusta and Gardezi is often
translated as “Russians”;  many modern historians have assumed
that these authors refer to the Kievan Rus’ without realizing
that these notices have little to identify the Rus':  a Christian
state, with horses, and many large and beautiful cities, the
Kievan Rus’ did not bury their wealth in swamps.  There are some
features of continuity between the later Kievan Rus’ and this
earlier state known as Rhos, particularly their role in
international trade, just as one can find some continuity between
the Empire of the Franks and the Kingdom of France;  but for
historical purposes, they must be treated separately until the
ties between the two are well known.

Linguistic features such as the word “Chagan” point to generic
Oriental political terminology.  The ruling class of the Rhos may
well have been cousins of the mixed Turkish-Sogdians who ruled
the empire of the Avars, and also the Khanate of Bulgaria:
recent comers from Inner Asia.  The masses of the people were
probably long time dwellers of the steppes.  Those are standard
features in ancient multi-ethnic empires, and may be taken for
granted, unless actual evidence should improbably point in
another direction.

The name “Bulgar” appears in Late Roman sources (Marcellinus
Comes) as early as the fifth century;  it refers to a Danubian
nation or a group of nations also known as Sclaveni in other
sources of the same period, describing the same events.  The
Khanate of Bulgaria was ruled by an aristocracy which spoke a
curious mixture of Iranian and Turkish:  their language (called
proto-Bulgar by philologists) can be studied from their
inscriptions.  The name Bulgar is that of the Slavic speaking
nations whom they vassalized.  Likewise the name Rhos may be the
name of the steppe people whom the new comers from Inner Asia
organized into a mercantile and predatory formation.

Clues? In late antiquity, there was a nation known as Rhoxolani in the steppe region. Theirs is a compound name of a type familiar to ancient ethnography: the Celtibers, the Gallo-Romans, etc. The Alans are very well known in the historical record; the first part of the name Rhoxolani points to the Volga, known as Rha in antiquity. Our word rhubarb (Rhos barbaricon) is derived from this source. Then there are the mysterious Rhipaean mountains, located somewhere in Scythia, which were only known by hearsay to the Greeks and the Romans. Philostorgius testifies that these mountains were associated with the Huns, also a nation from the Pontic steppe.

Unlike their Turco-Sogdian masters, the masses of the Rhos spoke
probably some form of Finno-Ugrian.  The entire corridor from the
Black Sea to the North Sea is saturated with ancient Finno-Ugrian
toponyms.  Even after centuries of Slavic colonisation, the
ancient names are found in the thousands.  The languages
themselves survive only on the periphery:  Finland, Baltic
states, and an emigre group in Hungary.  This distribution is a
typical pattern for language families which are only known from
their surviving substrata.

The capital of the rich and powerful state of the Kievan Rus’
bears a name which is impossible in Slavic:  /k/ followed by a
fronted vowel /i/.  In such an environment, /k/ would normally
become palatalized, and indeed one finds the variant Chiev
occasionally in medieval Slavic chronicles.  Nevertheless the
name Kiev has survived to this day, bearing its original and non-Slavic phonology.

River names are the most persistent:  Moskva, Neva are some of
these survivals.  One clue to ancient Finno-Ugrian names is, as
in the case of Kiev, the lack of palatalization.  Many ancient
Iranian names are associated with the steppe region;  Iranian,
like Slavic, is marked with palatalisation.  Such names as
Scythi, Sciri, Scrithifinni, cannot be either Slavic or Iranian.
They could be Finno-Ugrian;  at least the phonology allows this.
Names, yes, and words too:  the boats known as akitia which the
Rhos used in the attack on Constantinople bear a name which is
neither Slavic nor Iranian:  the lack of palatalisation proves it.

The few historians, such as Vasiliev, who have at all paid
attention to the Pontic Rhos have not extracted much data from
the sources.  Their methodology was deficient.  They have treated
these Rhos as some loose aggregate of people without any kind of
institutions.  Actually human societies are all organized in some
way;  even refugee camps made up of displaced persons from varied
origins soon develop some form of structure, for the purpose of
survival.

Political formations in particular all have some form of
leadership class, some source of economic wealth, whether
peasants who produce food or merchants who trade goods, or a
mixture of both;  armies and other supports of power are also
found in most states;  organized religion, cultural producers,
fishermen, miners, craftsmen, etc.  Political formations occupy a
given territory which may expand or shrink over time, but is
always identifiable at a given time.

Furthermore, political formations are living things;  they are
born, they grow, they become old, and they die — or at least go
through a protracted period of renewal.  As established by Ellis
Minns in his Scythians, the usual lifespan for a political
formation is 240 years.  The periods of conflict which act as
transition from one formation to the next tend to last about
fifty years.

By 860, the Pontic Rhos had started to disintegrate; by 900, the successor state of the Kievan Rus’ emerges in its place. This would place the foundation of the Pontic Rhos in ca AD 600. Confirmation? All those coins from foreign trade. The enormous deposits date from the seventh and eight centuries. Successful international trade cannot exist without the support of well-organized political formations; this becomes evident during political crises, when even basic foodstuffs and materials become unavailable.

Assuming a rich and reasonably powerful state in the Pontic
steppe from ca AD 600 to ca 860 — why have we so little
information about it?  A number of reasons may explain this.  The
period from AD 600 to 800 is one of the most poorly documented in
human history, especially since the invention of writing;  even
the history of a highly literate state such as Byzantium is
almost unknown from those two centuries.  Not surprisingly, we
have hardly anything on the Pontic Rhos:  they don’t seem to have
used writing, and are known through their neighbours, who had
better things to do than write about the Rhos.

Another problem may be terminology.  Political formations have
fluctuating names:  Serbia vs Yugoslavia, Prussia vs Germany,
Greece vs Hellas, Byzantium vs Rum, etc.  One source, the
Cosmographer of Ravenna, mentions a state in the Pontic steppe
which he calls in his barbarous Latin Onogoria;  the date of this
work is uncertain, but cannot be beyond AD 800.  The origin of
the name Onogoria has been debated;  it could be a double
barreled one combining the name of the Huns and the name of the
Ogurs (i.e. a Pontic nation and an Eastern one by way of Inner
Asia).  Whatever the name however, the geographic location
suggests the same formation as the Pontic Rhos.

At this point, a regional assessment may be helpful.  In ca AD
550, there were some severe convulsions in Inner Asia (the area
around Bukhara and Samarkand).  One result was the emigration of
hundreds of thousands of people, some speaking some form of
Turkic, others Sogdian, who travelled West.  For the next few
decades, they strove to establish new homes for themselves.
Since the lands and resources they coveted already belonged to
other people, these were war-filled decades.

Some of these refugees settled along the middle Danube, and
attempted to conquer the Byzantine empire.  Ultimately they
failed;  by the early seventh century they consolidated their
khaganate on the middle Danube;  they are known as the Avars
(Obri in the Slavic sources).  Their western territories were
conquered by the Franks shortly before AD 800;  their eastern
provinces may have lived on for a while.  Eventually, they fell
to the Petchenegs.

An offshot of the Avars settled on the northern shore of the
lower Danube, and gradually added territories from the Byzantine
lands to the south of that major river.  They are known in
history books as the Bulgars, or even Proto-Bulgars.  Their state
is normally called the First Bulgarian Khanate;  it disintegrated
in the mid tenth century, and its southern lands were
reintegrated into the Byzantine empire for a few centuries.  Its
Rumanian possessons fell likewise to the Petchenegs.

A similar process of state formation and disintegration took
place at the same time in the steppe region but is not equally
well recorded.  It marks the birth of the political formation
known as Onogoria or Rhos.  The collapse of this state in the
mid©ninth century inaugurated the birth of the Kievan Rus’, and
also the mass emigration of the people later known as Hungarians,
who created a new state on the middle Danube, on the ruins of the
Avars.

That the Hungarians came from the Pontic steppe is demonstrated
from contemporary historical sources (Frankish chronicles);  that
they spoke a Finno-Ugrian language with much material of Oriental
origin is equally clear from the linguistic evidence.  This
supports my contention that the Pontic Rhos was made up of a
Finno-Ugrian mass, with Oriental leadership.  The Rhos also
included an increasingly important military element of Slavic
origin:  the Saqlab janissaries whom the Rhos boatmen shanghaied
in the course of their raids.

Over time, when the Oriental leadership disintegrated, the Saqlab janissaries took over the state. The Kievan Rus’ was born. By one of those cheerful little ironies of history, the Hungarian kingdom was made up of a Finno-Ugrian aristocracy ruling Slavic peasants; the Kievan Rus’ had a Slavic aristocracy and Finno-Ugrian peasants. Language replacement is an important, though
overlooked element of history.

Oh yes, the Vikings.  Did they found the Kievan Rus’?  Clearly
not:  we have an overwhelming body of written sources which
indicate that the Rus’ aristocracy spoke Slavic.  In his Oration
on Law and Grace, Metropolitan Ilarion addressed his ruler as
Chagan — showing the origins of the political structure of the
Kievan Rus’.  The Vikings?  Their name derives from Germanic wik
or wijk:  market place.  The Vikings were traders and they played
a significant role in the economy of the Pontic Rhos and beyond.

Over 100,000 coins bearing Cufic and Pahlavi legends have been discovered in Scandinavia, contemporary with the Pontic Rhos.  But the Vikings lived up to their names;  they did trade — furs, wax and honey from the East in return for iron, and cloth from the West (Frankish sources document this).  They may well have taught the Rhos the art of ship-building:  those lethal akitia which frightened the Byzantines.  Some of their vocabulary lived on.  Their names also:  Oleg, Olga.  The Saqlab janissaries who emerged as the next military aristocracy were not pure Slavs; they must have intermarried with the Viking traders (their social equals in the Pontic Rhos) and others.

Now that I have upset everybody’s national pride, we can go on
and write true history, uncontaminated by national deviations (as
the Communists termed it).  The Pontic Rhos have their place in
the historical record, having mediated such powerfully
significant states as the Kingdom of Hungary and the Kievan Rus’,
and played a key role in international trade and technology
transfer.  True, they were an unprepossessing lot:  having grown
up on a farm, I find their robbing the food of the poor Saqlab
farmers beyond the pale, especially while they sat on masses of
useless gold and silver.  But history is full of unpleasant people.

The Pontic Rhos: Biblio

February 16, 2010

The Pontic Rhôs:  The Early Medieval Transformations

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Aly, Wolfgang.  «Zum neuen Strabon-Text.»  With introduction and notes in Italian by Francesco Sbordone.  La Parola del Passato.  5 (1950) 228-263.  PA 9 P3.  Geography of Greece.

Aly, Wolfgang.  De Strabonis codice rescripto.  With Francesco Sbordone.  Studi e testi, 188.  Vatican City:  Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1956.  Robarts PA 4438 Z5;  Pims?  With diplomatic edition of palimpsest.

Aly, Wolfgang, ed.  Strabonis geographica.  Bonn:  Rudolf Habelt, 1968.  G 87 S92 A4.  Biblio.  Contains intro, bks I-II.

Aly, Wolfgang, ed.  Strabonis geographica.  Bonn:  Rudolf Habelt, 1972.  G 87 S87.  Contains bks III-VI.

Amandi, Vita.  MGH SRM 5.  (AASS Feb. 6th, volume I:861 — Chapter IV, para 15; SRM V:431).  Text in Grenze.txt.  Crossing the Danube to reach the Slavs.

Amandus.  Testament.  SRM 5:485.  See Moreau, Krusch.

Ananias of Schirag (fl. 600-650).  Armenian mathematician.  See his autobiography translated F. C. Conybeare BZ 6 (1897) 572-573.  HX.  «His Tract on Easter» 574-584.

Anastasijevic, Dragutin N.  «Ostrogotski odlozak sa Balkana u Italiju.»  Prilozi KJIF.  1 (1921) 216-233.  PG 1203 M35 A2.

Anastasijevic, Dragutin N.  «Tsarskii god v Vizantii.»  Seminarium Kondakovianum.  11 (1940) 147-199.  Roba N 5950 I56.  With French Summary.  Chronology.

Anastos, Milton V.  «The Alexandrian Origin of the Christian Topography of Cosmas Indicopleustes.»  DOP 3 (1946) 73-80.  Biblio.  Partial pu blication of research done before the war.

Andreae Bergomatis Historia.  Ed:  Waitz.  Heraclius’ victory over Persia, §25.  Boris’ embassy in Regensburg in June/August 866.  [Shortly after AD 869] Multa fatigatio Langobardi et opressio a Sclavorum gens sustinuit, usque dum imperator Foroiulanorum fines Ebherardo principem constituit, §8.

Annales Bertiniani, by Hincmar of Rheims and Prudentius.  Grat, Waitz, Nelson.  See Boris.bib.  AD 839, Les Rhos qui voyagent avec les ambassadeurs de l’empereur Théophile, et dont Louis le Pieux se méfie (Latouche).

Annales Blandinienses.  Ed:  Grierson.  AD 789:  Karolus Sclavos qui Vulzi vocantur cum magno exercitu adgressus, domuit ac ditionis sue subiugavit (page 8).  AD 791 Et Karolus Pannonias cum exercitu magno ingressus, Hunorum regiones ferro et igne populatur (page 9).  AD 792 Pons navalis in Danubio factus est.  AD 795, 799 Saxony.  AD 799 Geraldus Baioariae prefectus cum Avaris dimikans interfectus est.

Annales Elmarenses.  Ed:  Grierson.  AD 851 pirate Daciorum Fresiam et Batavos populantur.  AD 852 Nordmanni CLII navibus Fresiam adeunt.

Annales Elnonenses.  Ed:  Grierson.  AD 618 Bonefatius papa Ve.  Obiit sanctus Iohannes Aleandriae episcopus, qui ob nimiam in Christo liberalitatem nomen Elemosinarii.  Ierusalem a rege Persarum Cosdroe capitur;  nonaginta milia virorum perimuntur, Zacharias patriarcha captivatur;  Santa crux aspartatur (page 137).  Cf Baynes on Heraclius.

Annales Formoselenses.  Ed:  Grierson.

Anonymus Bruxellensis.  Boor, Cumont.

Anonymous Ravennatis.  See Parthey, Schnetz.  «Dorestadt».

Anonymus Valesianus.  DG 504 V47.  See Adams, Bracke, König, Moreau, Muratori, MGH.  Entries needed for Muratori and MGH.

Ansgar.  Vitae Anskarii et Rimberti.  AASS Feb, 4.  1:559-571.  See Waitz;  Robinson.  Info on northern trade routes, on Slavs.  §20, §24 §27 (SS 2:705, 709, 712).

Antiochus.  44 martyrs, PG 89:1421-1428.

Antiochus Strategus.  The Capture of Jerusalem.  See Conybeare.

Antoniadis-Bibicou, Hélène.  Recherches sur les douanes à Byzance.  Cahier des Annales, 20.  Paris:  Colin, 1963.  HJ 232 A58.

Arafat, Karim W.  «Fact and artefact:  Texts and Archaeology.»  Hermathena 1990:45-67.  AS  . . . per.bib###.

Arn, archbishop of Salzburg.  Donation.  Salzburger Urkundenbuch.  volume 1 for text, and volume 2 for information on manuscript.

Arnaud, Pascal.  «Les relations maritimes dans le Pont-Euxin d’après les données numériques des géographes anciens.»  REA 94 (1992) 57-77.  PA 2 R4.  Maps.  Crimea, Marcien d’Héraclée.  Périples pour petit cabotage, géographes pour navigation hauturière.

Arndt, Wilhelm, ed.  Gregorius Turensis.  MGH:  SRM, 1.  1884.  First edition.  Second ed by Krusch.

Astronomus.  Vita Ludovici Imperatoris.  PL 104:927-980.  See Pertz, Tremp.

Aujac, Germaine.  Eratosthène de Cyrène:  le pionnier de la géographie.  Paris:  Editions du CTHS, 2001.  G 87 E73 A95.  Strabo relies heavily on him for Asia.

Auzépy, Marie-France, ed, tr.  La vie d’Etienne le Jeune par Etienne le Diacre.  London:  Variorum, 1997.  BX 395 S74 S73.  floruit 809.  Biblio, mention of Nikopolis, see index.

Babelon, J.  «L’art monétaire sous les Sassanides.»  [Revue des] Arts asiatiques.  1 (1937) 48-51.  Check N2 A83.  (Musée Guimet, then per.bib).  RomU P.S. Ar 1620;  1 (1954-).

Bachrach, Bernard S.  Merovingian Military Organization, 481-751.  Minneapolis:  U of Minnesota Press, 1972.  DC 46 B3.

Baethgen, Friedrich, tr.  Fragmente syrischer und arabischer Historiker.  Elias bar Sinaya, Metropolitan of Nisibis, b. 975.  Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Bd. 8, No. 3.  Leipzig, F.A. Brockhaus, 1884;  Nendeln Kraus Reprint 1966.  Downsview CE 57 E44.

Bailey, Harold Walter.  «An Itinerary in Khotanese Saka.»  Acta Orientalia. 14 (1936) 258-267.  PJ 5 D4.  Dated AD 958-972.  «Thence two days on land is a city called Icahanagari.  There is a lofty mountain;  and three sangharamas.»  (260)  City unidentified.

Bailey, Harold Walter.  The Contents of Indian and Iranian Studies.  Cambridge UP, 1938.

Bailey, Harold Walter.  «A Problem of the Kharoshthi Script.»  In Essays and Studies Presented to Stanley Arthur Cook.  Ed:  David Winton Thomas.  London:  Taylor, 1950.  121-123.  Knox BS 1192 T56;  La Semit T4555e Old Class, retr.  The numeral sign for 1000.

Bairische Kasseler Glossen, ca 800 A.D.

Balazs, Etienne.  Biblio Song.  Z 3102 S77.

Baldwin, Barry.  «Menander Protector.»  DOP 32 (1978) 101-125.

Baldwin, Barry.  «The Purpose of the Getica.»  Hermes 107 (1979) 489-492.

Baldwin, Barry.  «Sources for the Getica of Jordanes.»  Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire.  59 (1981) 141-146.  See Grenze.bib for more.

Baldwin, Barry.  «On the Date of the Anonymous Peri Strategikes.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  81 (1988) 270-293.

Banescu, Nicolas.  «Oglos – Oglu:  Le premier habitat de la horde d’Asparuch dans la région du Danube.»  Byzantion 28 (1958) 433-440.

Baratova, Larissa.  «Alttürkische Münzen Mittelasiens aus dem 6.-10 Jh n Chr.»  Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan.  31 (1999) 219-292.  DS 261 A1 A6722.

Barisic, Franjo.  «Le siège de 626.»  Byzantion 24 (1954) 371-395.

Barisic, Franjo.  «Vizantiski Singidunum.»  Zbornik Radova Vizantoloskog Instituta.  3 (1954) 1-14.

Barisic, Franjo.  «Car Foka i podunavski Avaro-Slaveni.»  Zbornik Radova Vizantoloskog Instituta.  4 (1956) 73.

Barisic, Franjo.  «Génésios et le Continuateur de Théophane.»  Byzantion FS Rodolphe Guilland.  28 (1958) 119-133.  Genesius.

Barisic, Franjo.  «Les sources de Génésios et du Continuateur de Théophane pour l’histoire de Michel II (820-829).»  Byzantion FS Ostrogorsky.  31 (1961) 257-271.

Barnish, S. J. B.  «The Genesis and Completion of Cassiodorus’ Gothic History.»  Latomus 43 (1984) 336-361.

Barnish, S J B.  «Taxation, Land and Barbarian Settlement in the Western Empire.»  Papers BSR.  54 (1986) 170-185.  DG 12 B85.

Barnish, S. J. B.  «Western Senatorial Aristocracy AD 400-700.»  PBSR 56 (1988) 120-155.  DG 12 B85.

Barnish, S. J. B., tr.  The Variae of Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator.  Liverpool University Press, 1992.  DG 506 C3613.

Basham, Arthur Llewellyn.  «A New Study of the Saka-Kusana Period.»  BSOAS 15 (1953) 80-97.  Review of Lohuizen 1949.

Basham, Arthur Llewellyn.  The Wonder that Was India.  1954;  New York:  Grove, 1959.  Electronic edition by American Council of Learned Societies.  Online by subscription.  Note:  Sanskrit unreadable in online edition.

Baskanov, Nikola.  «Slovo…»  Rocznik orientalistyczny.  48 (1998) 51-75.  PJ 9 R6.  Turks.

Bass, G. F., and F. H. van Doorninck.  Yassi Ada:  A Seventh Century Byzantine Shipwreck.  Texas University Press, 1982.  DS 156 Y37 B37.

Bately, Janet M.  «King Alfred and the Latin Manuscripts of Orosius’ History.»  Classica et medievalia.  22 (1961) 69-105.  PA 9 C5.  HXp.

Bately, Janet M.  «The Classical Additions in the Old English Orosius.»  In England Before the Conquest:  FS Dorothy Whitelock.  Cambridge UP, 1971.

Bately, Janet M.  «The Relationship Between Geographical Information in the OE Orosius and Latin Texts other than Orosius.»  Anglo-Saxon England.  1 (1972) 45-62.  DA 152 A6.

Bately, Janet M., ed.  The Old English Orosius.  Early English Text Society, NS 6.  London and New York:  Oxford University Press, 1980.  VUPT, ROBA PR 1555 A13;  PR 1119 A2 PIMS.  HXp.

Bately, Janet M.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.  1991.  DA 150 A7 B38.

Baudot, Marcel.  «La question du Pseudo-Frédégaire.»  Le Moyen Age.  29 (1928) 129-170.  Citation in text.

Baudrillart, André, ed.  Saint Sévérin.  1908.  Tr:  BR 1720 S4 E8314.

Bavarian Geographer.  See c:\esy for drafts and biblio.

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  Bibliography of his works by Joan M. Hussey.  JRS 37 (1947) 7.

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  «The First Campaign of Heraclius against Persia.»  EHR 19 (1904) 694-702.  Campaign of 622, as reported by George of Pisidia.

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  «The Restoration of the Cross at Jerusalem.»  EHR 27 (1912) 287-299.

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  «The Date of the Avar Surprise:  A Chronological Study.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  21 (1912) 110-128.  Would date attack at AD 617, postulate lacuna in ms.  Cf Ann Elnon mentions campaign of AD 617.

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  «The Successors of Justinian.»  Chapter ? of The Rise of the Saracens and the Foundation of the Western Empire.  Vol 2 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  New York:  Macmillan, 1913.  263-302.  D 117 C3.  Maurice, Heraclius.

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  «The Military Operations of the Emperor Heraclius.»  The United Service Magazine.  NS 46 and 47 (1913).  U1 U6.

Bazin, Louis.  «Recherches sur les parlers T’o-pa.»  T’oung Pao.  39 (1950) 228-329.  73% of titles and 56% of tribal names proto-Turkic and 15/42% proto-Mongol.  See ema.bib for more.

Beal, Samuel, tr.  Travels of Fah-hian and Sung-yun, Buddhist Pilgrims from China to India (400 AD and 581 AD).  London, 1869/1964.  DS 6 F33 1964.  Fa-hien.

Beck, Hans-Georg.  Kirche und theologische Literatur im byzantinischen Reich.  Byzantinisches Handbuch im Rahmen der Handbücher der Akademie der Wissenschaften, XII,2,1.  Munich:  Beck, 1959.  BX 300 B4.  Church organisation, liturgy, hagiography, polemics (iconoclasm, filioque, etc).

Becker, Carl Heinrich.  Beiträge zur Geschichte Aegyptens unter dem Islam.  Strasburg:  Trübner, 1902/03.  DT 95 B4.

Becker, Carl Heinrich.  «The Expansion of the Saracens.»  Vol 2? of The Cambridge Medieval History.  New York:  Macmillan, 1911.  D 117 C3.

Bede the Venerable.  On Frisian traders, under 679.

Bekker, Immanuel, ed.  Ioannes Skylitzes:  Historiae Byzantinae.  Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae.  Bonn:  Weber, 1839.

Bekker, Immanuel, ed.  Georgios Cedrenus:  Historiae Byzantinae.  Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae.  Bonn:  Weber, 1839.  Capture of Bari, 722.

Bell, H. Idris.  «The Byzantine Servile State in Egypt.»  Journal of Egyptian Archaeology.  4 (1917) 86-106.  ROBA DT 57 J64 (also RomU).  For this author, see also Slavon.bib.

Bellinger, Alfred R.  Coins from Jerash, 1928-1934.  Numismatic Notes and Monographs, 81.  New York, 1938.  CJ 893 S4 L4.  Gerasa in Transjordania, Late Roman to Abbasids.

Benveniste, Emile.  Essai de grammaire sogdienne.  With Robert Gauthiot.  Deuxième partie:  morphologie, syntaxe et glossaire.  Based on notes of Robert Gauthiot for his projected volume 2.  Preface by Antoine Meillet.  Mission Pelliot en Asie centrale, Série petit in-octavo, 1,3.  Paris:  Geuthner, 1929.  Roba P 921 B46.  Biblio.

Benveniste, Emile.  «Le nom de la ville de Ghazna.»  JA 226 (1935) 141-143.  The name means «treasure», it was a major trade centre on the road from Kabul to Kandahar.  Corresponds to Gazaka or Gauzaka (s/b Ganzaka) in Ptolemy VI,18,4 in the region of the Paropamisadai.

Bersu, Gerhard.  «A 6th century German settlement of Foederati:  Golemanovo Kale, near Sadowetz, Bulgaria.»  Antiquity 12 (1938) 31-43.  Built by Justinian, destroyed by Avars.

Berthelot, André.  L’Asie ancienne centrale et sud-orientale d’après Ptolémée.  Paris:  Payot, 1930.  DS 5.9 B4.  Full of erudition but lacks chronological structure;  impossible to determine what part of the text rests squarely on the sources, and what is inference.  «une plaine sans relief… un faisceau de pistes… la route du Nord» (34).  Dès l’époque préhistorique «un commerce transcontinental de l’ambre et de la jadéite» (34).  «Le nom des Turques [dans Hérodote] est celui des Iougra, Ougriens, ancêtres des Hongrois» (2).

Besharov, Justinia.  Imagery of the Igor’ Tale:  In the Light of Byzantino-Slavic Poetic Theory.  London, 1956.  Roba PG 3300 S63 B47;  PIMS PG 3300 S63 P4.  Edition of Choeroboscus.

Besevliev, Veselin.  Die Proto-bulgarische Inschriften.  Berliner Byzantinische Arbeiten, 23.  Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1963.  CN 930 B415.

Bethmann, Ludwig Konrad, and Georg Waitz, ed.  Pauli Historia Langobardorum.  In MGH:  SRL.  1878:12-187.

Bickell, G.  «Die Gedichte des Cyrillonas nebst einigen anderen syrischen Ineditis.»  ZDMG NS 27 (1873) 566-628.  PJ 5 D4.  Vv 243-284 translated in M Helfen Huns 56, pages 586-587.  All in Syriac.

Bidez, Joseph.  «Aréthas de Césarée, éditeur et scholiaste.»  Byzantion 9 (193) 391-408.  Strabo?

Bidez, Joseph, and Léon Parmentier, eds.  The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius Scholasticus with scholia.  London, 1898;  reprint Amsterdam:  Hakkert, 1964.  BR 160 E6 B5.  «plêthos Ounnôn tôn palai Massagetôn» 100,10.  Lots on Avars and Justin, V, 14, VI,10, etc xerox needed.  Check Whitby.

Bierbrauer, V.  «Zur ostgotischen Geschichte in Italien.»  Studi medievali.  14 (1973) 1-37.  Clusurae;  territories, includes Dalmatia.

Birwé, Robert.  «Ist Candragomin der Verfasser der Candra-Vrtti?»  Mélanges d’Indianisme à la mémoire de Louis Renou.  Publications de l’Institut de civilisation indienne, 28.  Paris:  Boccard, 1968.  127-142.  DS 423 M44.

Biswas, Atreyi.  The Political History of the Hunas in India.  New Delhi:  Munshiram Manoharlal, 1973.  DS 432 H8 B5.  Biblio.

Bivar, A. D. H.  «Hephthalite Inscriptions.»  JRAS (1953).  Not there.

Blanchet, Adrien.  Etudes de numismatique.  Paris, 1901.  Articles.  CJ 36 B5

Blanchet, Adrien.  «Les sous gaulois du Ve siècle.»  Le moyen âge.  2nd series 14 (1910) 46f.

Blanchet, Adrien.  Les trésors de monnaies romaines et les invasions germaniques.  Paris, 1910.  CJ 891 B6

Blanchet, Adrien.  Manuel de numismatique française.  4 vols.  Paris:  Picard, 1912-1936;  reprint 1988.  CJ 2670 B5.

Blanchet, Adrien.  Les rapports entre les dépôts monétaires et les événements militaires, politiques et économiques.  Paris:  Feuardent, 1936.  WCat 5.  148 pages.

Bloch, Marc.  «L’origine et la date du Capitulare de villis.»  Revue historique.  143 (1923) 41-56.  Rev of Dopsch.  Date conjecturale.

Bloch, Marc.  «La société du haut moyen âge et ses origines.»  Journal des Savants.  1926:403-420.  AS 161 J7.  Review articles, stressing economics.  Biblio.

Bloch, Marc.  «La vie rurale:  problèmes de jadis et de naguère.»  Annales d’histoire économique et sociale.  2 (1930) 96-120.  HB 3 A58 incompl;  HB A552 mfm.

Bloch, Marc.  «Le problème de l’or au moyen âge.»  Annales d’histoire économique et sociale.  5 (1933) 1-34.  Biblio.

Bloch, Marc.  «Les techniques, l’histoire et la vie.»  Annales.  8 (1936) 513-515.

Bloch, Marc, and Ch-Edmond Perrin.  «Histoire d’Allemagne:  Moyen-âge.»  RH 181 (1937) 405-458.

Bloch, Marc.  «Economie nature ou économie argent: un pseudo-dilemme.»  Annales d’histoire sociale.  1 (1939) 7-16.  For pepper as currency, 8ff.  MICR AP A554.

Bloch, Marc.  «Sur les grandes invasions:  quelques positions de problèmes.»  RS 19 (1940/45) 55-81.  Cited Paschoud Roma, check AnPhil.  See ema.bib for more.

Bloch, Marc.  «Une mise au point.  Les invasions:  Deux structures économiques.»  Annales d’histoire économique et sociale.  7 (1945) 33-46.

Bloch, Marc.  «Les invasions:  Occupation du sol et peuplement.»  Annales 8 (1945) 13-28.

Bloch, Marc.  La Société féodale, les liens de dépendance 392ff;  Caractères originaux de l’histoire rurale, compare Aprision with colonate.

Bloch, Marc.  Land and Work in Mediaeval Europe:  Selected papers by Marc Bloch.  Trans. J. E. Anderson.  U of California Press, 1967.  230-243.  D 119 B613.

Bloch, Marc.  Esquisse d’une histoire monétaire de l’Europe.  Cahiers des Annales, 9.  Paris:  Colin, 1954.  HG 922 B4.  Posthumous.  Monnaie «instrument et mesure des échanges» (7).  «à partir du IXe siècle, se répandit peu à peu dans tout le monde européen une autre unité, d’origine scandinave, et plus faible [que la livre]:  le marc» (8).

Blochet, Edgar.  «Le pays de Tchata et les Ephtalites.»  Rendiconti  . . . Lincei.  Ser. 6. 1 (1925) 331-351.  AS 222 R625.  Check DG 11 M63, and also Gerstein Q 54 A 365.  Check PA 19 A222.  per.bib.  Check WCat.

Blockley, Roger C., tr.  The History of Menander the Guardsman.  ARCA, 17.  Liverpool:  F. Cairns, 1985.  DF 571 M4513.  Text and translation.  Menander was probably in the diplomatic service, he wrote under Maurice a continuation of Agathias (2).  See under Menander for citations.

Blockley, Roger C.  East Roman Foreign Policy.  Leeds:  Cairns, 1992.  Roba, Pims DG 214.5 B57.  Biblio.  Up to Anastasius.  For this author, see Asia.bib.

Boak, Arthur Edward Romilly.  «Imperial Coronation Ceremonies of the Fifth and Sixth Centuries.»  Harvard Studies in Classical Philology.  30 (1919) 37-47.  PA 25 H28.

Boak, Arthur Edward Romilly.  «Byzantine Imperialism in Egypt.»  American Historical Review.  34 (1928) 8.

Boak, Arthur Edward Romilly.  «The Book of the Prefect.»  Journal of Economic and Business History.  1 (1928-29) 597-619.  P. Pol. Sci J (1928-32).  HX.

Boak, Arthur Edward Romilly.  «Gerontios.»  Etudes de papyrologie.  5 (1939) 99.  PA 3339 S6.  See Ensslin 1942.

Boak, Arthur Edward Romilly.  Hist.  Rom.  DG 210 B6

Boak, Arthur Edward Romilly.  Manpower in the Later Roman Empire.  DG 312 B58.

Boak, Arthur Edward Romilly.  Administration in the later Roman empire.  DG 312 B63.

Boardman, John [Sir], FS.  Periplus.  London:  Thames and Hudson, 2000.  N 5613 P47.  Biblio.

Boardman, John [Sir].  «Greek Archaeology on the Shores of the Black Sea.»  JHS:  Archaeological Reports.  10 (1963) 34-51.  Supplement series.

Böhme, Horst W.  Germanische Grabfunde des 4. bis 5. Jahrhunderts zwischen unterer Elbe und Loire.  Munich, 1975.  DD 53 B63.

Boissevain, U. Philippe, Carl de Boor, and Theodore Büttner-Wobst, eds.  Constantinus Porphyrogenitus:  Excerpta Historia.  4 vols.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1903.  MICR DF C668.

Bokshchanin, Anatolii Georgievich.  Parfiia i Rim.  Moscow:  UP, 1960.  WCat 32.

Bon, Antoine.  Le Péloponnèse byzantin.  Paris:  PUF, 1951.  DF 552 B6.  Slavic settlement.

Bondois, Marguerite.  La translation des saints Marcellin et Pierre:  Etude sur Einhard et sa vie politique de 827 à 834.  BEHE, 160.  Paris, 1907.  Review MA 20 (1907) 332-4;  (1899) 502-507.  Monastère de Seligenstadt, près de Mühlheim.

Boniface, Life of.  Anonymous of Utrecht.  II vita S. Bonifacii auctore presbytero S. Martini Ultrajecti.  AASS June 1.  Page 471.  For Frisian travel, 1,9.  Jaffé, vol. 3.  BX 4700 B7 L48.

Bonnet, Max.  Le Latin de Grégoire de Tours.  Paris:  Hachette, 1890.  Pims PA 2673 G7 B62;  Roba PA 2673 B7 B6.  Review J. Pirson.  Le MA 9 (1896) 15ff.

Boodberg, Peter Alexis.  «The language of the T’o-pa Wei.»  Harvard JAS.  1 (1936) 167-185.  See ema.bib.

Book of the Prefect.  See Nicole, Zepos, Freshfield.  See Boak, also Lopez, Med trade 19ff for extracts and bib.  Bulgars, linen trade.

Boor, Carl Gotthard de.  «Der Angriff der Rhos auf Byzanz.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  4 (1895) 445-466.  Re:  Cumont and Anonymus Bruxellensis.  «Nach unserem Anonymus kamen die Rhos nach Byzanz am 18. Juni der 8. Indiktion, im 6368 Jahre der Welt und im 5. Jahre des Regierung des Kaisers Michael, d. h. am 18. Juni 860» (445f).  Date unquestionable.  «Danach fiele der Einfall der Rhos [a Scythian people] bei Niketas in das zweite Jahr nach der Thronbesteigung des Photius» (447).  i.e. in 860.  Boor does not figure out who the Rhos may be.

Bosworth, C. E., tr.  The Sasanids, the Byzantines, the Lakhmids, and Yemen.  Vol 5 of The History of al-Tabari.  Bibliotheca Persica.  General Editor:  Ehsan Yar-Shater.  Albany:  SUNY Press, 1999.  D 17 T2313.  Fayruz, p. 120.

Bouquet, Martin, ed.  Recueil de l’histoire des Gaules.  24 vols.  Paris:  Palmé, 1869-1904.  Pims DC 3 R43 folio.

Boulnois, Luce.  La route de la soie.  Paris:  Arthaud, 1963.  HD 9926 C62 B6.

Bowlby, Sophia R.  «The geographical background.»  In Archaeology of Afghanistan.  Allchin, 1978.  9-36.

Bracke, Wouter.  L’Anonymus Valesianus II, ch. 79-96 texte et commentaire.  Bologna:  Pàtron, 1992.  PA 6140 A6.  Theoderic.

Braat, W. C.  «Les Vikings au pays de Frise.»  Annales de Normandie.  4 (1954) 219-227.  DC 611 N841 A56.  Cites many Dutch scholars.

Breckenridge, James Douglas.  The Numismatic Iconography of Justinian II (685-695, 705-711 AD).  Numismatic Notes and Monographs, 144.  New York, 1959.  CJ 1841 N4.  Avars.

Breckenridge, James Douglas.  «Evidence for the nature of relations between Pope John VII and the Byzantine Emperor Justinian II.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  65 (1972) 364-374.  Quinisexte Council, pre-Iconoclast art, frescoes dated to 705, Avars.

Breeze, Andrew.  «Cornish Donua “Danube” and the Old English Orosius.»  Notes and Queries.  NS 237 (1992) 431-433.  AG 305 N7.  Biblio.

Brock, .  «Vita Maximi Confessoris.»  An Boll.  91 (1973) 299-346.

Brockington, John.  The Sanskrit Epics.  Leiden:  Brill, 1998.  PK 2917 B76.  Re:  Mahabharata, Ramayana.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  See also Asia.bib.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  «The … of Paul of Antioch.»  BZ 30 (1929) 468-476.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  «The Emperor Zenon and the Isaurians.»  EHR 30 (1893) 208-238.  Biblio.  Contra Bury.  Covers a missing chapter of Byzantine history.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed., tr.  «A Syriac Chronicle of the year 846.»  Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft.  51 (1897) 569-588.  Brit. Museum Add ms 14, 642.  Edited in CSCO.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  «The Arabs in Asia Minor (641-750), from Arabic sources.»  JHS 18 (1898) 182-208.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  «Indiction at Rome, 726-775.»  English Historical Review.  13 (1898) 503-504.

Brooks, E. W.  «The Chronology of Theophanes 607-775.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  8 (1899) 82-97.

Brooks, E. W.  «The Campaign of 716-718, from Arabic sources.»  Journal of Hellenic Studies.  18 (1899) 19-31.

Brooks, E. W.  «Byzantines and Arabs in the Time of the Early Abbasids.»  EHR 15 (1900) 728-747.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed., tr.  «A Syriac Fragment.»  Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft.  54 (1900) 195-230.  PJ 5 D4.  Early ninth century.

229f: «And in the year [eleven hundred and] twenty-two Nikophoros, king of the Romans, died, and [S]tauricius his son reigned over the Ro[mans] after him (now it is said that he was a descendant of the people of the Saracens).  And, after Stauricius had reigned five months over the Romans, the Bulgarians assembled and came to the royal city to fight with him.  And, when Stauricius went out and fought [them, they wounded him] in the thigh, [and,] his wound being inflamed from a chill after it had been cut, he died and Michael, the son-in-law of Nikophoros, reigned after him for one year and seven month.  {Some] say of Procopia the daughter of Nikophoros that she poisoned Stauricius her brother in order that Michael her husband might reign instead of him.»

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  «Arabic Lists of the Byzantine Themes.»  Journal of Hellenic Studies.  21 (1901) 67-77.  More notes in c:\adriatic.  De Caer 2.50 differs from De Them by omitting Optimatoi and Cyprus and adding Leontokomes and Dalmatia (69n1).  «Ibn al Fakih describes the long wall, four days journey from the Black Sea to the Aegean and about two days’ journey from Constantinople» (72).  Is this is the Great wall which protected Constantinople, or is it the Great Fence of Thrace, for which see Bury.  The date of the latter structure is after 814.  Ibn Al Fakih then describes Thrace which is bounded on the east by the long wall;  then Macedonia next to Thrace with the Salakiba to the west and the Burgan to the north (73).  Corroborative evidence for these Sakaliba west of Macedonia is found in the Chronicle of Monemvasia.  See Charanis.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  «Arabic Lists of the Byzantine Themes.»  Journal of Hellenic Studies.  21 (1901) 67-77.  EMA Notes.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  « . . . .»  EHR 16 (1901) 84-92.

Brooks, E. W.  «On the Date of the First Four Books of the Continuator of Theophanes.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  10 (1901) 416-417.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed., and Jean-Baptiste Chabot, tr.  Historia subiectionis Syriae ab Arabibus affectae.  In Chronica Minora.  CSCO.  Paris, 1903.  59-60.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed., and Jean-Baptiste Chabot, tr.  Chronicon Maroniticum.  In Chronica Minora.  1903.  35-57.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed., and Jean-Baptiste Chabot, tr.  Chronicon ad Annum Domini 846 pertinens.  In Chronica Minora.  1903.  121-180.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed, tr.  Chronica Minora.  CSCO, 1-6;  Scriptores Syri, Series 3, vol 4.  Louvain, 1903.  With Guidi, Chabot, et al.  Includes Patriarch John, Michael of Syria, James of Edessa.  Rev:  BZ 16 (1907) 322.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed.  Thomas Presbyter.  In Chronica Minora.  CSCO:  Scriptores Syri, series 3, tomus 4.  Paris, 1903.  Slavs in Crete, AD 623.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  «The Sources of Theophanes and the Syriac Chroniclers.»  BZ 15 (1906) 578-587.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  «Review of Pernica.»  EHR 21 (1906) 141-143.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed.  Chronica Minora.  CSCO, 4, 1905.  Includes Patriarch John, Michael of Syria, James of Edessa.  Review:  BZ 16 (1907) 322.

Brooks, E. W.  «The Sicilian expedition of Constantine IV.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  17 (1908) 455-459.

Brooks, E. W.  «Who was Constantine Pogonatus?»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  17 (1908) 460-462.

Brooks, E. W.  «The locality of the battle of Sebastopolis.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  18 (1909) 154-156.  HX.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  «The Relations Between the Empire and Egypt from a new Arabic source.»  BZ 22 (1913) 381-391.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  «The Successors of Heraclius to 717.»  In The Rise of the Saracens and the Foundation of the Western Empire.  Vol 2 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  New York:  Macmillan, 1913.  391-417.  D 117 C3.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  «The Arab occupation of Crete.»  English Historical Review.  28 (1913) 431-443.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  «The Brothers of Constantine IV.»  English Historical Review.  30 (1915) 42-51.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed.  Zacharias of Mytilene I and II.  3 vols, vols 1 and 2.  CSCO, 83-84;  Scriptores Syri, 38-39.  Louvain, 1919.

Brooks, EW.  «Saracens (717-867).»  Chap 5A of The Eastern Roman Empire (717-1453).  Vol 4 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  Cambridge UP, 1923.  119-138.  D 117 C3.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed, tr.  John of Ephesus:  Lives of the Eastern Saints, I.  PO, 17:1-307.   . . . , 1923.  With biography of John.  Contents, 307.  Theodora from the porneion, 189.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, tr.  Zacharias of Mytilene III.  With J B Chabot.  Vol 3 of 3.  CSCO, 87-88;  Scriptores Syri, 41.  Louvain, 1924.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed, tr.  John of Ephesus:  Lives of the Eastern Saints, II.  PO, 18:511-695.   . . . , 1924.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed.  Iohannis Ephesini Historiae ecclesiasticae pars tertia.  CSCO, 105;  Scriptores Syri, 54.  Louvain, 1935;  reprint Louvain, 1952.  Covers the years 571-585.  «E temporibus igitur Theodorae reginae cuius anima requiescit, amitae suae, ipsa etiam misericors Sophia regina, e temporibus adulescentiae suae…» II:x (page 50).

Brooks, Ernest Walter, tr.  Chronica Minora:  John of Ephesus.  CSCO, 106;  Scriptores Syri, 55.  Louvain, 1936.

Brosset, Marie-Félicité.  «Relation du pays Ta ouan;  traduite du chinois.»  [Nouveau] Journal asiatique.  2 (1828) 418-450.  Early history of Huns and Uigur.  «Cette relation est le 123o livre du Ssé-ki de Ssématsien.»  (421).  Date:  140-97 B.C.

Brown, T. S.  «Ravenna.»  EHR 370 (1979) 1-28.

Brown, T. S.  «Byzantine Italy, c. 680-876.»  In The New Cambridge Medieval History.  Vol 2:  C. 700-c. 900.  Cambridge UP, 1995.  320-348.  D 117 N48.  Check out vol 1.

Browne, .  History of Tabaristan.  1905.  DS 325 T31213.

Bruce-Mitford, Rupert Leo Scott, ed.  The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial.  4 vols.  London:  British Museum, 1975-1983.  Pims DA 155 B783.

Brühl, Carlrichard.  Codice diplomatico longobardo.  FSI, 64,1.  1973.  Volume 2 has detailed index.

Buddhaprakash.  «Kâlidâsa and the Hûnas.»  JIH 35 (1957) 91-135.  DS 401 J7, see also MICR.  Summarized in Narang §2548.

Büdinger, Max.  Archiv für Oesterreichische Geschichte.  I 146.  DB 1 A73;  1 (1848-present) per.bib.  Manuscript on the subject of Slavs in Noricum.

Büdinger, Max.  Eugippius.  Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, .  Vienna:  Alfred Hölder, 1878.  AS 142 A5.

Bühler, Georg.  Leitfaden für den Elementarcursus des Sanskrit.  Vienna, 1883.  See Perry for translation.

Bühler, Georg.  Grundriss der indo-arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde.  Strassburg:  Trubner, [1896].  PK 114 B7.

Bühler, Georg.  On the Origins of the Brahma Alphabet.  Strassburg:  Trubner, 1896.  PK 118 B8.

Bühler, Georg.  Selections from Sanskrit Inscriptions, 2nd century to 8th century AD.  New Delhi:  Classical Publications, 1977.  PK 119 S45.

Bühler, Georg.  Indische Paläographie.

Bühler, Georg.  Indian Paleography.  Tr:  John Faithfull Fleet.  [Calcutta, 1962].  PK 119 B813.

Bühler, Georg.  «A New Kharoshthi Inscription from Swat.»  Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes.  10 (1896) 55-58, 327.  PJ 5 W6.

Bühler, Georg.  «Palaeography.»  Indian Antiquary.  . . . (1896) 141-142.  DS 401 I3 & DS 417 E68.  Kharoshthi.

Bugge, Alexander.  «Die nordeuropäische Verkehrswege im frühen Mittelalter und die Bedeutung der Wikinger fur die Entwicklung des europäischen Handels und der europäischen Schiffahrt.»  VJSWG 4 (1906) 227-277.

Burckhardt, Ludovicus Augustus.  De Hieroclis Synecdemi codicibus commentatio.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1892.  B@ Pamphlet GK Lit H.

Burckhardt, Ludovicus Augustus.  Hieroclis Synecdemus.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1893.  WCat 61, mfm available.

Burl, Aubrey.  «Without Sharp North.»  In Records in Stone. Ed:  Clive L. N. Ruggles.  Cambridge University Press, 1988.  175-205.  GN 790 R43.

Burn, A. R.  «Procopius and the Island of Ghosts.»  English Historical Review.  70 (1955) 258-261.

Burrow, Thomas.  «Iranian Words in the Kharosthi Documents from Chinese Turkestan.»  BSOS 7 (1933/35) 509-516;  779-790.

Burrow, Thomas.  «Tokharian Elements in the Kharosthi Documents from Chinese Turkestan.»  JRAS 1935:667-675.

Burrow, Thomas.  «The Dialectal Position of the Niya Prakrit.»  BSOS 8 (1935/37) 419-435.  «It might be going too far to say that Torwali is the direct lineal descendent of the Niya Prakrit, but there is no doubt that out of all the modern languages it shows the closest resemblance to it.  A glance at the map in the Linguistic Survey of India shows that the area at present covered by “Kohistani” is the nearest to that area round Peshawar, where, as stated above, there is most reason to believe was the original home of the Niya Prakrit.  That conclusion, which was reached for other reasons, is thus confirmed by the distribution of the modern dialects» (435).

Burrow, Thomas.  The Language of the Kharosthi Documents from Chinese Turkestan.  Cambridge UP, 1937.  Rev:  Schwentner.  Fourth century AD.

Burrow, Thomas.  A Translation of the Kharosthi Documents from Chinese Turkestan.  London:  RAS, 1940.  PK 5045 E8 B8.  Bare text.

Burrow, Thomas.  The Sanskrit Language.  London:  Faber & Faber, 1955.  PK 663 B87.  for Indo-European studies.

Bury, John Bagnell.  A Bibliography of J. B. Bury.  By Norman Hepburn Baynes.  Cambridge UP, 1929.  Z 8136.5 B36.

Bury, John Bagnell.  «The Chronology of Theophylaktos Simokatta.»  English Historical Review.  3 (1888) 310-315.  «The conclusion is that the division of events from 592 to 597 given by Theophanes is quite arbitrary, and if we compare it in detail with his source we shall hardly consider it very plausible» (313)

Bury, John Bagnell.  History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene (395-800).  2 vols.  London, 1889/1930.  DF 581 B8;  DG 311 B99.

Bury, John Bagnell.  «The Identity of Thomas the Slavonian.»  BZ 1 (1892) 55-60.

Bury, John Bagnell.  «The Turks in the Sixth Century.»  English Historical Review.  12 (1897) 417-426.  Re Parker.  «There cannot be the least doubt that Mukan and Silzibul are different persons» (419).  «Theophanes mentions an embassy to Justinian from Askel king of the Hermechiones in AD 562-3 (p. 239, ed de Boor)» (419n2).  «The only justifiable conclusion to draw from the data is that there were at this time two distinct and independent Turkish realms» (419f).

Bury, John Bagnell.  «The Treatise De Administrando Imperio.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  15 (1906) 518-577.

Bury, John Bagnell.  «The Treatise De Administrando Imperio.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  19 (1910) 12.  See also Bury.nts.

Bury, John Bagnell.  «The Bulgarian treaty of A.D. 814 and the Great Fence of Thrace.»  English Historical Review.  25 (1910) 276-287.  See Brooks 1901 for Arab sources.

Bury, John Bagnell.  «The Naval Policy of the Roman Empire in relations to the Western Provinces from the 7th to the 9th centuries.»  In Centenario della nascita de Michele Amari.  2 vols.  Palermo:  Virzi, 1910.  2:24.  DG 404 C45.

Bury, John Bagnell, ed.  The Imperial Administrative System in the Ninth Century, with a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos.  London, 1911.  JC 91 P5 B7.

Bury, John Bagnell.  History of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Fall of Irene to the Accession of Basil I (802-867).  London, 1912.  DF 581 B8.

Bury, John Bagnell.  «The Struggle with the Saracens:  A summary.»   Chap 2 of The Eastern Roman Empire (717-1453).  Vol 4 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  Cambridge UP, 1923.  151-152.  D 117 C3.

Bury, John Bagnell.  «The Constitution of the Later Roman Empire.»  In Selected Essays of J. B. Bury.  Ed:  H. Tempereley.  Cambridge, 1930.

Butler, Alfred J.  The Arab conquest of Egypt.  Oxford, 1902.  DT 92 B98.

Byrne, Eugene H.  «Some Mediaeval Gems and Relative Values.»  Speculum 10 (1935) 177-187.  Based on 13th century Genoese documents.

Cahun, Léon.  Introduction à l’histoire de l’Asie.  2 vols.  Paris:  Colin, 1896.  DS 33.5 C35.

Cameron, Averil.  «Agathias on the Early Merovingians.»  Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa.  37,2 (1968) 95.  AS 222 P58.

Cameron, Averil, ed.  Agathias.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1970.  DF 505.7 A5 C3.  See ema.bib.

Cameron, Averil, ed.  Corippus:  In Laudem Justini Minoris.  London, 1976.  PA 6375 C76 I513.  Avars?

Cameron, Averil.  Procopius and the Sixth Century.  Berkeley and Los Angeles:  University of California Press, 1985.  DF 505.7 P7 C35 Pims, Roba.

Campbell, James.  «The Lost Centuries.»  In his The Anglo-Saxons. Ithaca:  Cornell UP, 1982.  DA 152 C28.

Campbell, Marian.  «Gold, Silver and Precious Gems.»  In English medieval industries.  Ed. Blair and Ramsay.  107-166.  ROBA HC 254 E54.

Campbell, W.  Plated coins.  CJ 5976 G5.

Canard, Marius.  «Les expéditions des Arabes contre Constantinople dans l’histoire et dans la légende.»  Journal asiatique.  208 (1926) 61-121.  Also ema.bib.  Greek fire, AD 614.  Bulgares, 90f.

Canard, Marius.  «Arabes et Bulgares au début du Xe siècle.»  Byzantion 11 (1936) 213-223.

Canard, Marius.  Extraits des sources arabes.  Vol II,2 of Byzance et les Arabes.  By Alexander Alexandrovich Vasiliev. 1950.  PIMS DF 552 V33;  ROBA DF 552 V27.  Review REB 9 (1951) 291f.

Canard, Marius.  Histoire de la dynastie des H’amdanides de Jazira et de Syrie.  Paris, 1953.  Roba DS 76 C3.

Canard, Marius.  Miscellanea orientalia.  1973.  DT 173 C27.

Canard, Marius.  Bulgares de la Volga.  1988.  DK 511 V65 I45.

Carcopino, Jérôme.  «L’inscription d’Aïn-el-Djemala:  Contribution à l’histoire des saltus africains et du colonat partiaire.»  MEFRA 26 (1906) 365.

Carmody, Francis J.  Arabic Astronomical and Astrological Sciences in Latin Translation:  A Critical Bibliography.  Berkeley:  U of Calif P, 1956.  Z 5152 C37.

Carsow, Michel.  «L’empereur byzantin Maurice.»  Journal des Savants.  1956:107-127.  Review of Goubert, Byzance.  Overview of previous scholarship, especially in relation with the Franks.

Caspar, Erich.  «Die Lateransynode von 649.»  Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte.  51 (1932) 75-137.  VUEM.

Cassel, S.  Magyarische Alterthümer.  Berlin, 1848.  293-310 for the dependence of Jordanes on Cassiodorus.

Cassiodorus.  Chronicle of 519.  Battle of Horrea Margi, Ostrogoths defeat Byzantium and their Bulgarian federates, and take Sirmium from Bulgars (Chr 504).  Jordanes, Getica 300f, omits Bulgars.  Bulgars = Slavs.

Cassiodorus.  Institutiones.  «Men can live without gold or silver, but not without salt» XII,24,29f.  «The salt of the earth».  Inland people are saltless:  Homer, Od XI,123.

Cassiodorus.  PG 16:165-228.  See Barnish, Fridh, Hodgkin, Jacob-Hanslik, Mommsen (MGH AA), Mynors.

Casson, Lionel, ed, tr.  The Periplus Maris Erythraei.  Princeton UP, 1989.  HF 377 C27.

Cessi, R.  «Studi sulle fonti dell’ età gotica e longobarda.  I:  Fasti Vindobonenses.»  Archivio Muratoriano.  17/18 (1916) 295-405.

Cessi, R.  «La vita di Papa Giovanni I nel Liber Pontificalis e nell’ Anonimo Valesiano.»  Archivio Muratoriano.  19/20 (1917) 463-488.  per.bib, # needed.

Cessi, R.  «Studi sulle fonti dell’ età gotica e longobarda.  II:  Prosperi Continuatio Haunensis.»  Archivio Muratoriano.  22 (1922) 587-641.

Chabot, Jean-Baptiste, ed, tr.  Chronique de Denys de Tell Mahre:  Quatrième partie.  BEPHE, 112.  Paris:  Bouillon, 1895.  AS 162 B6.  Starts at Heraclius.  Denys was a ninth century Patriarch of the Jacobites, was preserved mostly by Bar-Hebraeus.  «L’an 1042 [AD 730/731], Maslamah franchit la Porte des Turcs [défilé de Derbend].  Parce que les Huns, c’est-à-dire les Turcs, étant sortis de leur pays, firent un mal immense dans l’Arménie…» (21).  Several more pages.

Chabot, Jean-Baptiste.  «Ecole de Nisibe.»  JA 8 (1896) 3ff.

Chabot, Jean-Baptiste.  «Michel le Syrien.»  ROCh 4 (1899) 446.  Red Apex.

Chabot, Jean-Baptiste, ed.  Chronique de Michel le Syrien.  In Chronica Minora.  CSCO, 4, 1905.  Review:  BZ 16 (1907) 322.

Chabot, Jean-Baptiste, ed.  Chronique de Michel le Syrien, Patriarche jacobite d’Antioche (1166-1189).  Vol 4:  Texte syriaque.  1910;  reprint Paris:  Culture et Civilisation, 1963.  BR 161 M534.

Chabot, Jean Baptiste.  «Edesse pendant la première croisade.»  CRAI 1918:431-442.  Matthew of Edessa.

Chabot, Jean-Baptiste.  Zacharias of Mytilene III.  With E W Brooks.  CSCO, 87;  Scriptores Syri, 41.  Louvain, 1924.

Chabot, Jean-Baptiste, ed.  Chronicon anonymum pseudo-Dionysianum vulgo dictum.  CSCO, 91;  Scriptores Syri, 43.  Louvain, 1927;  reprint 1953.  See index for Goths and Huns.

Chabot, Jean-Baptiste, tr.  Chronicon anonymum pseudo-Dionysianum vulgo dictum.  CSCO, 121;  Scriptores Syri, 66.  Louvain, 1928;  reprint 1949.  See index for Huns and Goths.

Chakravarti, Manmohan.  «Letter Re:  Kalidasa.»  JRAS  . . . (1903) 183-186.  Huna.

Chantraine, Pierre, ed.  Arrien:  l’Inde.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1952.  PA 3935 A5.

Charanis, Peter.  «The Chronicle of Monemvasia and the question of the Slavonian settlement in Greece.»  DOP 5 (1950) 139-166.  See St. Pancratius for the same Slavonians.  «Having thus conquered and settled the Peloponnesus, the Avars have held it for two hundred and eighteen years, that is, from the year 6096 [A.D. 587] from the creation of the world, which was the sixth year of the reign of Maurice, to the year 6313 [A.D. 805], which was the fourth year of the reign of Nicephorus the Old who had Staurakios as son.»  Charanis’ translation.

Charanis, Peter.  «On the Capture of Corinth by the Onogurs and its recapture by the Byzantines.»  Speculum 27 (1952) 343-350.  See Setton, cited Adelson.

Charanis, Peter.  «The Significance of Coins as evidence for the History of Athens and Corinth in the Seventh and Eight Centuries.»  Historia 4 (1955) 163-172.

Charles, Robert Henry, tr.  The Chronicle of John of Nikiu.  London:  William and Norgate, 1916;  reprint Amsterdam:  APA Philo Press, 1981.  DT 93 A2 J6 PIMS.  Translation based on Zotenberg’s edition.  Kuvrat and Heraclius, 127.

Charpentier, Jarl.  «Die ethnographische Stellung der Tocharer.»  ZDMG  71 (1917) 347-388.  Biblio.  This author also wrote about Pashto, see Acta Orientalia, 7.

Chavannes, Edouard.  Documents sur les Tou-Kiue (Turcs) occidentaux.  Paris:  Maisonneuve, 1903.  DS 26 C5.

Chavannes, Edouard.  «Notes additionnelles sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) occidentaux.»  T’oung Pao.  5 (1904) 1-110.  Errata on earlier monograph, 110.  Chinese chronicle AD 618-760.

Chondemir.  Life of King Nushirravan.  Khusrau Nushirwan, 531-578.  See Dorn.

Choudhary, Radhakrishna.  «The Huna invasions of India.»  Journal of Bihar Research Society.  45 (1959) 112-142.

Choudhary, Radhakrishna.  «The Problem of the Hunas in India.»  Journal of Bihar Research Society.  57 (1971) 1-10.  DS 401 B5.

Christensen, Arthur.  Die Iranier.  Vol 1 of Kulturgeschichte des alten Orients.  General editor A. Alt.  3 vols.  Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 3,1,3:203-309, plus index with separate pagination.  Munich:  C. H. Beck, 1933.  VUPT PA 25 H24;  Roba CB 311 K8.

Christensen, Arthur.  L’Iran sous les Sassanides.  Annales du Musée Guimet:  Bibliothèque d’Etudes, 48.  Paris, 1936.  Old Class, Roba has vols 1-25, per.bib.

Christensen, Arthur.  L’Iran sous les Sassanides.  Copenhagen:  Levin and Munksgaard, 1936.  Update of 1907 edition.

Chronicle of Arbela.  Chronique d’Arbèles.  Guidi, Sachau, Zorell.  Hun raids under Peroz.  See asia.bib.

Chronicle of Grado.  See Waitz.

Chronicle of Monemvasia.  See Charanis.

Chronicon Paschale.  See Conybeare, Dindorf.

Commentationes de nummis saeculorum ix-xi in Suecia repertis.  2 vols.  Stockholm:  Almqvist and Wiksell, 1961.  CJ 1607 C66.

Collectio Avellana.  See Guenther.

Concilia Galliae.  Ed: Declercq.  AD 314, 506, 511, 695.

Conybeare, Frederick Cornwallis, tr.  «Ananias of Shirak (AD. 600-650 c.):  I His Autobiography.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  6 (1897) 572-584.  HX.  Armenian mathematician.

Conybeare, Frederick Cornwallis, tr.  «Notes and Documents:  Antiochus Strategos’ Account of the Sack of Jerusalem in A.D. 614.»  English Historical Review.  25 (1910) 502-517.  Have xerox?

Conybeare, Frederick Cornwallis.  «The Relation of the Paschal Chronicle to Malalas.»  BZ 11 (1902) 393-405.  Re:  Moses of Khoren.  Bishop Magnus wrote the Chronology of 354 for Constantius II (403ff).

Constantine Porphyrogenitus.  De Administrando Imperio.  Edited G. Moravcsik and R. J. H. Jenkins.  1949.  Dumbarton Oaks, DC:  Center for Byzantine Studies, 1967.

Constantine Porphyrogenitus.  De Cerimoniis.  Ed: Vogt, Reiske (Bonn, PG 112).  Place names.

Constantine Porphyrogenitus.  Excerpta Historia.  Contains De legationibus,  De insidiis.  Ed:  Boissevain et al.

Conversio Bagoarium et Caranthanorum.  MGH: SS.  11:4-14.  Esysupp1 for notes, citation in text of article.

Cook, Albert S.  «Vowel Length in King Alfred’s Orosius.»  AJPhil.  5 (1884) 318-324.

Corais,… ed.  Strabon.  Paris, 1815.  Based on the Aldine edition.

Corippus.  Laus Iustini.  Ed:  Cameron.  Avars, Turks?

Cosmas Indicopleustes.  Christian Topography.  Montfaucon, reprinted in PG 88.  Transl. McCrindle, Winstedt, Wolska.  See also Anastos.  White Huns, see Authors file.

Costa-Louillet, G. da.  «La dernière invasion slave dans le Péloponnèse (923-925).»  Byzantion 32 (1962).

Costa-Louillet, G. da.  «Saints de Grèce aux VIIIe, IXe et Xe siècles.»  Byzantion 31 (1961) 309-369.  Barbaros, Athanase de Méthone, Anne de Leucade, Piere d’Argos, Arsène de Corfou, Marthe de Monembasie, Nikon Métanoites.  Luc le Jeune, for Clement of Ohrid.  Slavs:  310f, 328, 335ff, 358ff, 365ff.

Cozza-Luzi, Giuseppe, ed.  Peter of Argos.  In Nova patrum bibliotheca.  General editor:  Angelo Mai.  Vol 9.  Rome, 1888.

Croke, Brian.  «Justinian’s Bulgar Victory Celebration.»  Byzantinoslavica 41 (1980) 188-195.

Croke, Brian.  «The Context and Date of Priscus Fragment 6.»  Cl Phil.  78 (1983) 297-308.

Croke, Brian.  Christian Chronicles and Byzantine History:  5th-6th Centuries.  Aldershot:  Variorum, 1992.  DF 505 C7.

Croke, Brian, ed., tr.  The Chronicle of Marcellinus.  Sidney: Australian Association for Byzantine studies, 1995.  Pims DF 550 M37.

Croke, Brian.  Count Marcellinus and his Chronicle.  Oxford:  UP, 2001.  DF 556 C76.

Cross, Samuel H., tr.  «The Russian Primary Chronicle.»  Harvard Studies in Philology and Literature.  12 (1930) 75-320.  PN…

Cross, Samuel H.  «Medieval Russian Contacts with the West.»  Speculum 10 (1935) 137-144.  Scandinavian promotion, overlooks significance of oriental coins.

Csallány, D.  «L’importance de la circulation monétaire byzantine pour les legs archéologiques des Avares.»  Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.  2 (1952) 235-255.  CC 1 A19.  In Russian, with summary in French.

Cumont, Franz Valéry Marie.  Chroniques byzantines du manuscrit 11376.  Recueil des travaux publiés par la faculté de philosophie et lettres de Gand, 9.  Gand:  Clemm, 1894.  WCat 14.  Anonymus Bruxellensis.

Cuq, .  «Colonat partiaire.»  Mémoires de l’Académie des Inscriptions.  11 (1905) 144.

Curtin, Philip D.  Cross-Cultural Trade in World History.  Cambridge UP, 1984.  HF 352 C87.  Undergrad, but good foundations.  Biblio.

Cyriacus of Ancona [1391-1452].  Ciriaco of Ancona, Ciriaco d’Ancona, Cyriacus Anconitanus.  Also known as Pizzicolli.  See Bodnar, Colin, Essen in Crusade.bib.  Editor of Strabo.  Curious that the 7th book of Strabo on the Balkans still existed in the days of Eusthatius but had disappeared by the days of Cyriacus.

Dagron, Gilbert, ed.  Villes et peuplement dans l’Illyricum proto-byzantin.  Collection de l’école française de Rome, 77.  1984.  DF 628 I4 V55.

Dagron, Gilbert.  «’Ceux d’en face':  Les peuples étrangers dans les traités militaires byzantins.»  Travaux et Mémoires.  10 (1987) 207-232.

Dalmais, Henri Irénée.  «Vita Maximi Conf.»  Studia patristica.  17 (1982) 26-30. BR 41 S8.

Dain, Alphonse, ed.  La «Tactique» de Nicéphore Ouranos.  Paris, 1937.  U 101 N53 D3.

Dain, Alphonse, ed.  Sylloge Tacticorum.  Paris, 1938.  U 101 S963.

Dain, Alphonse, ed.  Naumachica.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1943.  Pims DF 592 D22.

Dain, Alphonse.  «Manuscrits.»  Symposium de Dumbarton Oaks.  (1953).

Dain, Alphonse.  «Le partage du butin de guerre d’après les traités juridiques et militaires.»  In Actes du VIe congrès international d’études byzantines, Paris 1948.  Eds  . . .  Paris:  Ecole des hautes études, 1950.  I:347-354.  DF 501 C6.

Dain, Alphonse.  Les manuscrits.  Paris, 1949.  Second, revised edition 1964.  3rd ed. Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1975.  ROBA Z 105 D3.  HX bib, notes in c:\masters.

Dandekar, Ramchandra Narajan.  The Age of the Guptas and other Essays.  Delhi:  Ajanta, 1982.  DS 451 D35.  Huns?

Dani, Ahmad Hassan.  «The Kharosthi Script.»  In his Indian Palaeography.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1963.  251-272.  Z 115.3 D3.  Inscriptions in Kharoshthi script start in the mid-third century BC and the most recent are from the period of the Later Kushanas, third-fourth century AD.  The territory covers roughly ancient Gandhara and Turkestan.  Origin in Aramaic Script.

Danylenko, Andrii.  «Slovo…»  Slavonic and East European Review.  82 (2004) 921-935.  D 377 A1 S59.

Darmesteter, James.  The Zend-Avesta.  Oxford, 1880.

Darmesteter, James.  «Jacques d’Edesse et Claude Ptolémée.»  REG 3 (1890) 180-188.  DF 10 R4.

Darmesteter, James.  Le Zend-Avesta.  Annales du Musée Guimet, 21.  Paris:  Leroux, 1892.  P La Or M, per.bib.

Darmesteter, James.  Le Zend-Avesta.  Annales du Musée Guimet, 22.  Paris:  Leroux, 1892.  P La Or M, per.bib.

Darmesteter, James.  «Lettre de Tansar au roi de Tabaristan.»  Journal asiatique.  3 (1894) 185-250;  502-555.  Sassanian History.  Ephthalites, 546.

Darmesteter, James.  Etudes iraniennes.  PK 6003 D3.

Darrouzès, Jean.  «Les listes épiscopales du concile de Nicée (787).»  REB 33 (1975) 5-76.

Darrouzès, Jean, ed.  Notitiae Episcopatuum Ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae.  Paris:  Institut français des études byzantines, 1981.

Datema, Cornelis, and Pauline Allen, eds.  Leontii Presbyter Constantinopolitani homiliae.  CCSG, 17.  1987.

Datema, Cornelis, and Pauline Allen, trs.  Leontii Presbyter Constantinopolitani homiliae.  Translation at PIMS BR 65 L473 H6512.

David of Thessalonica, St.  AASS June 26, vol 7.  Should be dated to Justin II.  Check BHG  Roba Z7844 B5;  Pims Z7844 H35.  See John of Ephesus, Evagrius Sch, Kazhdan, Vasiliev.

David, .  «Recherches sur le cours primitif de l’Escaut.»  Bulletin de l’Académie royale de Belgique.  16,1 (1849) 281-283.  per.bib.

Dawes, E., and Norman H. Baynes, tr.  Three Byzantine Saints:  Daniel the Stylite, Theodore of Sykeon and John the Almsgiver.  Oxford:  Mowbrays, 1977.  BX 393 D372.  Review:  AB 69 (1951) 163-164.

Declercq, C., ed.  Concilia Galliae.  CCSL 148, 148A.  Turnolt, 1963.

Delaporte, L.-J.  La Chronographie d’Elie bar Sinaja, métropolite de Nisibe.  BEPHE, 181.  Paris, 1910.  Important but not for the Huns.

Delatte, Armand.  «Chorographie ecclésiastique.»  In his Anecdota Athenensia I:  Textes grecs inédits relatifs à l’histoire des religions.  Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et de littérature de Liège, 36.  Liège and Paris: 1927.  322-323.  HT 863 J3.  The five patriarchal sees, Rome’s territory runs from Illyricum to the Pillars of Hercules, including Slavs, Avars and the Scyths east of the Danube.

Delatte, Armand.  «Geographica.»  BZ 30 (1929) 511-518.  Theory of Geography.

Delatte, Armand.  Anecdota Athenensia II.  Liège 1940.  PA 3421 A5 or PA 6804 D7 H8?

Delehaye, Hippolyte.  «Passio S. Sabae Gothi.»  AB 31 (1912) 216-221.  PIMS.  Section of «Saints de Thrace et de Mésie.»  161-300.  Goths but not Huns.

Delehaye, Hippolyte.  «Une vie inédite de saint Jean l’Aumonier.»  AB 45 (1927) 5-74.  PIMS.  See Pancrace.bib.

Delort, Robert.  «Un aspect du commerce vénitien.»  Le moyen-âge.  71 (1965) 29-70;  247-273.

Delort, Robert.  «Vocabulaire et grand commerce:  Mots russes en Occident aux xive et xve siècles.»  Mélanges Perroy.  Paris:  Sorbonne, 1973.  700-707.  CB 351 328.

Delort, Robert.  «Les animaux et l’habillement.»  L’Uomo di Fronte al mondo animale nell’alto medioevo.  Settimane, 31.  Spoleto, 1985.  673-706.  per.bib.

Delort, Robert.  «Fibres textiles et plantes tinctoriales.»  L’ambiente vegetale.  Settimane 37 (1990) 821-861.

Demer, M.  Regensburger Urkunden.  1909.  OLD CLASS Pamph Germ Lang Gram.

Demer, M.  Salzburger Urkundenbuch.  1910.

Demiéville, P.  «Biblio.»  T’oung Pao.  51 (1964) 247-261.

Demiéville, P.  «Biblio Maspéro.»  JA 234 (1943-45) 245-280.

Demougeot, Emilienne.  «Modalités d’établissement des fédérés barbares de Gratien et de Théodose.»  In Mélanges William Seston.  Paris, 1974.  113-129.  DG 213 M4.

Dengate, J. A.  «Coin hoards from the gymnasium area at Corinth.»  Hesperia 50 (1981) 147-188.  DF 10 H4 Roba;  Pratt PER.

Depoin, J.  «Chronologie des rois mérovingiens.»  Bull Phil Hist.  1905:205-214.  DC 2 F85.

Depreux, Philippe.  «Tassilon III et le roi des Francs:  examen d’une vassalité controversée.»  RH 293 (1995) 23-73.  Biblio.  AD 750.  Conflict between Francs and Avars;  Bavaria, ca 787, p. 63f.  ARF AD 788;  Cf Pohl Avars (314).

Derolez, R.  «The Orientation System in the Old English Orosius.»  In England Before the Conquest:  FS Dorothy Whitelock.  Cambridge UP, 1971.

Desiachikov, Yuri M.  «The Satarchae.»  Vestnik drevnei istorii.  123 (1973) 131-144.  D 51 A424.  With English summary.  Second century BC, Iranian Pontic dwellers, mentioned by Ptolemy.

Destombes, Marcel.  Monumenta Cartographica Vetustiores Aevi I:  Mappemondes AD 800-1500.  Imago Mundi, suppl 4.  Amsterdam, 1964.  Roba, MAPL Z 6022 I5.

Devresse, Robert.  «Vita Maximi Conf.»  AnBoll.  46 (1928) 5-49.

Devresse, Robert.  «Maxime Confesseur.»  RSR 17 (1937) 25-35.  per.bib.

Devresse, Robert.  «Vita Maximi Conf.»  AnBoll.  73 (1955) 5-16.

Dewing, Henry Bronson, ed., tr.  Procopius:  Complete Works.  Loeb Classical Library.  7 vols.  London:  Heinemann, 1914-1940.

Diakonov, .  «John of Ephesus.»  VDI (1946) 20.

Didier [St. Desiderius].  Epistulae.  MGH.  191-214.

Didier, Life of.  See Poupardin.

Diehl, Charles.  «Rescrit des empereurs Justin et Justinien en date du 1er juin 527.»  BCH 17 (1893) 501-520.  Living conditions in Anatolia.

Diehl, Charles.  «From Nicephorus I to the fall of the Phrygian Dynasty.»  Chap 2 of The Eastern Roman Empire (717-1453).  Vol 4 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  Cambridge UP, 1923.  27-48.  D 117 C3.  Ends with death of Michael III.

Diekamp, Franz.  «Zu Theodorus Lektor.»  Historisches Jahrbuch.  24 (1903) 553-558.  P Hist G 1 (1880) – 18 (1897) and D1 H76 per.bib.

Dieten, Jan Louis van.  Geschichte der griechischen Patriarchen von Konstantinopel.  Amsterdam:  A. M. Hakkert, 1972.  BX 410 D54 v 4.

Dieten, Jan Louis van.  Geschichte der Patriarchen von Sergios I bis Johannes VI (610-715).  Amsterdam:  Hakkert, 1972.  1-56, Siege of CPL.  Avars.

Dieterich, K., tr.  Byzantinische Quellen zur Länder- und Völkerkunde.  2,2.  G 58 Q5.  Priscus.

Dieudonné, A.  «Les lois générales de la numismatique féodale.»  Rev num.  4th series 36 (1933) 155-170.

Dieudonné, A.  «Les monétaires mérovingiens.»  BEC 103 (1942) 20-51, plate.  Summary of opinions.

Diller, Aubrey.  «Excerpts from Strabo and Stephanus in Byzantine Chronicles.»  TAPA 81 (1950) 241-253.  Slavonic chronicles.

Diller, Aubrey.  «The Scholia on Strabo.»  Traditio 10 (1954) 29-50.  D 111 T7.  «I wish to advance the hypothesis that the whole Paris Plato group of codices [...] was virtually the work of Photius» (45).  See Slavon.bib for scholia on Slavs.  Science.bib for more.

Diller, Aubrey.  «Byzantine Lists of Old and New Geographical Names.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  63 (1970) 27-42.  HX.

Dindorf, Ludwig, ed.  Chronicon paschale ad exemplar Vaticanum.  CSHB, 4 and 5.  2 vols.  Bonn:  Weber, 1832.  Heraclius and the Sava 4:730 and 5:493.  Incident dated to 17th regnal year of Heraclius by Theophanes and Symeon Logothete.

Dindorf, Ludwig.  «Ein Fragment des Priskos.»  Jahrbücher für classische Philologie.  99 (1869) 43-48;  120-126.  PA 3 N65, 12th Apex.  Re:  Illyricum.  Notes on C. Wescher, Poliorkêtikon, 304-306.

Dindorf, Ludwig.  «Bemerkungen zu Agathias.»  Jahrbücher für classische Philologie.  99 (1869) 457-465.  PA 3 N65, 12th Apex.  Franks.

Dirr, Adolf.  «Ueber den Namen Ubychen.»  In Orientalistische Studien:  Fritz Hommel zum sechzigsten Geburtstag am 31. Juli 1914 gewidmet von Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern.  2 vols in 1.  Leipzig:  J. C. Hinrichs, 1917-18.  2:313-315.  PJ 26 K65.  Caucasian neighbours of the Alans who may be the Bruchoi in Procopius BG iv,3-4;  BP ii,29, et al.

Dirr, Adolf, ed.  Caucasica.  4 vols.  Reprinted 1967.  DK 511 C1 C265.  Anything on the Suani?

Dirr, Adolf.  Einführung in das Studium der Kaukasischen Sprachen mit einer Sprachkarte.  Leipzig: Verlag der Asia Major, 1928. PK 9004 D5.

Doehaerd, Renée.  «Impôts indirects acquittés par des marchands et des artisans pendant le Moyen Age.»  In Studi in onore di Armando Sapori.  2 vols. Milan:  Istituto Cisalpino, 1957.  1:79-99.  HF 353 S86.

Doehaerd, Renée.  Le Haut Moyen Age Occidental:  Economies et sociétés.  Paris, 1971.  HC 41 D63.

Doehaerd, Renée.  Tr:  W. G. Deakin.  The Early Middle Ages in the West:  Economy and Society.  1978.

Doizé, J.  «Le gouvernement confraternel des fils de Louis le Pieux et l’unité de l’Empire (843-855).»  Le moyen âge.  11/NS 2 (1898) 253-285.

Donini, Guido, and Gordon B. Ford, Jr., trs.  Isidore of Seville’s History of the Goths, Vandals and Suevi.  Leiden;  Brill, 1966/1970.  D 135 I813.  See also MGH AA 11.

Donner, Fred McGraw.  The Early Islamic Conquests.  Princeton Studies on the Near East.  Princeton UP, 1981.  DS 381. D66.  Rev:  Shahid Speculum 58 (1983) 453-456.

Doorninck, F. H., van.  «Yassi Ada.»  International Journal of Nautical Archaeology.  11 (1982) 7-11.  CC 1 I6.

Dorn, Boris Andrievich.  Mohammedanische Quellen zur Geschichte der südlichen Küstenlander des kaspischen Meeres.  4 vols.  St. Petersburg:  Akademiia, 1850-58.  MICR mfm DK D666.

Dorn, Boris Andrievich.  . . .  . . .  St. Petersburg:  Imperial Academy, 1850-58;  reprint 1967.  DK 511 C3 D6.

Dorn, Bernhard.  «Die Geschichte Tabaristan’s nach Chondemir.»  Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des Sciences de St-Petersbourg.  Sixth Series:  Sciences politiques, histoire, philologie.  8 (1855) 1-182.  AS 262 A616.  Check other vols for Anushirvan.

Dorn, Boris Andrievich.  Geschichte Tabaristans und der Serbedari nach Chondemir.  1858.

Dostourian, A., ed.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa.  Rutger PhD 1972.  Ann Arbor, 1984.  Roba DS 186 M3713;  SMC, PIMS.

Drouin, Edmond A.  «Observation sur les monnaies à légendes en pehlvi et pehlvi-arabe.»  Revue archéologique.  3rd series 4-6 (1884-5)

Drouin, Edmond A.  «La numismatique araméenne sous les Arsacides et en Mésopotamie.»  Journal asiatique.  13 (1889) 376-401.  From the Babylonian period to the Sassanids, 1000 years of Aramaic alphabet;  from 3rd century A. D. Pahlavi script of the Sassanids (388f);  the change can be dated by numismatists.  After the Arab conquest, Cufic script takes over.

Drouin, Edmond.  «Quelques noms de princes touraniens qui ont régné dans le Nord de l’Inde aux vi et vii siècles.»  JA 9th series 1 (1893) 546-550.  «le buste d’un roi au type tartare très accusé [...] et, au revers, un pyrée grossier» (546f).

Drouin, Edmond Alphonse.  «Mémoire sur les Huns Ephthalites dans leurs rapports avec les rois perses sassanides.»  Le Muséon.  14 (1895) 73-84;  141-161;  232-247;  277-288.

Drouin, Edmond.  Review of L. Ghâlib Edhem.  Catalogue of ancient muslim coins.  Constantinople.  Journal asiatique.  5 (1895) 364-371.  Important for chronology.

Drouin, Edmond.  «Les titres royaux chez les Indo-Scythes.»  JA 9th series 13 (1899) 369-373.  Fils du ciel, shah.

Drouin, Edmond Alphonse.  «Ephthalites ou Ye-ta.»  In La grande encyclopédie.  Paris, 1887???.  16:45.

Droysen, H., ed.  Pauli Historia Romana.  MGH: Auctorum antiquissimorum.  2 (1879) 185-224;  reprint  Munich:  MGH, 1978.  DG 208 P3.  Up to the days of Belisarius, Vitigis and Narses.

Droysen, H., ed.  Landulf’s Continuation.  MGH: Auctorum antiquissimorum.  2 (1879) 227-376.  Up to the days of Anastasius and the beginning of Avar raids.

Droysen, H., ed.  Evtropi Breviarivm ab vrbe condita cvm versionibvs graecis et Pavli Landolfiqve additamentis.  MGH: Auctorum antiquissimorum.  2 (1879) 8-182.  With parallel Greek translation.

Drew, Katherine Fischer.  «Another Look at the Origins of the Middle Ages:  A Reassessment of the Role of the German Kingdoms.»  Speculum 62 (1987) 803-812.  HCopy.  Law codes.

Dubois, J.  «Numismatique mérovingienne et hagiographie.»  In Mélanges Jean Lafaurie.  Paris:  Société française numismatique, 1980.  CJ 961 M44.  Re St. Eloi, with biblio.

Dubov, Igor Vasilievich.  «Finno-Ugrians on the Volga…»  ISKOS 4 (1984) 169-173.  Finnish series or per, where?  Igor tale.

Duchesne, Louis.  Histoire ancienne de l’Eglise.  Norique.

Duchesne, Louis.  «Les évêchés d’Italie et l’invasion lombarde.»  Ecole française de Rome.  Mélanges d’archéologie et d’histoire.  23 (1903) 83-116.  «A l’approche des envahisseurs [lombards d'Alboin], les deux évêques métropolitains de Milan et d’Aquilée se retirèrent en terre impériale, l’un à Gênes, l’autre à Grado.» (87).  L’Istrie demeure byzantine, 87.  Cf Paul Deacon, HL IV:23;  Gregory the Great, Epistolae.  «la terre d’Otrante, depuis Tarente et Brundisi, resta aux Grecs jusqu’au temps de Constant II (663)» (10).  «saint Grégoire [...] n’écrit jamais qu’à des évêques habitant le pays byzantin.»  (111).

Duchesne, Louis.  «L’empereur Anastase et sa politique religieuse.»  MEFRA 32 (1912) 305-336.

Dümmler, E.  «Die handschriftliche Ueberlieferung der lateinischen Dichtungen aus der Zeit der Karolinger.»  Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde.  4 (1879) 87-159;  239-322;  511-582.  For BN 2832, see 297-299.

Dünzelmann, .  «Lorsch.»  Neues Archiv der Gt für Kunde der dt Geschichte.  2 (..) 537.

Dujcev, Ivan.  «La chronique byzantine de l’an 811.»  Travaux et Mémoires.  1 (1965) 205-254.  Nicephorus proceeded to Sofia, 212-213.

Dujcev, Ivan.  Medioevo Bizantino-slavo.  Storia e letteratura, 102, 113, 119.  3 vols.  Rome, 1965-1968-1971.  DR 74 D8.

Duket, Timothy Alan.  A Study in Byzantine Historiography:  An Analysis of Theophanes’ Chronographia and its Relationship to Theophylact’s History, the Reign of Maurice and the Seventh Century to 711.  PhD Boston College.  Boston, 1980.  PIMS DF 573.5 D8.

Dulaurier, Edouard, tr.  Matthieu d’Edesse.  In Bibliothèque historique arménienne.  Check also Recueil des Historiens des Croisades:  Historiens orientaux des Croisades.  D 151 R312 folio.

Dulaurier, Edouard, tr.  «Extrait de la chronique de Michel le Syrien.»  Journal asiatique.  12 (1848) 281-334;  13 (1849) 315-375.  Evacuation of Sirmium dated to the fourth year of Tiberius, i.e. starting September 582 (pages 298 and 324n62 and 63).  The Chronographer mentions also the accidental fire which drove the Slavs from Sirmium a year after its capture (299).  However, his dates are not absolutely reliable.

Dumas, Auguste.  «La parole et l’écriture dans les capitulaires carolingiens.»  In Mélanges d’histoire du moyen âge dédiés à la mémoire de Louis Halphen.  Paris 1951.  D 117 M45.

Dumoulin, Maurice.  «Le gouvernement de Théoderic et la domination des Ostrogoths en Italie d’après les oeuvres d’Ennodius.»  RH 78 (1902) 1-7;  241-265;  79 (1902) 1-22.

Dumoulin, Maurice.  «The Kingdom of Italy under Odovacar and Theoderic.»  In The Christian Roman Empire and the Foundation of the Teutonic Kingdoms.  Vol 1 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  New York:  Macmillan, 1911.  433-456.  D 117 C3.  See ema.bib.

Dumézil, Georges.  «Récits oubykh.»  With Aytek Namitok.  JA 243 (1955) 1-47;  439-459.  Namitok vit en Turquie avec sa femme écrivain et Oubykh de naissance.  Informants are refugees from the Caucasus.  Weddings, 453f.

Duplessy, Jean.  «La circulation des monnaies arabes en Europe occidentale du VIIIe au XIIIe siècle.»  Revue numismatique 18 (1956) 101-164.  Cites documents which refer to Arab currency (135ff).  Three of these are dated before 800:  a charter from Friul (778);  a letter by Pope Leo III (797) and another by Theodulfus, bishop of Orléans (798).  See ESY, ema.bib for discussion.

Dupraz, Louis.  Le royaume des Francs et l’ascension politique des maires du palais au déclin du viie siècle (656-680).  Fribourg:  Imprimerie Saint-Paul, 1948.  Pims DC 65 D8.  Anything which would explain Fredegar?

Dussaud, René.  Topographie historique de la Syrie antique et médiévale.  2 vols.  Paris:  Geuthner, 1927;  reprint in one volume Toronto:  U of Toronto, 2000.  DS 94 D88;  online, defective.  Important, also Crusade.bib.

Duval, Rubens.  Histoire politique, religieuse et littéraire d’Edesse jusqu’à la première croisade.  Paris:  Imprimerie nationale, 1892.  Offprint from JA.  DS 156 U75 D9;  PIMS.  For Syrian chronicles of the Dark Ages.

Dvornik, Francis.  «Quelques données sur les Slaves extraites du tome IV Novembris des Acta Sanctorum.»  Byzantinoslavica.  1 (1929) 35-47.

Eberhard, Wolfram.  Das Toba-Reich Nordchinas.  Leiden, 1949.  DS 748.9 E34.  ema.bib.

Eberle, Melchior.  Der heilige Bonifatius, Apostel der Deutsche. Augsburg, 1902.  Pamph HEcclG E.

Eck, Alexandre.  «A propos des draps d’Ypres à Novgorode.»  Revue belge.  10 (1931) 591-594.

Eck, Alexandre.  Le moyen âge russe.  Paris, 1933;  reprint Paris and The Hague:  Mouton, 1968.  DK 71 E25.  Have file.  «Le commerce d’exportation et de transit était déjà très considérable au VIIIe siècle [fourrures, peaux, miel, cire], si l’on en juge rien que par la quantité et la variété des monnaies étrangères (solidi byzantins et dirghems orientaux) de cette époque et du siècle précédent, trouvées dans les fouilles sur toute l’étendue du territoire alors occupé par les Slaves orientaux.» (4).

Eckhardt, W. A.  «Die capitularia missorum specialia von 802.»  Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters.  12 (1956) 500-504.  DD 126 A104.  Includes edition.  Avars.

Eigilis.  Vita Sturmii.  PL 105:423-444.  Also MGH:  SS 2:265.  «Tunc quadam die, dum pergeret, pervenit ad viam quae ad Turingorum regionem mercandi causa ad Magontiam pergentes ducit, ubi platea illa, super flumen Fuldam vadit:  ibi magnam Sclavorum multitudinem reperit, ejusdem fluminis alveo… lavandis corporibus se immersisse.»  (430, ch. 8).

Einhard.  Epistolae.  Ed:  Hampe in MGH Ep Carol.

Einhard.  Translatio SS Marcellini et Petri.  PL 104:560.  MGH:  SS 15:361.  See Bondois.  Carolingian merchants travelling along the Main:  «Mercatores quidam de civitate Moguntiaca qui frumentum in superioribus partibus emere ac per fluvium Moenum ad urbem devehere solebant.»  Page 586, ch. 81:  «In vico qui hodie que Trajectus [Maastricht] vocatur et distat ab Aquensi palatio octo circiter leugas estque habitantium et praecipue negociatorum multitudine frequentissimus.»  See also St. Goar for same data.  Compare with import of leather for jerkins from Slavic lands.

Ekblom, Richard.  «Alfred the Great as Geographer.»  Studia Neophilologica.  A Philological Miscellany presented to Eilert Ekwall.  14 (1941/42) 115-144.  PB 5 S7.  Includes translation of passage.

Ekblom, Richard.  «King Alfred and Bearings.»  Scando-Slavica.  4 (1957) 120.

Ekblom, Richard.  «King Alfred, Ohthere and Wulfstan:  Reply to a Critique.»  Studia Neophilologica.  32 (1960) 3-13.  PB 5 S7.

Elias bar Sinaya, Metropolitan of Nisibis, b. 975.  Fragments.  Tr:  Baethgen.

Eligius, St.  Vita Eligii.  MGH.  SRM.  4:677.  The author lived at the court of Dagobert.  St. Eloi by Audoenus.  See Dubois.

Emin, J. B., tr.  Transl into Russian, and transl into French by Langlois.  Check.

Emin, Nikita Osipovich.  Moses of Khoren.  Moscow:  Gattsuk, 1893.  WCat 10.

Emin, Nikita Osipovich.  Issledovaniia i statii po armianskoi… (1858-1884 gg).  Moscow:  Gattsuk, 1896.  WCat 5.  With translations into Russia of ancient historians.

Ennodius.  Panégyrique de Théoderic.  CSEL 6, PL 63.  See ema.bib.

Ennodius.  Vogel, MGH AA, 7.  Hartel, CSEL, 6.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  Theoderic der Grosse.  Munich, 1947.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  «Ostrogothenreich.»  Klio 29 (1936) 243-249.

Erbe, Michael.  Quelle zur germanischen Bekehrungsgeschichte.  Gütersloh:  Mohn, 1971.  BV 2110 E73.

Erdélyi, István.  «Les anciens Hongrois ont-ils été dans la région du Kouban?»  In Les anciens Hongrois et les ethnies voisines à l’Est.  Budapest:  Akadémiai Kiadó, 1977.  249-252.  DB 919 A67.  Describes burial dated to the VIIIth century in the Kuban nearly identical to those of the Magyars at the time of the Landnahme.

Ericsson, K.  «Revising a Date in the Chronicon Paschale.»  Jahrbuch des österreichischen byzantinischen Gesellschaft.  17 (1968) 17-28.  # per.bib.

Es, W. A. van.  Excavations at Dorestad.  1980.  DJ 401 H76 E3.

Es, W. A. van.  Romeinen, Friezen en Franken.  Utreccht, 1994.  DJ 51 R66.  Dorestad.

Espinas, G.  La Draperie dans la Flandre française au moyen âge.  2 vols.  Brussels, 1923.  Roba B2;  Pims DH 801 F462.

Espinas, G., and Henri Pirenne.  Recueil de documents relatifs à l’histoire de l’industrie drapière en Flandre.  4 vols.  Brussels, 1906-1924.  Roba, Pims HD 9865 B33 F54.

Estey, F. N.  «Charlemagne’s Silver Celestial Table.»  Speculum 18 (1943) 112-117.

Eugippius.  Vita sancti Severini.  MGH AA 1.2, Berlin 1961;  also in usum scholarem.  Also:  CSEL, IX,2.  Vienna, 1886.  BR 1720 S4 E8.  Eds?

Evagrius Scholasticus.  Historia ecclesiastica.  See Allen, Bidez-Parmentier, Frankenberg, Krivouchine, Whitby.  See PG 86 (1867) for reproduction of Reading’s edition of 1844, deemed «careless» by Bidez-P.  Wrote about the period ???31-594.

Evans, Angela.  «Glinker-built Boats of the North Sea, 300-1000 AD.»  In The North Sea.  Ed:  Arne Bang-Andersen, Basil Greenhill and Egil Harald Grude.  Oslo, 1985.

Ewig, Eugen.  Die fränkische Teilungen und Teilreiche (511-613).  Mainz. Akad. der Wissen.  Wiesbaden, 1952.  DC 61 E93?

Ewig, Eugen.  Die fränkische Teilreiche im 7. Jahrhundert (613-714).  Trierer Zeitschrift.  22 (1953).  DD 901 T8T8 Incomplete.

Ewig, Eugen.  Sankt Bonifatius Gedenkgabe.  Fulda, 1954.  Pims BQX 1898 S32.

Ewig, Eugen.  Beiträge zur Geschichte des Regnum Francorum.  DC 61 B43.  Other call numbers:  DC 65 E89;  DC 65 E9;  D62 V66.

Ewig, Eugen.  «L’Aquitaine et les pays rhénans.»  Cahiers de civilisation médiévale.  (1958) 50.

Ewig, Eugen.  Die Merowinger und das Imperium.  Rheinisch-Westfälische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 261.  1983.  DD 128 E94.  Fredegar.

Fabricius, B., ed, tr.  Der Periplus des Erythräischen Meeres.  Leipzig: Veit, 1883.  HF 386 P4.

Fagerlie, Joan M.  Late Roman and Byzantine Solidi Found in Sweden and Denmark.  Numismatic Notes and Monographs, 157.  New York, 1967.  CJ 3094 F3.

Faider-Feytmans, G.  «Eléments nouveaux apportés par l’archéologie à l’histoire économique du haut moyen âge.»  Revue belge.  22 (1943) 155-186.

Fanning, Steven C.  «Lombard Arianism Reconsidered.»  Speculum 56 (1981) 241-258.

Favrod, Justin, ed., tr.  La Chronique de Marius d’Avenches (455-581).  Lausanne:  UP, 1991.  D 17 F38.  Rev:  CEV Nixon Gnomon 68 (1996) 138-142.  Huns, Avars.

Feist, Sigmund.  «Tocharian.»  Ostasiatische Zeitschrift.  8 (1920) 78.  RomU FAREAST PS Os, per.bib.

Fengler, O.  «Quentovic, seine maritime Beudeutung unter Merowingern und Karolingern.»  Hansische Geschichtsblätter.  13 (1907).  DD 801 H17 H3.

Ferluga, Jadran.  Untersuchungen zur byzantinischen Provinzverwaltung:  VI-XIII Jahrhundert.  Amsterdam:  Hakkert, 1992.  DF 553 F53.

Ferluga, Jadran.  «Mercati e mercanti fra Mar Nero e Adriatico.»  Mercati et Mercanti nell’alto medioevo:  l’area euroasiatica et l’area mediterranea.  Settimane 40 (1993) 443-490.

Fettich, Nándor.  «Tombe princière hunnique.»  Acta Arch Hung.  32 (1953).

Fichtenau, Heinrich.  «Byzanz und die Pfalz von Aachen.»  Mitteilungen des Instituts für Oesterreichischen Geschichtsforschung.  59 (1951) 49.  DB 1 V5.

Fichtenau, Heinrich.  «Karl der Grosse und das Kaisertum.»  MIOeG 61 (1953) 272-275; 280-287. Re:  the authorship of the ARF, Libri carolini.

Fick, Richard.  Die buddhistischen Kultur und das Erbe Alexanders des Grossen.  Morgenland, 25.  Leipzig:  Hinrichs, 1933.  Old Class PLaOrientM.

Fihrist, 329, 21-24.  Ed: Flügel, tr:  Ducret.  «Viens avec la paix, toi qui apporte un Message de Quiétude et de Salut» (Fihrist, tr:  Decret 86).  Recalls the inscription of Janoshida.

Finley, M.  «Technical Innovation and Economic Progress in the Ancient World.»  Economic History Review.  18 (1965) 29-45.

Flaskamp, F.  «Die Missionsmethode des heiligen Bonifatius.»  Geschichtliche Darstellungen und Quellen.  Ed:  L. Schmitz-Kallenberg.  8 (1929).  BQX 1898 F52.

Flaskamp, F.  «Die Anfänge friesischen und sächsischen Christenthums.»  Geschichtliche Darstellungen und Quellen.  9 (1929).

Flügel, G., ed.  Fihrist.  Leipzig, 1871.  Z 7052 I35.

Flügel, G.  Mani.  BT 1410 F58.

Foerster, R.  «Cyriacus von Ancona zu Strabon.»  RhM NS 51 (1896) 481-491.

Fontaine, Jacques.  «Isidore de Séville et la mutation de l’encyclopédisme antique.»  Cahiers d’histoire mondiale.  9 (1965/66) 519-538.  Gerstein D 1 C25.

Fontaine, Jacques.  Tradition et actualité chez Isidore de Séville.  London:  Variorum Reprints, 1988.  BX 4700 I78 F65.

Forster, Johann Reinhold [1729-1798].  «Notes on the first chapter of the first book of Alfred’s Anglo-Saxon version of Orosius.»  In King Alfred’s Orosius.  London, 1773.  241-259.  RBSC B-11/9497.

Fortunatus.  De Condane Domestico 7:16.  For Cursus honorum at the court of the Merovingians.

Foss, Clive.  «Dark Age Travel.»  American Journal of Archaeology.  81 (1977) 469-486.

Foss, Clive.  Ephesus after Antiquity.  Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Foster, B. O., ed, tr.  Livy.  14 vols.  Loeb Classical Library.  Harvard UP, 1919-1959.  PA 6452 A2.

Frank, Tenney.  «The inscriptions of the Imperial Domaines of Africa.»  AJP 47 (1926) 55-73.

Frank, Tenney.  «A Commentary on the Inscription of Henchir Mettich.»  AJP 47 (1926) 153-70.  Re Limitani in North Africa.

Franz, Philip, and Peter Kudrika.  Sbornik otdeleniie russkogo jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk:  ukazatel’ soderzhaniia k tomam 1-101 (1867-1926-28).  Nendeln:  Kto Press, 1978.  Pims PG 2013 A65.  In Russian, in Latin transcription.

Fredegarius.  MGH:  SRM, 2.  Ed:  Krusch, Wallace-Hadrill.  See Anglade.

Frendo, .  «Heraclius.»  DOP 42 (1988) 146-147.

Freshfield, EH, tr.  «The Book of the Prefect.»  In Roman Law in the Later Roman Empire.  Cambridge, 1938.

Fridh, Åke J., ed.  Cassiodorus:  Variae.  CCSL, 96.  Turnhout, 1973.

Fried, Johannes.  «Ludwig der Fromme, das Papsttum und die fränkische Kirche.»  In Charlemagne’s Heir:  New Perspectives on the Reign of Louis the Pious.  Ed:  Peter Godman and Roger Collins.  Oxford: Clarendon, 1990.  231-273.  DC 74 C45.

Friedrich, Johann.  «Die ecclesia Augustana in dem Schreiben der istrischen Bischöfe an Kaiser Mauritius vom Jahre 591 und die Synode von Gradus zwischen 572 und 577.»  Sitzungsbericht der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.  (1906) 327-356.  HX.

Fries, N.  Der Heerwesen der Araber zur Zeit der Omaijjaden nach Tabari.  Tübingen, 1921.  Not UTL.

Frisk, Hjalmar.  Le Périple de la Mer Erythrée.  Göteborgs Högskolas Arsskrift, 33,1.  1927.

Fritze, Wolfgang H.  «Universalis gentium confessio.  Formeln, Träger und Wege universal missionarischen Denkens im 7. Jahrhundert.»  Frühmittelalterliche Studien.  3 (1969) 78-130.  A MUST.

Frolow, A.  «La vraie croix et les expéditions d’Héraclius en Perse.»  REB Mélanges Martin Jugie.  11 (1953) 88-105.  Important for sources but discursive, and point escapes me.

Frye, Richard N.  Notes on the Early coinage of Transoxania.  Numismatic Notes and Monographs, 113.  1949.  CJ 1848 M4 N63.  A mine of information.

Frye, Richard Nelson.  «Byzantine and Sasanian Trade Relations with Northeastern Russia.»  DOP 26 (1972) 263-270.

Frye, Richard Nelson.  The History of Ancient Iran.  Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 3,7.  Munich:  C. H. Beck, 1984.  VUPT PA 25 H24.

Fulford, M. G.  «Carthage:  Oversea Trade and the Political Economy, ca AD 400-700.»  Reading Medieval Studies.  6 (1980) 68-80.  CB 351 R35.

Fustel de Coulanges.  «Etudes sur les origines du régime féodal du VIe au VIIIe siècle.»  Académie des sciences morales et politiques:  Séances et travaux.  2 (1874) 493-527;  3 (1875) 59-84;  359-388.  P Pol Sci A.

Fustel de Coulanges.  «Le colonat romain.»  Recherches sur quelques problèmes d’histoire.  Paris, 1885. 39.

Fustel de Coulanges.  Histoire des institutions politiques de l’ancienne France.  Vol. III.  La monarchie franque.  Paris:  Hachette, 1888.  JN 2328 F8.

Fustel de Coulanges.  «Mémoire sur l’île de Chio.»  In Questions historiques.  Ed:  Camille Jullian.  Paris:  Hachette, 1893.  213-399.  See Isidore of Seville on Chios.

Gabain, Annemarie von.  Bibliography.  UAJ 33 (1961) 5-11.

Gall, St.  Life by Walahfrid Strabo.  Vita Galli.  SRM 4.  Krusch, Joynt.

Gall, St.  Life by Wettinus.  SRM 4.

Ganshof, François L.  «Note sur un passage de la vie de saint Géraud d’Aurillac.»  In Mélanges Nicolas Jorga.  Paris:  J. Gamber, 1932.  487-497.  D 6 M45.

Ganshof, F.  «Le statut personnel du colon au Bas-Empire.»  L’antiquité classique.  14 (1945) 261-277.  DE 1 A43.

Ganshof, François L.  «Notes critique sur les Annales Bertiniani.»  In Mélanges dédiés à la mémoire de Félix Grat.  2 vols.  Paris:  1946-1949.  2:159-174.  Roba CB 5 M35;  SMC DC 73 G34.  Three successive authors, text preserved in several mss, transmission enchevêtrée.

Ganshof, François L.  «Note sur le “Praeceptum Negotiatorum” de Louis le Pieux.»  In Studi in onore di Armando Sapori.  2 vols. Milan, 1957.  1:101-112.  HX.

Ganshof, François L.  «L’historiographie dans la monarchie franque sous les Mérovingiens et les Carolingiens.»  La Storiografia altomedievale.  Settimane, 17.  Spoleto, 1970.  631-685.

Ganz, David and Walter Goffart.  «Charters earlier than 800 from French Collections.»  Speculum 65 (1990) 906-932.

Garitte, Gérard, ed, tr.  Expugnationis Hierosolymae A. D. 615.  CSCO, 340-1, 47, 48;  Scriptores arabici, 26-29.  Louvain, 1973-74.  Pims DS 109.9 A5.

Gasquet, Amédée Louis Ulysse.  L’empire byzantin et la monarchie franque.  Paris, 1888;  reprint New York:  Burt Franklin, 1972.  DF 553 G38.  From Clovis to Charles the Bald.

Gasnault, Pierre, ed.  Documents comptables de Saint-Martin de Tours à l’époque mérovingienne.  Paris, 1975.

Gaube, Heinz.  Arabosasanidische Numismatik.  Braunschweig:  Klinkhardt and Biermann, 1973.  CJ 3764 G3.

Gaudenzi, A.  Sui rapporti tra l’Italia e l’impero d’Oriente fra gli anni 476 e 554.  Bologna, 1888.

Gauthiot, Robert.  «Finnois:  tuhat.»  Journal de la Société Finno-ougrienne.  23,14 (1905).  PH 1 S7.

Gautier Dalché, Patrick.  «Situs orbis terre vel regionum:  un traité de géographie inédit du haut Moyen Age (Paris, BN latin 4841).»  Revue d’histoire des textes.  12/13 (1982/83) 149-179.  Z 108 R45.  With edition.  Attila.  Early ninth cent ms, excerpts from Orosius and Isidor’s Etym.  Earlier than Dicuil, «ensemble hétérogène» 150.  Ms «originaire de Septimanie» 157.

Gautier Dalché, Patrick.  «Tradition et renouvellement dans la représentation de l’espace géographique au IXe siècle.»  Studi medievali.  24 (1983) 121-165.  PN 661 S8.  Re:  Dicuil and «G», author of De situ orbis, ca AD 860.  Both used Orosius as well as others, 132ff.

Gautier Dalché, Patrick.  «Du nouveau sur Aethicus Ister?  A propos d’une théorie récente.»  Journal des Savants.  1984:175-186.  Critique of Peri’s article.

Gautier Dalché, Patrick.  1986.  See Nicolet.

Gauthiot, Robert-Edmond.  Necrology.  TP NS 17 (1916) 265-267, 401.  Bibliography.  Sirsiprint.

Gauthiot, Robert.  «De l’alphabet sogdien.»  JA 10/17 (1911) 81-95.

Gauthiot, Robert.  Essai sur le vocalisme du sogdien.  Paris:  Geuthner, 1913.

Gauthiot, Robert.  Essai de grammaire sogdienne.  Première partie:  Phonétique.  Mission Pelliot en Asie centrale, Série petit in-octavo, 1.  Paris:  Geuthner, 1914-1923.  Microfilm edition Cambridge, Mass.:  Harvard University Library Microreproduction, 1987.  WCat 8 hits.  Biblio.  For second volume, see Benveniste.

Gebhardt, Oscar von.  Die Akten der edessenischen Bekenner.  Leipzig:  Hinrichs, 1911.  Roba BR 1603 A1 G4.

Geidel, Heinrich.  Alfred der Grosse als Geograph.  Ph.D. Diss.  Munich:  Ackermann, 1904.  WCat, rare item, microform available from Columbia U.  ILL?  Has chapter on Orosius.

Geidel, Heinrich.  Alfred der Grosse als Geograph.  Münchner geogr. Stud., 15.  Same as above?

Geiger, J.  «Julian of Ascalon.»  JHS 112 (1992) 31-43.

Gelzer, Heinrich.  «Kosma der Indienfahrer.»  Jahrbücher für protestantische Theologie.  9 (1883) 105-141.  Check VUEM.  See Anastos for refutation.

Gelzer, Heinrich.  Georgii Cyprii Descriptio Orbis Romani.  Leipzig, 1890.  DF 503 G36.  Notitia Basilii, 1-27.

Gelzer, Heinrich.  «Ungedrückte und wenig bekannte Bistümerverzeichnisse der orientalischen Kirche.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  1 (1892) 245-282;  2 (1893) 22-72.

Gelzer, Heinrich.  Leontios’ von Neapolis Leben des heiligen Johannes des Barmherzigen Erzbischof von Alexandrien.  Sammlung ausgewählter kirchen- und dogmengeschichtlicher Quellenschriften, Heft 5.  Freiburg and Leipzig:  Mohr, 1893.  Reprinted in his Ausgewählte kleine Schriften.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1907.  1-56.

Gelzer, Heinrich.  Ausgewählte kleine schriften.  Leipzig: Teubner, 1907.  John the Almoner, 1-56.

Genevieve, Life of.  Merchants travelling between Gaul and Syria.

Genesius.  Bonn Corpus.

George of Pisidia.  De expeditione persica.  CSHB 17.  Bonn, ??.  See also BMED PA 5317 G4 A17.

George of Pisidia.  Hexameron e kosmourgia.  In Claudii Aeliani Varia historia epistola fragmenta.  Ed: Rudolf Hercher.  2 vols???  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1866.  2:601-662.  PA 3821 A2.

Gerhard.  Vita Sancti Oudalrici episcopi Augustani.  MGH SS 4:377-425.  Source on Noricum?

Gerland, Ernst.  Die persische Feldzüge des Kaisers Herakleios.  OLD CLASS Pamph Greece Hist.

Gerland, Ernst.  «Die persische Feldzüge des Kaisers Herakleios.»  BZ 3 (……..) 330-373.

Gerland, Ernst.  Rev:  Pernice.  BZ 15 (1906) 301-307.

Gesta Dagoberti.  Ed:  Krusch MGH:  SRM.  2:399.  HX.  See also DC 69 B68.  In Merovingian times, Frankish trade was in the hands of the Syrians and the Jews;  we have plenty of evidence, including the mention of Solomon in the GD, p 413.

Gibb, H. A. R.  The Arab Conquests in Central Asia.  London, 1923.  DK 878 G5.

Gieysztor, Alexander.  «Les structures économiques en pays slave à l’aube du moyen âge jusqu’au xie siècle et l’échange monétaire.»  Moneta et scambi nell’alto medioevo.  Settimane 8 (1961).

Gieysztor, Alexander.  «Les marchés et les marchandises entre le Danube et la Volga aux viiie-xie siècles.»  Mercati et Mercanti nell’alto medioevo:  l’area euroasiatica et l’area mediterranea.  Settimane 40 (1993) 498-518.  CB 351 C46.

Giles, Lionel.  «A Chinese Geographical Text of the Ninth Century.»  BSOAS 6 (1930-32) 825-846.

Giles, Lionel.  «A Topographical Fragment from Tun-huang.»  BSOAS 7 (1933) 545-572.

Giry, A.  «Etudes carolingiennes.»  In Etudes d’histoire du moyen âge dédiées à Gabriel Monod.  Paris:  Cerf and Alcan, 1896.  107-136.  Pims, Roba D 113.5 E8.

Giry, A.  Manuel de diplomatique.  2 vols.  Paris, 1925.

Giunta, Francesco, and A. Grillone, eds.  Iordanis de Origine Actibusque Getarum.  Fonti per la storia d’Italia, 117.  Rome, 1991.  Pims, Roba DG 403 F7.

Glaser, Frank.  Teurnia:  Metropolis Norici.  Vienna, 1987.

Glaser, Frank.  Frühes Christentum im Alpenraum.  1997.  NA 950 G553.

Glorie, Franciscus, ed.  Itineraria et alia geographica.  CCSL, 175.  1965.

Glück, Christian Wilhelm von.  Die Bistümer Noricums.  Sb d. Wiener Ak d. Wiss. Ph-H, 17.  Vienna, 1853.  Also PIMS BX 1516 G5.

Goar, St. Miracles.  Wandalberti Miracula S. Goaris.  MGH.  SS.  15:361-373.  Page 370 for Frisian trade.  HAVE XEROX  See also Marcellinus.

Goar, St. Miracles.  Wandalberti Miracula S. Goaris.  MGH where?  SS.  15:361-373.  HX.  Page 370 for Frisian trade.  See also Marcellinus.

Göbl, Robert.  «Sasanidische Numismatik.»  La nouvelle Clio.  3 (1952) 360f.  D 1 N83.

Göbl, Robert.  Sasanidische Numismatik.  Braunschweig:  Klinkhardt and Biermann, 1968.  CJ 3764 G6.

Goel, J.  «Samo und die Karantanischen Slaven.»  Mitteilungen des Instituts für Oesterreichischen Geschichtsforschung.  11 (1890) 443-446.  DB 1 V5.

Goeje, Michael Jan de, ed.  Selections from the Annals of Tabari.  Leiden:  Brill, 1902.  D 17 T23.

Goeje, Michael Jan de, ed.  Bibliotheca geographorum arabicorum.

Goeje, Michael Jan de.  «Internationaal Handelsverkeer in de middeleeuwen.»  Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen.  Afdeeling Letterkunde.  4th series 9 (1909) 245-269.  AS 244 A52.

Görres, F.  «Justinian II und das römische Papsttum.»  BZ 17 (1908) 440-450.

Goffart, Walter André.  «Byzantine Policy in the West under Tiberius II and Maurice:  the Pretenders Hermenegild and Gundovald.»  Traditio 13 (1957) 73-118.  D 111 T7.

Goffart, Walter André.  «The Fredegar problem reconsidered.»  Speculum 38 (1963) 206-241.  Reprinted 1989.

Goffart, Walter André.  Barbarians and Romans, AD 418-584:  The Techniques of Accommodation.  Princeton UP, 1980.  DG 319 G63.

Goffart, Walter André.  «Foreigners in the Histories of Gregory of Tours.»  Florilegium 4 (1982) 80-99.  #per.bib.

Goffart, Walter André.  The Narrators of Barbarian History (AD 550-800):  Jordanes, Gregory of Tours, Bede, Paul Deacon.  Princeton UP, 1988.  DS 56 G615.

Goldmann, E.  «Premysl-Samo.»  Mitteilungen des Instituts für Oesterreichischen Geschichtsforschung.  30 (1909) 327-337.

Gorbunova, K. S.  «Archaeological Investigations on the Northern shore of the Black Sea in the Territory of the Soviet Union, 1965-1970.»  JHS 18 (1972) 48-59.  Biblio.

Gosses, I. H.  «Deensche heerschappijen in Friesland gedurende den Noormannentijd.»  Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. 56:B (1923) 117-147.  AS 244 A52.

Grauert, .  Drei bayerische Traditionsbücher.

Graus, Frantisek.  «Die Entwicklung Mitteleuropas im 8. Jahrhundert und die Vorbedingungen der Staatenentwicklung in diesem Gebiet.»  I Probleme dell’Occidente nel secolo VIII.  Settimane 20 (1973) 453-581.

Grat, Félix, Jeanne Vielliard and Suzanne Vitte Clémencet, eds.  Annales de Saint-Bertin.  By Prudentius of Troyes and Hincmar of Reims.  Introduction by Léon Levillain.  Publications, Société de l’histoire de France, série antérieure à 1789, 470.  Paris:  Klincksieck, 1964.  Roba DC 70 A2 S34.  Biblio, lxxv-lxxvii.  AD 839 «Misit etiam um eis quosdam qui se, id est gentem suam, Rhos vocari dicebant, quos rex illorum Chaganus uocabulo ad se amicitiae…» (30).  «eos gentis esse Sueonum» (31).  For Suani from the Caucasus, see Menander Protector.

Greatrex, Geoffrey, and Jonathan Bardill.  «Antiochus the praepositus:  A Persian Eunuch at the Court of Theodosius II.»  DOP 50 (1996) 171-197.

Gregory the Great, Pope.  Registrum epistularum.  Ed:  MGH?  Norberg in CCSL, NPNF?  MGH Ep.  1-2.  Berlin, 1887.  NPNF, 2nd series, 12, 13.  1895-1898.  Letters to archbishop of Illyricum 11:22, 23 ca 591-592.  Colonate?  David of Thess?

Gregory of Tours.  Historia Francorum.  See Arndt (MGH), Bonnet, Jacobs, Krusch (MGH), Kurth, Latouche, Monod, Ruinart (PL 71).  DC 64 G714.  Have file with citations.  Sigebert and Huns.  Chilperic «Judaeus quidam Priscus nomine, qui ei ad species coemendas familiares erat.»  VI,5.

Grekov, Boris Dmitrievich.  Izbrannye trudy.  4 vols.  Moscow:  Akademiia, 1957-1960.  Roba D 377 G72;  Pims DJK 27 G74.

Grekov, Boris Dmitrievich.  «.»  In Drevnerusskoe gosudarstvo i ego mezhdunarodnoe znachenie.  Moscow:  Nauka, 1965.  Roba, Pims DK 71 N6.

Grierson, Philip.  Les annales de Saint-Pierre de Gand et de Saint-Amand:  Annales Blandinienses, Annales Elmarenses, Annales Formoselenses, Annales Elnonenses publiées d’après les manuscrits.  Brussels:  Palais des Académies, 1937.  Roba, Pims DH 801 F46 G7.  See each for text.

Grierson, Philip.  Numismatics and History.  London, 1951.  Roba, Pims CJ 85 G7.

Grierson, Philip.  «Oboli de Musc’.»  EHR 66 (1951) 75-81.

Grierson, Philip.  «The Gold Coinage of Louis the Pious and its Imitations.»  Jaarboek voor Munt- en Penningkunde.  38 (1951) 1-41.  WCat 7.  Frisia.

Grierson, Philip.  «The Coronation of Charlemagne and the Coinage of Pope Leo III.»  Revue belge.  30 (1952) 827-833.

Grierson, Philip.  «La trouvaille monétaire d’Ilanz.»  Gazette numismatique suisse.  4 (1953).  CJ 201 S35 incomplete.

Grierson, Philip.  «A Byzantine Hoard from North Africa.»  Numismatic Chronicle.  6th series 13 (1953) 147f.  CJ 1 N6.

Grierson, Philip.  «Nomisma, tetartèron et dinar:  un plaidoyer pour Nicéphore Phocas.»  Revue belge de numismatique.  100 (1954) 75-84.  CJ 3 R4.  Le tetartèron circulait au pair avec le dinar fatimide, 82.

Grierson, Philip.  Coins and Medals.  London, 1954.  Z 6866 G7.

Grierson, Philip.  «Carolingian Europe and the Arabs:  The Myth of the Mancus.»  Revue belge de phil.  32 (1954) 1059-1074.  P2 R4.  Methodology.  Le sou d’or n’est qu’un fantôme, une monnaie d’honneur, 294.

Grierson, Philip.  «Le sou d’or d’Uzès.»  Le Moyen Age.  4th series 9 (1954) 293-309.

Grierson, Philip.  «Lombards.»  Archivio storico lombardo.  (1957).  DG 651 A7.

Grierson, Philip.  Check BZ after 1959.

Grierson, Philip.  «Commerce in the Dark Ages:  A Critique of the Evidence.»  Trans RHS.  5th series 9 (1959) 123-140.  VUPT, Roba DA . . . .  Contra Pirenne.  On archaeological evidence:  «It has been said that the spade cannot lie, but it owes this merit in part to the fact that it cannot speak.» (129).  «Plunder and robbery must be accounted factors of major importance in the distribution of valuables in the Dark Ages, and would sometimes be effective over a considerable area.» (131).

Grierson, Philip.  «Coinage and Money in the Byzantine Empire 498-1090.»  Moneta et scambi nell’alto medioevo.  Settimane 8 (1961) 771-829.

Grierson, Philip.  Bibliographie numismatique.  Brussels, 1966.  Z 6866 G714.

Grierson, Philip.  Numismatics.  Oxford UP, 1975.  Pims CJ 75 G74.

Grierson, Philip.  Les monnaies.  Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental, 21.  Turnhout:  Brepols, 1977.  Z 6203 T95.  Biblio.  «Si le cuivre n’a pas été plus utilisé pour la frappe des monnaies, c’est que sa fonction normale à travers l’histoire a été de servir de monnaie fiduciaire;  or, les Etats médiévaux n’étaient généralement pas assez puissants pour [en] garantir l’échange» (14).  Hoards, 21.

Grierson, Philip.  Dark Age Numismatics.  London:  Variorum, 1979.  Pims CJ 1607 G78.  29 articles, 1951-1974.

Grierson, Philip.  Byzantine coins.  London:  Methuen, 1982.  Roba, Pims CJ 1229 G7.

Grierson, Philip, FS.  Studies in Numismatic Method.  Cambridge UP, 1983.  CJ 2456 S78.

Grierson, Philip.  Medieval European Coinage.  Cambridge UP, 1986-.  Roba CJ 2464 G75.  5th-10th cent.  Vols prepared with associates and catalogued individually.

Grierson, Philip.  The Coins of Medieval Europe.  London:  Seaby, 1991.  Roba CJ 2464 G75.  Starts with fifth century, undergraduate level.  Is this the same as Grierson 1986?

Grierson, Philip.  Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection.  CJ 1217 D8.

Grierson, Philip.  Catalogue of the Late Roman Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection.  Washington, DC:  Dumbarton Oaks, 1992.  Pims CJ 815 V62 W184.

Groh, Kurt.  Geschichte des oströmischen Kaisers Justin II nebst den Quellen.  1889;  reprint 1985.  DF 576 G76.  Avars.

Gronbech, Kaare.  «The Steppe Region in World History.»  Acta Orientalia.  Le Monde oriental.  23 (1959) 43-56;  24 (1960) 15-28;  25 (1960) 1-14.

Grousset, René.  L’empire des steppes.

Grousset, René.  «Les études historiques et l’orientalisme.»  RH 181 (1937) 1-39.

Grumel, Venance.  «649.»  Echos d’orient.  29 (1930) 19.  PIMS,  Check Chrono.bib for more.

Grumel, Venance.  La chronologie.  Traité d’études byzantines, 1.  Paris, 1958.

Grumel, Venance.  «Illyricum.»  Revue des études byzantines. 9 (1951) 5-46.

Gsell, .  «Chronique africaine.»  MEFRA (1898) 108.  Colonate.

Gugerotti, Claudio, tr.  Sebeos:  Storia.  Verona:  Mazziana, 1990.  DS 186 S4216.

Guidi, Ignatius [Ignazio], ed.  Un nuovo testo siriaco sulla storia degli ultimi Sassanidi.  Leiden:  Brill, 1891.

Guidi, Ignatius, ed.  Check PO for other works.

Transl.  Journal of Sacred Literature.  4th Series 5 (1864) 28ff.  KNOX A7 (ask at desk);  MICR BR 1 J7.

Guidi, Ignatius, ed, tr.  Chronicon Anonymum.  With EW Brooks.  13-32.  CSCO Scriptores Syri, series 3, tome 4, part 1.  Leipzig:  Harrassowitz, 1903.

Guidi, Ignatius.  L’Arabie antéislamique.  Paris:  Geuthner, 1921.  Old Class HAr G947a, recat June 1, 2005.  Ghassanids, Himjarites, etc.  Also material culture, loan-words.

Guilland, Rodolphe.  Biblio.  Byzantion 31 (1961).

Guillou, André.  Régionalisme et indépendance dans l’empire byzantin au VIIe siècle:  l’exemple de l’exarchat et de la Pentapole d’Italie.  Rome:  ISI, 1964.  DG 504 G8.  Biblio.

Gulik, Robert van.  Siddham:  An Essay on the History of Sanskrit Studies in China and Japan.  Nagpur:  International Academy of Indian Culture, 1956.  PK 119 G85.

Gundlach, W, ed.  Columbanus.  MGH Epistolae.  Vol. 3.  BX 4700 B7 A43.

Gutschmid, Alfred von.  «Zur Frage über das Original der Ravennatischen Kosmographie.»  Rheinisches Museum.  12 (1857) 438-441.  See also Asia.bib for Armenian historiography.

Haag, O.  «Ueber die Latinität Fredegars.»  Romanische Forschungen.  10 (1899).  PC 3 R5.

Haas, Wolfdieter.  «Ansgar als Mönch und Apostel.»  Journal of Medieval History.  11 (1985) 1-30.  D 111 J6.

Hackin, J.  «Répartition des monnaies anciennes en Afghanistan.»  JA 226 (1935) 287-292, maps.  Too early for Chyonitai.

Hägg, Inga.  Die Textilfunden aus der Siedlungund aus den Gräbern von Haithabu.  Neumünster:  K. Wachholtz, 1991.  GN 814 H26 H24.

Hävernick, W.  «Die karolingische Münzreformen:  Ende der alten Zustande oder Beginn einer neuen Entwicklung?»  VJSWG 41 (1946/47.  H5 V6.

Hävernick, W.  «Die Anfänge der karolingischen Goldprägung in Nordwesteuropa.»  Hamburger Beiträge zur Numismatik.  6/7 (1952/53) 55-60.  # per.bib.  «Hävernik [...] virtually assumes that even coins of an exceptional character, like the gold solidi of Louis the Pious, were produced for commercial reasons and that since they were distributed in the normal course of trade it is possible to draw solid conclusions regarding trade routes from studying the localities in which they have been found» (Grierson 1959:130).

Haff, Karl.  «Geschlechtshöfe und freie marken in Skandinavien und Deutschland.»  Vierteljahrschrift für Social und Wirtschaftsgeschichte.  28 (1935) 126-139.  H5 V6, vol missing.

Hahn, A.  «Einige Bemerkungen über Fredegar.»  Archiv für deutsche Geschichtskunde.  9 (1858).  #per.bib.

Hahn, Wolfgang, and W. E. Metcalf, eds.  Studies in Early Byzantine Gold Coinage.  New York, 1988.  CJ 1247 S78.

Hald, Kristian.  «Angles and Vandals.»  Cl & Med.  4 (1941) 62-78.  Varini, Tacitus.

Haldon, John F.  Byzantium in the Seventh Century:  The Transformation of a Culture.  Rev ed Cambridge UP, 1990/1997.  DF 571 H35 1997X.  Biblio.

Halkin, F.  «L’hagiographie byzantine au service de l’histoire.»  In Proceedings of the XIIIth International Congress of Byzantine Studies.  Oxford:  5-10 Sept. 1966.  Ed:  J. M. Hussey, D. Obolensky and S. Runciman.  London:  Oxford University Press, 1967.  345-354.  DF 501 C6

Halkin, Léon Ernest.  Initiation à la critique historique.  Cahier des Annales, 6.  Paris:  Colin, 1973.  D 13 H23.

Hallier, Ludwig.  Untersuchungen über die Quellen… Chronicon Edessenum.  PhD Strassburg.  Leipzig:  Pries, 1892.  WCat 2.

Haloun, Gustav.  «Zur Üe-tsï-Frage.»  ZDMG 91/NS 16 (1937) 243-318.  Deals with Tocharian speaking people, in BC.  Biblio.  See Pulleyblank 1966:  Haloun misreads ancient geography and expects to find Scyths just outside the Great Wall.

Halphen, Louis.  «Une théorie récente sur la Chronique du Pseudo-Frédégaire.»  Revue historique.  79 (1902).

Halphen, Louis.  «Grégoire de Tours, historien de Clovis.»  In Mélanges d’histoire du moyen âge offerts à M. Ferdinand Lot par ses amis et ses élèves.  Paris:  Champion, 1925.  235-244.  D 113.5 M45.

Hambis, Louis.  «Le problème des Huns.»  RH 220 (1958) 249-270.  Thesis:  The Huns are a representative of the nomadic people who have been waging a merciless war against sedentary populations (249).  Pervasive error of methodology:  lumps together everything we have on the Huns, then tries to sort out if these are one, two, three people.  Overlooks geographical info, in particular from Syriac chronicles and Jerome.  «historiquement impossible de démontrer l’identité des deux groupes» (256).

Hamilton, F. J., and E. W. Brooks, tr.  Pseudo-Zachariah of Mitylene.  London:  Methuen, 1899.  D 17 Z3.  Northern missionaries, 329-331:  check for Crimea.

Hampe, ed.  Einhard:  Epistolae.  MGH:  Epistolae Carol.  3:105-145.

Handa, Devendra.  «Coins of Huna rulers.»  Indian History Congress:  Proceedings.  Session 42.  1981.  669-674.  Check DS 486 B9 G56.  Check spelling, name could be Honda, date could 1951.

Harmatta, János.  «Studies in the Language of the Iranian Tribes in South Russia.»  Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.  1 (1950) 261-314.

Harmatta, János.  «Migrations of the Indo-Iranian tribes.»  Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.  26 (1978) 185-194.  CC 1 A19.

Hartel, W., ed.  Panygyricus.  In Ennodius:  Opera Omnia.  CSEL, 6.  Vienna 1882.  267-9.

Hartel, W.  Ennodius.  Vol 7 of MGH AA.  1885.

Hartmann, Ludo [Ludwig] Moritz.  «Italy under the Lombards.»  In Cambridge Medieval History.  1926 and 1976.  Avars?

Hauck, H.  Die Bischofswahlen unter den Merovingern.  Erlangen, 1883.  St. Amandus.

Hauck, A.  Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands.  Leipzig, 1904.  BR 854 H35.

Hauptmann, L.  «Politische Umwälzungen unter den Slowenen vom Ende des sechsten Jahrhunderts bis zur Mitte des neunten.»  Mitteilungen des Instituts für Oesterreichischen Geschichtsforschung.  30 (1909) 246-259.  DB 1 V5.

Hauptmann, L.  «Les rapports des Byzantins avec les Slaves et les Avars pendant la seconde moitié du VIe siècle.»  Byzantion 4 (1927/28) 137.

Hauptmann, L.  Historia Mundi.  Vol. 5.  PIMS

Hauser, H.  «Le sel dans l’histoire.»  Revue économique internationale.  1927:270-287.  P Pol. Sci R.

Haussig, Hans Wilhelm.  «Theophylakt.»  Byzantion 23 (1953).

Haussig, Hans Wilhelm.  Die Geschichte Zentralasiens und der Seidenstrasse in vorislamischen Zeit.  Darmstadt, 1992.  DS 786 H38, see also N 7260 H367.  Rev:  OLZ (1996) 487.

Hayashi, Ryoichi.  The Silk Road and the Shoso-in.  Tr:  R. Ricketts.  1975.  N 3750 N36 H3713.

Hayes, Carlton Joseph Huntley.  An Introduction to the Sources Relating to the Germanic Invasions.  [Columbia U Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, 33:3.]  New York:  Columbia UP, 1909.  Old Class Pamph HG [229 pages], retr?  Orosius 106ff.  ???

Helmold.  The Chronicle of the Slav.  See Pertz, Tschan.

Hendy, Michael F.  London:  Variorum, 1989.  DF 504 H46.

Hennig, Richard.  «Der nordeuropäische Pelzhandel in den älteren Period der Geschichte.»  VJSWG 23 (1930) 1-25.  H5 V6.  Important early sources.

Henning, Rudolf.  Ueber die Sanct-gallischen Sprachdenkmäler bis zum Tode Karls des Grossen.  Quellen und Untersuchungen, 3.  Strassburg:  Trübner, 1874.  P La G Q.

Henning, Walter Bruno Hermann.  «Ueber die Sprache der Chvarezmier.»  ZDMG 90 (1936) *30-*34.  «Das Chvarezmische hat mit dem Ossetischen eine Reihe wichtiger Charakteristika gemeinsam, doch neigt es sich im Ganzen mehr dem Soghdischen zu» (430).

Henning, Walter Bruno Hermann.  «A New Parthian Inscription.»  JRAS 1953:132-136, plate.  Biblio.  Armenian Naharar, Manichaean name, etc.

Henry III, Patrick.  «A Mirror for Justinian:  The Ekthesis of Agapetus Diaconus.»  GRBS 8 (1967) 281-308.

Heraclius Imperator.  Novels.  In K. E. Zachariä von Lingenthal.  Jus graeco-romanum.  II:38-48.  Also:  J. and P. Zepos, Jus graeco-romanum.  I, 27-39.

Hermann, Albert.  Oxus Gebiet.  Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Phil-Hist. Kl.  Berlin, 1914.  AS 182 G812.

Hermann, Albert.  «Die Hephthaliten und ihre Beziehungen zu China.»  Asia Major.  2 (1925) 564-580.  DS 501 A65.  Beyond AD 500.

Hermann, Albert.  Die alte Seidenstrasse zwischen China und Syrien.  Leipzig, 1970.

Hessel, .  «Zacharie.»  Le Moyen-âge.  . . . (1901) 374.

Heuser, Friedrich.  Bonifacius und der Stadtreichs Pippins.  Pamph HG H.  Recat.

Hierocles.  Synekdemos.  Burckhardt, Honigmann, Wesseling.

Higgins, Martin J.  The Persian war of the Emperor Maurice (582-602):  The Chronology with a Brief history of the Persian Calendar.  Byzantine Studies, 1.  Washington:  Catholic University of America Press, 1939.  DF 573 H5.  ema.bib.

Higounet, Charles.  «Le problème économique:  l’Eglise et la vie rurale pendant le très haut moyen âge.»  Le chiese nei regni dell’Europa occidentale e i loro rapporti con Roma sino all’800.  Settimane, 7.  1960.  775-803.  HX map of monasteries.

Hilberg, Isidor.  «Textkritische Beiträge zu Georgios Pisidos.»  Wiener Studien.  9 (1887) 207-222.

Hill, Donald R.  The Termination of Hostilities in the Early Arab Conquests, 632-656 AD.  London, 1971.  DF 38.1 H54.

Hill, P.  Barbarous Radiates.  CJ 1848 M4 N63.

Hillkowitz, Kurt.  Zur Kosmographie des Aethicus.  Vol 1.  Cologne:  Welzel, 1934.  G 82 H5.  Review by Lindsay.

Hillkowitz, Kurt.  Zur Kosmographie des Aethicus.  Vol 2.  Frankfurt am Main:  Klostermann, 1973.  G82 H5.  Rev:  Stevens.  Study of sources.

Hincmar of Reims.  Annales de Saint-Bertin.  MGH SS 1:465.  See Ganshof, Grat, Nelson, Waitz.

Hodgkin, Thomas.  Italy and Her Invaders.  5 vols.  Oxford, 1895.  DG …

Hodgkin, Thomas.  «The Chronology of Theophanes in the Eighth Century.»  EHR 13 (1898) 283-289.  Re Leo.

Hoernle, August Friedrich Rudolf.  «The “Unknown Language” of Eastern Turkestan, II.»  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.  1911:447-477.  For date of Khotanese texts, fourth century.  See Cowley and Gauthiot.

Hoffmann, E.  «Igorlied.»  Archiv für slavische Philologie.  38 (1922) 89-117.  See Nikolskaia.

Hoffmann, J. Wesley.  «The Commerce of the German Alpine Passes during the Early Middle Ages.»  Journal of Political Economy.  31 (1923) 826-839.  HB 1 J7.  «The rise of Venice as an importer of Levantine goods can be noted as early as 715 in a trade treaty which Liutprand made with Venice and Comacchio.»  (829)  The treaty was renewed by Charlemagne.  See Hartmann, Heyd.

Holder-Egger, Oswald.  «Die Ravennater Annalen, I.»  Neues Archiv für ältere Geschichtskunde.  1 (1876) 215;  316-324;  336-346.

Holder-Egger, Oswald.  «Die Ravennater Annalen, II.»  Neues Archiv für ältere Geschichtskunde.  2 (1877) 49-109.

Holder-Egger, Oswald.  «Untersuchungen über einige annalistische Quelle zur Geschichte des fünften und sechsten Jahrhunderts.  III.»  Neues Archiv.  2 (1877) 47-111.  Marcellinus Comes.

Holmes, Urban T.  «Mediaeval Gem Stones.»  Speculum 9 (1934).

Holmgren, Jennifer, tr.  Annals of Tai:  Early T’o-pa History According to the first chapter of the Wei-shu.  Canberra:  Australian National University Press, 1982.  DS 748.7 W4413.  Fragile, needs to be rebound.

Holthausen, Fern.  Altfriesisches Wörterbuch.  LaTeut H7585a.

Honigmann, Ernst.  Die Ostgrenze des byzantinischen Reiches von 363 bis 1071 nach griechischen, arabischen, syrischen und armenischen Quellen.  Corpus Bruxellense Hist. Byz, 3.  Brussels, 1936.  See also Science.bib.

Honigmann, Ernest.  «Jean d’Ephèse.»  Byzantion 1 (1939) 615-625.

Honigmann, Ernest.  Le Synecdèmos de Hieroclès et l’opuscule géographique de Georges de Chypre.  Brussels, 1939.  Reviews:  Isis 32 (1940) 349f.  AnBoll (192) 235f.

Honigmann, Ernest.  Byzance et les Arabes.  PIMS DF 552 V33.

Honigmann, Ernst.  «Un archevêque ignatien de Moravie, rival de saint Méthode.»  Byzantion 17 (1944/45) 163-.

Honigmann, Ernest.  «Un travail fondamental sur l’histoire de l’église d’Arménie de 325 à 700.»  Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique.  48 (1953) 150-168.  BX 940 R5.  Review article of Garitte Narratio with emendations.  The original text is only 22 pages but Garitte cites in translation many useful documents.

Honorii Episcopi Brixiensis, Vita Sancti.  AASS April 12, 280-1.  Lombard history.

Hopf, Carl Hermann Friedrich Johann, tr.  The Chronicle of Novgorod.  St. Petersburg, 1888.  In Russian with Latin Tr.  Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues.  Berlin, 1873.  RBSC D-10 1666.  Uses Euthymius from Sathas.

Ho Ping-…  «Lo-yang, AD 495-534.»  Harvard JAS 26 (1966) 82-101.

Howorth, Henry Hoyle.  History of the Mongols.  4 vols.  1876-1888;  reprinted Franklin, 1965.  DS 19 H6 1880A.  Starts in ninth century.

Hubert, Henri.  «Observations sur la chronologie de Théophane et de quelques lettres des papes (726-774).»  BZ 6 (….) 491-505.

Hudson, P.  «Lombard Immigration and Effects on North Italian Rural and Urban Settlement.»  Papers in Italian Archaeology.  4 (1985) 225-245.  Oxford.

Hugeburc of Hildesheim.  Hodoeporiion S. Wilibaldi.  BHL 8931.  785 AD.  See Bischoff 1931.  See also Bulletin Du Cange.

Hulsewé, Anthony François Paulus, FS.  Thought and Law in Qin and Han China.  Leiden:  Brill, 1990.  B 5231 T46.  Biblio.

Hulsewé, Anthony François Paulus.  China in Central Asia:  the Early Stage, 125 BC-AD 23.  Leiden:  Brill, 1979.  DS 748 H86.  Hsiung-nu.

Huntingford, G. W. B.  «Who were the Scythians?»  Anthropos 30 (1935) 785-795.  GN 1 A7.  With map.  Not useful.

Hutchinson, Lincoln.  «Oriental Trade and the Rise of the Lombard Communes.»  Quarterly Journal of Economics.  16 (1902) 413-432.  HB 1 Q3.  Venice.

Huuri, Kalervo.  Zur Geschichte der Mittelalterlichen Geschützwesens aus orientalischen Quellen.  Studia Orientalia, 9,3.  Helsinki, 1941.  PJ 9 S86.

Huxley, George.  «A Porphyrogenitan Portulan.»  GRBS 17 (1976) 295-300.  Crete and De Cerim.

Ideler, Ludwig.  «Ueber die Zeitrechnung von Chata und Igur.»  Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Histor. Philol.  1832:275.

Ideler, Louis [Ludwig].  «Sur la chronologie de Khatâ et d’Igoûr.»  Journal asiatique.  15 (1835) 305-348.  Khata = China;  Igour = Turkestan.  Work of chronology bu Ulug-beg, Prince of Samarkand and Northern Iran.

Imbart de la Tour, .  «Les paroisses rurales dans l’ancienne France, du IVe au XIe siècle.»  Revue historique.  63 (1897) 7.

Imbart de la Tour, .  «Les colonies agricoles et l’occupation des terres désertes à l’époque carolingienne.»  In Mélanges Fabre. Paris, 1902.  162.

Imbertin, F.  «Les routes médiévales.»  Annales d’histoire économique et sociale.  (1939) . . .  MICRO.

Inama-Sternegg, Karl T.  Deutsche Wirtschaftsgechichte bis zum Schluss der Karolingerperiode.  Leipzig, 1909.  HC 284 I38.

Indologia Taurinensia.  DS 401 I56.  Sanskrit studies, but not much on Kalidasa.

Irsigler, Franz.  «Divites et pauperes in der Vita Meinwerci.»  VJSWG 57 (1970) 449-499.  H5 V6.  466ff for costly fur trade.  Westfalian affairs.

Isidore of Seville.

Isidore of Seville.  Eds:  Arevalus, Becker, Fontaine, Lindsay.  PL 81-83.

Isidore of Seville.  Chronica majora.  PL 83:1056.  Mommsen MGH:  AA 11:479.

Isidore of Seville.  Historia de regibus Gothorum.  Vol 11 of MGH AA, 1894.  PL 82:1057, Paris, 1862.  See Donini-Ford.

Isidore of Seville.  Origines.  «L’île de Chio a été ainsi nommée par les Syriens parce qu’elle produit le mastic;  car le mot chio signifie mastic en langue syrienne» XIV,16.  L’arbre à mastic:  le lentisque.  See Fustel.

Istrin, Vasilii Mikhailovich.  «Khronograf Ipatskogo spiska pod 1114 godom.»  Zhurnal Ministerstva narodnago prosveshchniia.  314 (1897) 83-91.  Mfm, #per.bib.

Istrin, Vasilii Mikhailovich, ed.  Khronika Ioanna Malaly.  St. Petersburg, 1897.

Istrin, Vasilii Mikhailovich.  «Letopisnoe povestvovanie o pokhodah russkikh kniazei na Tsar’grad.»  Izvestiia otdeleniia russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  21 (1916) 215-236.

Istrin, Vasilii Mikhailovich, ed.  Die Chronik des Georgios Hamartolos:  in altslavischer Uebersetzung.  First published in Zhurnal Ministerstva narodnago prosveshchniia.  May 1917.  Reprinted with introduction and bibliography by Friedrich Scholz.  Slavische Propyläen, 1-2.  2 vols.  Munich:  W. Fink, 1972.  DF 550 G418 ROBA.

Itinera Hierosolymitana saeculi IIII-VIII.  CSEL, 39.  1898.

Istrin, Vasilii Mikhailovich.  Ocherk istorii drevnerusskoi literatury domoskovskogo perioda.  Prague, 1922.  PIMS PG 3001 I87.

Iunghans, .  Histoire critique des règnes de Childeric et de Chlodowech.  Tr:  G. Monod.  BEPHE, 37.  Paris, 1879.  Saxon settlements in France.

Ivanov, Iordan, ed.  Bulgarski Starini iz Makedonija.  Sofia, 1931.  Roba DR 701 M3 I85;  Pims DR 2171 I85, HX.  «Basil II:  Sigillia.»  550-562.

Jacob of Sarug.  Collection of Syriac letters compiled in A.D. 603.  See Olinder.

Jacob, W., and R. Hanslik, eds.  Cassiodorus.  CSEL, 71.  Vienna 1952.

Jacobs, A.  «Dagobert.»  Revue des sociétés savantes.  2nd series 7 (1880???).  per.bib.  Mentioned by Krusch in his edition, page 399.

Jacobs, A.  Géographie de Grégoire de Tours, de Frédégaire et de leurs continuateurs.  2nd edition.  Paris, 1861.

Jacobs, Georg, tr.  Arabische Berichte von Gesandten an germanische Fürstenhofe aus dem 9. und 10. Jahrhundert.  Berlin:  Gruyter, 1927.  D 911 J6.  «Auch verfertigt man im Lande Böhmen dünne lockergewebte Tüchelchen wie Netze, die man zu nichts anwenden kann [...] mit ihnen handeln sie und verrechnen sich untereinander» (13).  Report of the Jewish trader Ibrahim ibn Jakub in al-Bekrî (d. 1094).

Jacobson, H.  Early History of Sogdia.  Chicago, 1935.

Jacoby, Felix.  Die Fragmente der Griechischen Historiker.  3 vols with many fascicles.  Berlin:  Weidmann;  Leiden:  Brill, 1923–.  PA 3490 J3;  also PA 610 D5.  Historians numbered consecutively.

Jaffé, Philippe, ed.  Annales Corbeienses.  In Bibliotheca rerum germanicorum.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1864-1873.  1:33-43.  DD 3 B58.  In AD 955 «Ungariorum et Sclavorum exercitus a rege Oddone deletus» (36).

Jaffé, Philippe and C. Wattenbach.  Regesta pontificum romanorum.  Leipzig, 1885.  3 vols.  BX 850 A6.  Letter from Pope Saint Martin to Amandus, Oct. 31, 649.  Jaffé I;#2059.  Supposed to be in AASS Feb I:866.

Jakob, H.  «War Burk das historische Wogastisburc, und wo lag das oppidum Berleich?»  Welt der Slaven.  25 (1980) 39-67.  PG 1 W4.

Jakob, H.  «Wogastisburg und das oppidum Berleich.»  Welt der Slaven.  28 (1983) 171-191.  PG 1 W4.

Jakobson, Roman.  «The Puzzles of the Igor Tale.»  Speculum 27 (1952) 43-66.

Jaksch, A.  «Fredegar und die Conversio Carantanorum (Ingo).»  Mitteilungen des Instituts für Oesterreichischen Geschichtsforschung.  41 (1926) 44.  DB 1 V5.

Jankuhn, Herbert.  «Der frankisch-friesische Handel zur Ostsee im frühen Mittelalter.»  VJSWG 40 (1953) 193-243.  See Grierson 1959:136n  H5 V6

Jankuhn, Herbert.  «Das Missionsfeld Ansgar.»  FMAS 1 (1967) 213-221.

Jankuhn, Herbert.  Haithabu:  Ein Handelsplatz der Wikingerzeit.  Neumünster:  K. Wachholtz, 1972.  GN 814 H26 J32.

Jeffreys, E. M., and R. Scott, tr.  The Chronicle of John Malalas.  Melbourne, 1986.  D 17 M2313.

Jeffreys, E., and M., and R. Scott.  Studies in John Malalas.  Melbourne, 1990.  D 17 M2313.

Jellema, Dirk.  «Frisian Trade in the Dark Ages.»  Speculum 30 (1955) 15-36. PN 661 S6  See Jankuhn 1953.  HAVE ISSUE

Jenkins, Romilly James Heald.  «The Supposed Russian Attack on Constantinople in 907.»  Speculum 24 (1949) 403-406.  Rhos??

Jenkins, Romilly James Heald.  Studies on Byzantine History of the 9th and 10th Centuries.  London, 1970.  DF 591 J42.

Jenkins, Romilly James Heald, and Leendert Gerrit Westerink, eds, trs.  Nicholas I, Patriarch of Constantinople:  Letters.  Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae, 6.  Washington DC:  Dumbarton Oaks Texts, 1973.  BX 395 N47 A4.

Jenkins, Romilly James Heald, and Cyril A. Mango.  «The date and significance of the Tenth Homily of Photius.»  DOP 9/10 (1956) 123-140.  Dates baptism of Boris-Michael to 864.

Jettmar, Karl.  «Symbolic Systems in Collision:  Rock Art in the Upper Indus Valley.»  In Gandharan Art in Context:  East-West Exchanges at the Crossroads of Asia.  Papers presented at a conference, Cambridge, 1992.  Ed:  Frank Raymond Allchin et al.  New Delhi:  Published for the Ancient India and Iran Trust, Cambridge, by Regency Publications, 1997.  55-69.  N 7291 G36.  Chionites, 63f, w/notes.

Johannes of Biclara, Bishop of Gerona.  6th cent.  DF 571 J6.

Johannes Diaconus.  Gesta episcoporum Neapol.  MGH:  SR Lang. 308-424.  See Achelis, Waitz.

John of Ephesus [of Asia].  Ecclesiastical History.  Eds:  Brooks, Payne Smith, Schönfelder.  Studies:  Diakonov, Honigmann.  Historian of Justin II.

John of Jerusalem.  «Discours contre Constantin Kaballinos.»  This is Constantine V Copronymus, for attribution, see Beck, Kirche und theologische Literatur, 1959, 488.  Check:  is that not by John Damascene?

John of Nikiu.  Chronicle.  Ed:  Zotenberg, in JA;  Notices et extraits des manuscrits.  Z 6620 F8 N78.  Tr:  Charles, Pims DT93 A2 J6.

Johnsen, O. A.  Norwegische Wirtschaftsgeschichte.  Jena, 1939.  HC 363 J6.  See 16-17, 99-102, for fur trade, seal trade, etc.

Johnson, Allan Chester and Louis C. West.  Byzantine Egypt:  Economic Studies.  Princeton UP, 1949.

Jonas of Bobbio.  Vita Columbani.  SRM.  Krusch, Munro.

Jones, Arnold Hugh Martin.  «The Constitutional Position of Odoacer and Theoderic.»  JRS 52 (1962) 126.

Jones, Michael.  «The Literary Evidence for Mast and Sail during the Anglo-Saxon Invasions.»  Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History.  NS 13 (…) 33-67.  HX.

Jordanes.  Getica.  De origine actibusque Getarum.  Eds:  MGH AA 5: 59, III,21.  Giunta/Grillone, Mierow.  Cm:  Löwe, Werner.

Joshua the Stylite.  Chronicle.  See Chabot CSCO, 3, 1927;  Hoffman-Fleming, Martin, Wright DS 276 J6.  See Authors file.

Joynt, Maud, tr.  Life of St. Gall.  London, 1927.

Junglas, Johannes Peter.  Leontius von Byzanz.  Berlin:  Schade, 1907.  Also Pims, Old Class Pamph. Eccles. Hist.

Justinian I, Flavius Anicius, Emperor.  Novellae.  «Novella 11:  De Privilegiis Archiepiscopi Primae Iustinianae, Apr 14, 535.»  In his Novellae.  See Schoell-Kroll (KJA 1112.2), Lingenthal KJA 1-62.1 Hx);  Alföldi II:92.  HXp.  See also Novella 131.

Justinian II Emperor.  Letter to Pope John in 687.  Check DF 576 H4.

Kadlec, Charles.  «The Empire and its Northern Neighbours.»  Chap 7A of The Eastern Roman Empire (717-1453).  Vol 4 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  Cambridge UP, 1923.  183-215.  D 117 C3.  Avars, Bulgars.  Check background, not a medievalist.

Kalima, Jalo.  «Alte Berührungen zwischen finnisch-ugrischen und slavischen Sprachen.»  Wörter und Sachen.  2 (1910) 182-186.  «Schlitten»

Kaphahn, Fritz.  Zwischen Antike und Mittelalter:  das Donau-Alpenland im Zeitalter St. Severins.  Munich:  Hermann Rinn, 1948.  ROBA, PIMS DG 59 N7 K3  No bib, few notes.  Ridiculed by Thompson.

Karlin-Hayter, Patricia.  «Les Tauroscythes de Génésios.»  Byzantion 40 (1970) 236-237.  Biblio.  Mid-ninth century, Tauroscyths = Rhôs.

Kauchtschischwili, Tinatin.  «Strabon und das alte Georgien.»  Philologus 122 (1978) 68-87.

Keenan, Edward L.  «Turkic Lexical Elements in the Igor Tale and the Zadonscina.»  Slavonic and East European Review.  80 (2002) 479-482.  D 377 A1 S59.  Unsystematic.

Khazanov, Anatoly Mikhailovich.  Nomads and the Outside World.  Tr:  Julia Crookenden.  Cambridge UP, 1984.  GN 387 K4713.

Khazanov, Anatoly Mikhailovich, and André Wink, eds.  Nomads and the Sedentary World.  Surrey:  Curzon, 2001.  GN 387 N656.

Khurdabeh, Ibn.  Ed:  Goeje 6 (1889) 154 with translation 115.  First edition in AD 846/847;  second in 885/886.  Trade with Russians.

Kiang, T.  «Halley’s Comet.»  Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society.  76 (1971) 27-66.  PASC QB1 R45.  Theophanes, 53.

Kiparsky, Festschrift.  PG 14 K5.

Kiparsky, Valentin.  «The Earliest Contacts of the Russians with the Finns and the Balts.»  OSP 3 (1952) 67-79.

Kiparsky, Valentin.  «On the stratification of the Russian vocabulary.»  Oxford Slavonic Papers.  4 (1971) 1-11.  «at the same period [i.e. half a century before Constantine and Methodius] the name Charlemagne in its German form produced *korl’ (Russ. korol’ ‘king’)» (page 4).  Since the word (and others from the same vintage (tserkov, pop, post) are found in all Slavic languages, author believes that they must have been borrowed by Common Slavic.  Not so:  the word karl > kralj + korolj must have been borrowed by Slavs living under Frankish domination and have spread further.  These are Wanderwörter, mots voyageurs.  The question of the vowel in kralj, korolj is also important.  The forms in Slavic point to an etymon korl instead of karl.  This is a vocalic pattern known in Serbian:  grof, grob, and points to Saxon intermediaries.

Kitchen, John A.  Saints’ Lives and the Rhetoric of Gender:  Male and Female in Merovingian Hagiography.  Oxford UP, 1998.  Pims, Roba BX 4682 K58.

Kitzinger, E.  «Byzantium in the Seventh Century.»  Dumbarton Oak Papers.  13 (1959) 271-273.

Kletler, P.  Nordwesteuropas Verkehr:  Handel und Gewerbe im frühen Mittelalter.  Vienna, 1924.  Itinéraire d’Alcuin en 781, p. 9ssq.  HF 397 K4.

Koch, Anton C. F.  «Phasen in der Entstehung von Kaufmannsniederlassungen zwischen Maas und Nordsee in der Karolingerzeit.»  In Landschaft und Geschichte:  Festschrift für Franz Petri zu seinem 65. Geburtstag am 22. Februar 1968.  Ed: George Droege et al.  Bonn:  L. Röhrscheid, 1970.  312-324.  DD 801 R75 L26.

König, Ingemar, ed.  Aus der Zeit Theoderichs des grossen:  Einleitung, Text, Uebersetzung und Kommentar einer anonymen Quellen.  Darmstadt:  WB, 1997.  PA 6205 K65.

Kollautz, Arnulf.  «Nestors Quelle über die Unterdrückung der Duleben durch die Obri (Awaren).»  Welt der Slaven.  27 (1982) 307-320.  PG 1 W4.

Kondic, V, and V. Popovic.  Caricin Grad.  Belgrade, 1979.

Konow, Sten.  «Khotan Studies.»  JRAS 1914:339-353.

Konow, Sten.  «Bemerkungen über die Kharosthi-Handschriften des Dhammapada.»  In Festschrift für Ernst Windisch.  Leipzig:  Harrassowitz, 1914.  85-97.  PK 2 Z5 W56;  offprint LSansk F4187.  Biblio.

Konow, Sten.  «The Dates in Saka Texts from Khotan and Tun-huang.»  Acta Orientalia.  7 (1928) 67-76.  Animal Calendar.  «it seems probable that pvaisa means “hog”» (71).  The earliest possible starting point:  AD 672 (72).  Check spelling = prasa.

Konow, Sten.  «Tokharoi.»  Asia Major.  9 (1935) 462.  DS 511 A65.

Kostomarov, NI, ed.  Pamiatniki starinnoi russkoi literatury.  St. Petersburg:  G. Kuselev-Bezborodko, 1860.  ROBA PG3223 P3;  PIMS PG 3223 P34.

Kotwicz, Wladyslaw.  «Sur les modes d’orientations en Asie centrale.»  Rocznik orientalistyczny.  5 (1927) 68-91.  PJ 9 R6.

Kovacevic, Jovan.  «Avari i zlato.»  Starinar 13-14 (1962) 125-134.

Kovacevic, Jovan.  «Arheoloski prilog preciziranju hronologije slovenskog naseljavanja Balkana.»  Centar za balkanoloska ispitivanja.  Sarajevo, 1969.  57-83.

Kovacevic, Jovan.  Avarski Kaganat.  Belgrade:  SKZ, 1977.  D 149 K68.  In Serbian with essential maps.  P. 44, figure 20:  map of Avar finds from 568 to the 680’s.  P. 84, figure 43:  Avar finds from the 680’s to the beginning of the 9th cnetury.  Vita S. Pancratii, 90.  International biblio on Avars, 214-6.

Kovaleskaja, Vera B.  «Le Caucase et les Alains.»  Dialogues d’Histoire ancienne.  FS Ettero Lepore.  15,2 (1989) 359-372.  Archaeologist, incompetent on the historiography of the Huns, does not even realize the incoherence between the archaeological evidence and the Mongolian hypothesis.

Kovrig, Ilona.  Cemeteries of the Avar period.  3 vols.  Budapest:  Akadémiai Kiadó, 1975.  DB 928 C45.

Kramer, Gustav, ed.  Strabonis Geographia.  3 vols.  Berlin, 1844-52.  Edition includes some scholia.

Kramer, Gustav, ed.  Strabonis Geographia.  2 vols.  Editio minor.  Berlin:  Friedrich Nicolay, 1852.  G 87 S86.  With Index, no notes, no apparatus.

Kreutz, Barbara.  «Shipping in the early middle ages.»  Viator 7 (1976) 79-109.

Kroll, J. H.  «An early Byzantine and a later Turkish hoard from the Athenian Agora.»  Hesperia 42 (1973) 301-311.

Krones, Franz, Ritter von Marchland.  Handbuch der Geschichte Oesterreiches von der ältesten bis neuesten Zeit.  5 vols.  Berlin:  T. Grieben, 1876-79.  DB 35 K57 1876.

Krumbacher.  For value of historians.

Krusch, Bruno.  «La falsification des vies de saints Burgondes.»   In Mélanges Julien Havet.  Date?  reprint Geneva:  Slatkine, 1972.  39-.  AC M365.

Krusch, Bruno.  «Ueber die Gesta Dagoberti.»  Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte.  26 (1886) 163-191.  DD 3 F73.

Krusch, Bruno.  «Die Chronicae des sogenannten Fredegar.»  Neues Archiv.  7 (1882) 249-351;  423-516.  DD 2 G37

Krusch, Bruno, ed.  Passiones vitaeque sanctorum aevi Merovingici.  MGH SRM.  1896;  reprint Hannover:  Hahn, 1977.

Krusch, Bruno, ed.  Chronicarum quae dicuntur Fredegarii Scholastici Libri iv cum continuationibus.  MGH:  SRM, 2.  With lexicon.

Krusch, Bruno, ed.  Gesta Domni Dagoberti Regis Francorum.  MGH:  SRM, 2:399-425.  Berlin, 1896.  «inter Avaros cognomen Chunos et regnum Hispaniae…» §28, page 411.

Krusch, Bruno, ed.  Vita Galli.  SRM 4.

Krusch, Bruno.  «Review of Lot.»  Neues Archiv.  39 (1914) 548-549.

Krusch, Bruno.  «Chronologica regum Francorum stirpis Merowingicae.»  MGH:  SRM.  1920.  7:468-516.

Krusch, Bruno, ed.  Origo Francorum Duplex:  Aethici Istri Cosmographi et codicis Bonnenses Leges Salicae.  In SS Rer Merov.  7,2 (1920) 517-528.  Excerpted from Wuttke 1853.

Krusch, Bruno.  «Fredegarius Scholasticus — Oudarius?  Neue Beiträge zur Fredegar-Kritik.»  Nachr. der Gesellschaft der Wiss. zu Göttingen.  Philol.-Hist. Cl.  (1926) Part 2.

Krusch, Bruno.  «Die handschriftlichen Grundlagen der Historia Francorum Gregors von Tours.»  Historische Vierteljahrschrift.  28 (1934) 15-21.  #per.bib.

Krusch, Bruno.  Studien zur fränkischen Diplomatik.  1937.

Kubitschek, Wilhelm.  «Eine römische Strassenkarte.»  Jahreshefte des österreichischen archäologischen Institutes.  5 (1902) 20-96. per.bib.

Kulakovsky, Iulian Andreievich.  Alany po svedeniiam klassicheskikh i vizantiiskikh pisatilei.  Kiev:  Typographie impériale, 1899;  microfiche edition….  MICR DK K853 mfm.

Kulakovsky, Iulian Andreievich.  Istoriia Vizantii.  Volume 3:  602-717 AD.  Kiev:  Kulzhenko, 1915;  reprint London:  Variorum, 1973.  DF 553 K85.  Rev:  Bréhier  . . . . “Iraklii” 3:28-170.

Kulakovsky, Iulian Andreievich.  «Torki.»  VV 3 (1896) 1-17.  History of Cimmerian Bosphorus in 6th cent.

Kunze, R.  «Strabo.»  RhM 57 (1902) 437;  58 (1903) 126.

Kurze, F.  «Ueber die Annales Fuldenses.»  Neues Archiv.  17 (1892) 83-158.

Kurze, F.  «Ueber die Annales Fuldenses.»  Neues Archiv.  36 (1911) 343-393.

Kurze, F.  «Ueber die Annales Fuldenses.»  Neues Archiv.  37 (1912) 778-785.

Kwanten, Luc.  Imperial Nomads:  A History of Central Asia, 500-1500.  Philadelphia, 1979.  DS 786 K93.

Labuda, Gerhart.  «Vidivarii Jordanesa.»  Slavia Occidentalis.  19 (1948) 63-81.  In Polish, with French summary, page.  D 377 A1 S56.

Labuda, Gerhart.  Pierwsze panstwo slovianskie:  Panstwo Samona.  Poznan, 1949.  DB 557 L36.  Rev:  Chaloupecky, Vaclav.  «Considérations sur Samon, le premier roi des Slaves.»  Byzantinoslavica 11 (1950) 223-239.  CB 231 B9.

Labuda, Gerhart.  «Chronologie des guerres de Byzance contre les Avars et les Slaves à la fin du vie siècle.»  Byzantinoslavica 11 (1950) 167-173.

Lackner, .  «Vita Maximi Conf.»  AnBoll 85 (1967) 285-316.

Lackner, .  «Vita Maximi Conf.»  J Oest Byz.  20 (1971) 63-65.  per.bib.

Lacour-Gayet, Jacques.  Histoire du commerce.  6 vols.  Paris: SPID, 1950-1955.  HF 352 L3.

Ladner, Gerhart B.  «On Roman Attitudes Toward Barbarians in Late Antiquity.»  Viator 7 (1976) 1-26.

Laehr, Gerhard.  Die Anfänge des russischen Reiches.  Historische, Studien, 189.  Berlin:  Ebering, 1930;  reprint Vaduz:  Kraus, 1965.  DK 62 L3.  Rev:  Cross Spec 7 (1932) 138-140.

Lafaurie, Jean.  «Le trésor du Puy (Haute-Loire), contribution à l’étude de la monnaie à la fin du xe siècle.»  Revue numismatique.  … (1952) 59-169.

Lafaurie, Jean.  «Le trésor de Escharen (Pays Bas).»  RN 6:2 (1959/60) 153-210.

Lafaurie, Jean.  «Les routes commerciales indiquées par les trésors et trouvailles monétaires mérovingiennes.»  Moneta.  Settimane 8 (1961) 231-278.  per.bib.

Lafaurie, Jean.  «Deux trésors monétaires carolingiens:  Saumeray (Eure-et-Loir), Rennes (Ille-et-Vilaine).»  Revue numismatique.  7 (1965) 262-305.

Lambrechts, P.  «Le commerce des Syriens en Gaule du Haut Empire à l’époque mérovingienne.»  L’Antiquité classique.  6 (1937) 35-61.

Lambros, Spyridon.  «Leo and Alexander als Mit-Kaiser von Byzanz.»  BZ 4 (1895) 92-98.  Re Slavs.

Landnámabók.  In Thule:  Altnordische Dichtung und Prosa.  Jena, –.  Vol. 23, p. 104.  Bjorn aux Fourrures, parce qu’il avait fait le  voyage de Novgorod, et s’était enrichi (246).  Traduites en allemand.

Lasserre, François.  «Etudes sur les extraits médiévaux de Strabon.»  L’antiquité classique.  28 (1959) 32-79.  70n.

Lavrov, Pëtr Alexeievich.  «Novoe pokhvalnoe slovo Klimenta slovenskago.»  Izvestiia otdeleniia russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  3 (1898) 1086-1109.  P LaSlav A.  With edition of text.  Check Slavon.bib, correct.

Latham, Robert G.  «On the Gepidae.»  Transactions of the Philological Society.  1857:1-9.

Latouche, R.  «La vallée du Rhône a-t-elle été une route d’invasion pendant le haut moyen âge?»  Mélanges Nicolas Jorga.  Paris:  J. Gamber, 1932.  487-497.  D 6 M45.

Latouche, R.  «Nice et Cimiez (v-xi siècles).»  In Mélanges Lot.  331-358.  D 113.5 M45.

Latouche, Robert.  Les grandes invasions et la crise de l’Occident au ve siècle.  Paris, 1946.  D 135 L37.

Latouche, Robert.  Les origines de l’économie occidentale (ive-xie siècle).  Paris:  Albin Michel, 1956.  Notes in c:\adriatic.  «La frappe de la monnaie d’argent [sous Charlemagne] a été rendue possible par une exploitation intensive des mines du Harz et de Bohême, et aussi d’une mine située en Poitou» (170).  Voir Blanchet, Manuel, I:133.  L’argent de Bohême est aussi mentionné dans la Chronique russe, ce qu’ignore Latouche.

Lattin, Harriet Pratt.  «Notes on the fur trade in Medieval Western Europe.»  VJSWG 24 (1931) 49-451.  Furs from Eastern Europe found their way to Spain.  H5 V6.

Latyshev, Vasilii Vasilievich.  «Nadpis vremeni imperatora Iustiniana (Kherson).»  VV 1 (1894) 657-672.  Evpatoria.

Latyshev, Vasilii Vasilievich, ed.  Menologii anonymi byzantini saeculi X quae supersunt.  2 vols.  St. Petersburg, 1911.  Reprint 2 volumes in 1, Leipzig:  Zentralantiquariat, 1970.  VUEM BX 375 M4A3;  PIMS BQT 5242 M4.  II:156-158 for BHG 1410m.  HXp Pancrace.

Latyshev, Vasilii Vasilievich, ed.  «David of Thess.»  Zapiski Odesskogo obshchestva istoriii drevnostei.  30 (1912) 217-235.  MICR DK Z364.

Latyshev, Vasilii Vasilievich.  Neizdannye grecheskie agograficheskie teksty.  Mémoires [Zapiski] de l’Académie impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg.  Sciences historico- philologiques, Série 8, 12,2.  St. Petersburg, 1914.  AS 262 A62752.

Lauer, Philippe, ed.  Les Annales de Flodoard d’après les manuscrits.  Paris:  Picard, 1905.  DC 70 A2 F58.  Hungarians, 10th century.

Laufer, Berthold.  «Three Tokharian bagatelles:  2. Tuman.»  T’oung Pao.  16 (1915) 276-281.  See Boris.bib.  Deals with Hungarian tömény, Russian t’ma.  Contra Gombocz who omitted the Persian connexion.

Laurent, Henri.  «Aspects de la vie économique dans la Gaule franque.  Marchands du palais et marchands d’abbayes.»  Revue historique.  180 (1938) 281-297.  See Ganshof, Lopez.

Laurent, Vitalien.  «Bulletin de sigillographie byzantine.»  Byzantion 5 (1929-30) 571-654;  6 (1931) 771-829.

Laurent, V.  «L’érection de la métropole d’Athènes et le statut ecclésiastique de l’Illyricum au VIIIe siècle.»  [Revue des] Etudes byzantines.  1 (1943) 58-72.  DF 501 R3.

Laurent, V.  «Le thème byzantin de Serbie au xie siècle.»  Revue des études byzantines.  15 (1957) 185-…

Laurent, V., editor.  Le corpus des sceaux de l’Empire byzantin.  Paris, 1963.

Laurent, Vitalien.  «Bulletin de numismatique byzantine.»  REB 9 (1951) 192-251.  More by him in slavonic.bib.

Laux, John Joseph.  Der heilige Bonifatius, Apostel der Deutsche.  Freiburg im Br., 1922.  284-297 for biblio.

Lebuin.  Vita Lebuini Antiqua.  Vol ? of Quellen zur Geschichte des 7. und 8. Jahrhunderts.  Darmstadt, 1982.  D 113 Q44.  See Löwe.

Lechner, Kilian.  «Byzanz und die Barbaren.»  Saeculum 6 (1955) 292-306.  D2 S22.

Le Coq, Albert von.

Le Coultre, Jules.  «La prononciation du latin sous Charlemagne.»  Mélanges Nicole.  313-334.  Re: Alcuin.

Le Gentilhomme, P.  «Le monnayage et la circulation monétaire dans les royaumes barbares en Occident (ve-viiie siècles).»  Revue numismatique.  5th series 7 (1943) 45-112;  8 (1945) 13-64.

Le Guillou, Jean-Yves, ed, tr, cm.  Le Dit de la campagne d’Igor.  Montreal:  Presses de l’Université du Québec, 1977.  PG 3300 S6 F7.

«I reche emu bui Tur Vsevelod» (p 201, note 42, p 30) «turu en vieux-russe désignait deux sortes de taureaux sauvages:  le taureau primitif et l’aurochs.»

34, note F «éclipse du soleil du 1e mai 1185»

35, note M Empire de Polovtses:  immense, au delà du Don, rivage de la mer d’Azov, Crimée.

«Sur la rivière, sur la Kajala, l’obscurité a recouvert la lumière:  les Polovtses se répandirent sur la terre russe comme une portée de guépards et éveillèrent une grande audace chez les Huns» (73) note M, p. 80.

Lemerle, Paul. «Thomas le slave.»  TM 1:255.

Lemerle, Paul.  «Miracula.»  BZ 46 (1953) 349-361.  Dates invasions on the basis of papal correspondence.

Lemerle, Paul.  «Invasions et migrations dans les Balkans.»  Revue Historique.  211 (1954) 265-308.

Lemerle, Paul.  L’émirat d’Aydin, Byzance et l’Occident.  Paris, 1957.  DR 494 L4.  See ema.bib, slavonic.bib.

Lemerle, Paul.  «La chronique improprement dite de Monemvasie.»  REB 21 (1963) 5-49

Lemerle, Paul, ed.  Les plus anciens recueils des miracles de Saint Démétrius et la pénétration des Slaves dans les Balkans.  2 vols.  Paris, 1979-1981.  Miracula Demetri.

Leo the Wise.  Naumachica.  Ed:  Dain.  «The Scythians use smaller, lighter and faster boats, called akitia» (p. 10).  Monoxylos?

Leontius of Constantinople.  Homilies,  See Datema, Sachat.

Le Strange, G.  The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate.  Cambridge, 1905.  Atlas.

Levchenko, Mitrofan Vasilevich.  «Materialy dlia vnutrennei istorii Vostochnoi Rimskoi imperii V-VI vv.»  Levchenko Sbornik 12-94.

Lévi, Sylvain.  «Notes de chronologie indienne.  1:  Çâlivâhana dans Pline (Hist Nat vi,104).»  Journal asiatique.  8th series 16 (1890) 547-551.

Lévi, Sylvain.  «Le “tokharien”.»  JA 222 (1933) 1-30.  Review of Tokharische Grammatik.  See also Pelliot.

Levillain, Léon.  «Les statuts d’Adalhard.»  Le moyen âge.  13 (1900) 333-386.  Text from Corbie AD 822.  Coins for alms.

Levillain, Léon.  Examen critique des chartes mérovingiennes et carolingiennes de l’abbaye de Corbie.  Société de l’Ecole des Chartes, Mémoires et documents, 5.  Paris:  Picard, 1902.  Exotic merchandises, 235ff.  Bound with?

Levillain, Léon.  «Contribution à la chronologie des rois mérovingiens.»  Le Moyen Age.  16 (1903) 1-10.

Levillain, Léob.  «La souscription de chancellerie dans les diplômes mérovingiens.»  Le Moyen Age.  24 (1911) 89-124.

Levillain, Léon.  «Etudes sur l’abbaye de Saint-Denis à l’époque mérovingienne.»  BEC 82 (1921) 5-116.

Levillain, Léon.  «Etudes sur l’abbaye de Saint-Denis à l’époque mérovingienne.»  BEC 86 (1925) 5-99.

Levillain, Léon.  «Etudes sur l’abbaye de Saint-Denis à l’époque mérovingienne.»  BEC 87 (1926) 255:  Zachary.

Levillain, Léon.  «Etudes sur l’abbaye de Saint-Denis à l’époque mérovingienne.»  BEC 87 (1926) 20-97;  245-346.

Levillain, Léon.  Review of Krusch, Fredegarius Scholasticus-Oudarius.  BEC 89 (1928) 89-95.

Levillain, Léon.  «Etudes sur l’abbaye de Saint-Denis à l’époque mérovingienne.»  BEC 91 (1930) 5-65; 264-300.  Voir aussi Tessier, Havet.

Levillain, Léon.  «Wandalbert de Prüm et la date de la mort d’Hilduin de Saint-Denis.»  BEC 108 (1949) 5-35.

Levison, Wilhelm.  «Die Iren und die fränkische Kirche.»  Historische Zeitschrift.  109 (1912) . per.bib.

Levison, Wilhelm.  «Baudot.»  Jahresberichte der deut. Geschichte.  (1928) 174.

Levison, Wilhelm.  Roba LF 2443 A6.

Levison, Wilhelm.  BR 238 L45.

Levison, Wilhelm.  BX 4700 B7 L48 Roba, Pims.

Levison, Wilhelm.  Aus Rheinischer und Fränkischer Frühzeit:  Ausgewählte Aufsätze.  Düsseldorf:  Schwann, 1948.  D 119 L38.

Levison, Wilhelm.  Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen.  Revised edition of Wattenbach.  Weimar, 1952.  2 vols.  1:109-113.  2:161-163.  Roba DD 3 W33;  Pims Z2238 W3.

Levison, Wilhelm, ed.  Vita Bonifatii.  Life by Willibald.  SRM in usum scholarum, 1905.  Page 49 for a mention of Frisian rivers also mentioned in Fredegar, p. 92.  Translation into English, VUEM BX 4700 B7 W5.

Lewald, Ursula.  «Die pastinatio in partem, ein wenig bekannter italienischer Agrarvertrag des Mittelalters.»  VJSWG 39 (1952) 316-346.

Lewald, Ursula.  «Bischof Meinwerk und die domus regia in Paderborn.»  In Landschaft und Geschichte:  Festschrift für Franz Petri zu seinem 65. Geburtstag am 22. Februar 1968.  Ed: George Droege et al.  Bonn:  L. Röhrscheid, 1970.  359-369.  DD 801 R75 L26.

Lewis, Archibald R.  Naval Power and Trade in the Mediterranean, AD 500-1100.  Princeton, 1951.  Roba, Pims D 128 L4.

Lewis, Archibald R.  «Le commerce et la navigation sur les Côtes atlantiques de la Gaule du ve au viiie siècle.»  Le Moyen Age.  (1953) 249-398.

Lewis, Archibald R.  The Northern Seas:  Shipping and Commerce in Northern Europe, A.D. 300-1100.  Princeton, 1958.  HF 397 L4.  See Grierson 1959:130.

Lewis, Archibald R.  «The Dukes in the Regnum Francorum AD 550-751.»  Speculum 51 (1976) 381-410.  Biblio.

Lewis, Archibald R.  «Mediterranean Maritime Commerce.»  La navigazione mediterranea.  Settimane 25 (1978) 481-502.

Leyser, Karl.  «Henry I and the Beginnings of the Saxon Empire.»  English Historical Review.  83 (1968) 1-32.  DA 1…

Likhachov, Dimitrii Sergeievich.  Russkie letopisi i ikh kul’turno-istoricheskoe znachenie.  Moscow and Leningrad, 1947.  DK 38 L55.

Likhachov, Dimitrii Sergeievich.  Poviest’ vremennykh let.  Volume II:  Articles and commentary.  Moscow:  Akademiia Nauk, 1950.  Igor tale, 262-281.  See Likhachov-Romanov.

Likhachov, Dimitrii Sergeievich.  Tekstologiia, na materiale russkoi literatury X-XVII vv.  Moscow and Leningrad, 1962.  PG 2933 L5;  PG 2948 L52.  Ustav:  uncial;  poluustav:  semi-uncial;  skoropisj:  cursive.

Likhachov, Dimitrii Sergeievich, ed, tr.  Slovo o polku Igoreve.  Fifth edition Moscow:  Detskaia literatura, 1972.  High school edition by noted Old Russian philologist, first published in 1950, with many subsequent editions, some revised and expanded (Cf W Sydorenko), with notes and several translations, prose and verse.

Likhachov, Dimitrii Sergeievich.  «Slovo o polku Igoreve»:  istoriko-literaturnyi ocherk.  1976.  Roba PG 3300 S63 L48.

Likhachov, Dimitrii Sergeievich.  «Slovo o polku Igoreve» i kultura ego vremeni.  1978.  PIMS.

Likhachov, Dimitrii Sergeievich, ed.  Istoriia russkoi literatury X-XVII vekov.  Moscow:  Prosveshcheniie, 1980.  PIMS PG 3001 I77.

Likhachov, Dimitrii Sergeievich.  Drevnerusskaia literatura.  1984.  PG 3001 D68.

Likhachov, Dimitrii Sergeievich, and B. A. Romanov.  Poviest’ vremennykh let.  Volume I:  Text and translation.  Moscow:  Akademiia Nauk, 1950.

Likhacev, N.  «Sceaux de l’empereur Léon l’Isaurien.»  Byzantion 11 (1936) 469-482.

Linderski, Jerzy.  «Alfred the Great and the Tradition of Ancient Geography.»  Speculum 39 (1964) 434-439.

Lindsay, W. M.  «Aethicus.»  EHR 50 (1935) 315.

Liudger, Life.  By Altfrid.  PL 99:769-796, page 790.  «Writing on bark» Book III.  Also edited W. Diekamp.  De Vitae Sancti Liudgeri.  Geschichtsquellen des Bisthums Münsters, 4.  Münster:  Theissing, 1881.  BX 4700 L74 V57.

Liutprand of Cremona.  Antapodosis, etc.  See Wright.

Löfstedt, E.  «Some changes of sense in Late and Mediaeval Latin.»  Eranos (1946) 344.  PA 9 E7.  «Pontificum.»

Löhlein, G.  «Die Alpen- und Italienpolitik der Merowinger im. 6. Jahrhundert.»  Erlanger Abhandlungen.  17 (1932) .

Löwe, Heinz.  «Cassiodor.»  Romanische Forschungen.  60 (1948) 420-446.  PC 3 R5.

Löwe, Heinz.  «Die Herkunft der Bajuwaren.»  Zeitschrift für bayerische Landesgeschichte.  15 (1949) 5-67.  DD 801 B3124.

Löwe, Heinz.  «Eine kölner Notiz zum Kaisertum Karls des Grossen.»  Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter.  14 (1949) 7-34.  Hugely important, must be located.  Try DD 901 C745 K62.

Löwe, Heinz.  «Studien zu den Annales Xantenses.»  Deutsches Archiv.  8 (1950) 59-99.

Löwe, Heinz.  «Theoderich der Grosse und Papst Johann I.»  Hist Jahrb.  72 (1953) 83-100.

Löwe, Heinz.  «Liudger als Zeitkritiker.»  Historisches Jahrbuch.  74 (1955) 79-91.  Reprinted Cassiodor.

Löwe, Heinz.  «Entstehungszeit und Quellenwert der Vita Lebuini.»  Deutsches Archiv.  21 (1965) 345-370.

Löwe, Heinz.  «Pirmin, Willibrord und Bonifatius.  Ihre Bedeutung für die Missionsgeschichte ihrer Zeit.»  La conversione al cristianesimo nell’Europa dell’alto medioevo.  Settimane 14 (1967) 217-261;  517-526.  Reprinted 1994.

Löwe, Heinz.  «Aethicus Ister und das alttürkische Runenalphabet.»  Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters.  32 (1976) 1-22.  DD 126 A1 D4.

Löwe, Heinz.  «.»  Kirchengeschichte als Missionsgeschichte.  2:  Die Kirche des früheren Mittelalters.  1 (Munich, 1977).  192-226.  BR 203 K57.

Löwe, Heinz.  Aethicus.  PA 8445 V5 L6.

Löwe, Heinz.  «Ermenrich von Passau, Gegner des Methodius, Versuch eines Persönlichkeitsbildes.»  Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Salzburger Landeskunde.  126 (1986) 221-241.  231.  Reprinted in 1994.  On the subject of Ermenrich, check out his poem on the Danube and mention of Moesi, compare this use of the word to its use in the Vita Clement Ohr.

Löwe, Heinz.  «Vermeintliche gotische Ueberlieferungsresten bei Cassiodor und Jordanes.»  In Ex ipsis rerum documentis.  Festschrift für Harald Zimmermann.  Sigmaringen, 1991.  17-30.

Löwe, Heinz.  Religiosität und Bildung im frühen Mittelalter:  Ausgewählte Aufsätze.  Weimar:  H. Böhlaus, 1994.  327-347.  BR 253 L64.  Reprint of articles.

Lombard, Alfred.  Etudes d’histoire byzantine:  Constantin V, Empereur des Romains (740-775).  Université de Paris, Classe des lettres, 16.  1902.  AS 162 P54.  Review BZ.

Lombard, Maurice.  «Les bases monétaires d’une suprématie économique:  l’or musulman du viie au xie siècle.»  Annales:  ESC.  2 (1947) 156.  Cf. «les richesses du monde musulman ont excité les convoitises chrétiennes et qu’à côté des motifs pieux qui ont provoqué l’élan des Croisades, des préoccupations moins désintéressées ont animé certains de leurs promoteurs.  A ce titre l’or musulman a été un excitant, mais un excitant à retardement.»  (Latouche, Origines, 352).

Longnon, Auguste.  «Dagobert.»  Revue critique d’histoire et de littérature.  (1873).  Z 1007 R45.  From Krusch, Dagobert.

Loparev, Khr.  «Vizantiiskiia zhitiia sviatykh VIII-IX vekov.»  Vizantiiski Vremennik.  17 (1910) 1-224.

Loparev, Khr.  «Vizantiiskiia zhitiia sviatykh VIII-IX vekov.»  Vizantiiski Vremennik.  18 (1911) 1-147.  «Vithiniia:  Olimp.» 67-137.

Loparev, Khr.  «Vizantiiskiia zhitiia sviatykh VIII-IX vekov.»  Vizantiiski Vremennik.  19 (1912) 1-151.  «Makedoniia (Solun, Kosinica).» 85-114.  Peter of Argos.

Loparev, Khr.  «Agiografia VIII-IX vekov kak istochnik vizantiiskoi istorii.»  Vizantiiskoe Obozrenie.  2,1 (1916) 167-176.  Old Class Per.

Lopez, Robert Sabatino.  «Silk Industry in the Byzantine Empire.»  Speculum 20 (1945) 1-42, 9 plates.  Important for the Book of the Prefect.  «From 840 on the Carolingians, unwilling to give up the imperial claims which stood in the way of a permanent agreement with Constantinople, yet eager to keep a window open to the East, treated with Venice instead of treating with the Byzantine Empire.  Thus that little town was put almost on a foot of equality with the great Western monarchy» (36).

Lopez, Robert.  «Le problème des relations anglo-byzantines du septième au dixième siècle.»  Byzantion 18 (1946/48) 139-162.

Lopez, Robert S.  «Du marché temporaire à la colonie permanente.»  Annales:  ESC.  4 (1949) 389-405.

Lopez, R. S.  «Neguciantes.»  Cambridge Economic History.  2:265.  Contra H. Laurent.  HC 240 C3

Lopez, Robert.  «The Trade of Medieval Europe.»  In Trade and Industry in the Middle Ages.  Vol 2 of Cambridge Economic History.  Ed: Michael Postan and E. E. Rich.  Cambridge UP, 1952.  257-354, especially «The First Five Hundred Years.»  257-289.  HC 240 C3.

Lopez, Robert.  «An aristocracy of money in the early middle ages.»  Speculum 28 (1953) 1-43.

Lot, Ferdinand.  «Mélanges carolingiens.»  Le Moyen Age.  21 (1908) 185-209;  233-274.

Lot, Ferdinand.  «Le monastère inconnu pillé par les Normands en 845.»  BEC 70 (1909) 433-445.

Lot, Ferdinand.  Etudes critiques sur l’abbaye de Saint-Wandrille.  BEPHE, 204.  1913.

Lot, Ferdinand.  «Encore la chronique du Pseudo-Frédégaire.»  Revue historique.  115 (1914).

Lot, Ferdinand.  «Le premier capitulaire de Charlemagne.»  Ecole pratique des Hautes-Etudes.  Section philologique et historique.  Annuaire.  1924-1925.  per.bib.

Lot, Ferdinand.  «Du régime de l’Hospitalité.»  Revue belge.  7 (1928) 975-1011.

Lot, Ferdinand.  «A quelle époque a-t-on cessé de parler latin?»  Bulletin Du Cange.  6 (1931) 91-159.

Lot, Ferdinand.  «Le serment de fidélité.»  Revue belge. 12 (1935).

Lot, Ferdinand.  «Les tributs aux Normands.»  BEC 85 (1935?) 58.

Lot, Ferdinand, Ch. Pfister, and François L. Ganshof.  Les destinées de l’empire en Occident.  Paris, 1940.  W.-H recommends this as the best.  Pims D 121 L88.

Louis the Pious, sources:  Thegan, Astronomer, Nithard, Ermoldus Nigellus, St. Bertin, Regino, AnXantenses, Fulda.

Lowe, Clarence G.  A Byzantine Paraphrase of Onasander.  Washington University Studies, 1.  1927.  PA 3516 B99.

Lowmianski, Henryk.  «Critique de la théorie de l’origine normande des états slaves.»  In Studi in onore di Armando Sapori.  2 vols. Milan:  Istituto Cisalpino, 1957.  1:147-172.  HF 353 S86.  Biblio of theories.  Re:  Russia, Poland, Bohemia.  «la source arabe anonyme de la fin du IXe siècle, transmise par ibn Rusta et Gardezi» (164f).  «Les conquérants allemands de la Prusse prirent le nom des peuples qu’ils avaient soumis» (170).

Lund, Niels, ed.  Two Voyagers at the Court of King Alfred:  The Ventures of Ohthere and Wulfstan, Together with the Description of Northern Europe from the Old English Orosius.  Tr:  Christine E.  Fell;  essays by Ole Crumlin-Pedersen, P. H. Sawyer.  York, England:  Sessions, 1984.  ROBA PR 1555 A2.

Lundström, Vilhelm.  «Studien zu spätgriechischen und byzantinischen Chroniken.»  Eranos 1 (1896) 150-168.  Chronicon paschale, Marcellinus.

Lyon, C. S. S. and B. H. I. H. Stewart.  «The Northumbrian Viking coins in the Cuerdale hoard.»  Anglo-Saxon Coins.  FS;  F. M. Stenton.  London:  Methuen, 1961.  96-121  CJ 2490 D6.  When the word civitas turns up on coins of the Carolingian period, this «implies an episcopal see» (112).

Macaigne, R.  L’église mérovingienne et l’Etat pontifical.  Paris, 1929.  BQX 493 M2 Pims.

Macartney, Carlisle Aylmer.  «Petchenegs.»  Slavonic and East European Review.  8 (1929/30) 342-355.  D 377 A1 S59.

Macartney, Carlisle Aylmer.  The Magyars in the Ninth Century.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1930.  DB 927 M3.  Fur trade, see 194, 195, 209, 213.  Arab geographers on Eastern Europe.  ibn-Rusta, early tenth century (5) and Gardezi, AD 1050-52 (6).  Pages 210-212 for Saqlaba:  their economy is based on bees, pigs (sheep?), millet;  they have few horses or weapons;  they have saunas, their taxes are paid in kind, they drink wine made from honey, they have musical instruments;  their life is hard, and they are frequently plundered by their neighbours.  The Rhôs, pages 213-215:  They have a king called Khagan Rus to whom merchants pay a tithe, their lands are swampy with many rivers, they have no horses, but are expert boatmen.  They have a rich economy based on furs, the slave trade (Saqlaba whom they abduct and sell to the Khazars and the Bulkar), they also raid the Saqlaba for grain.  They wear linen and gold.  They have Saqlab mercenaries.  Al-Bekri who died in 1094 (6) no longer carry these notices (210 and 213).

Macartney, Carlisle Aylmer.  «The End of the Huns.»  Byzantinische und Neugriechische Jahrbücher.  10 (1933) 106-114. DF 501 B83.

Macartney, Carlisle Aylmer.  «On the Greek Sources for the History of the Turks in the Sixth Century.»  BSOAS 11 (1944) 266-275.

Macartney, Carlisle Aylmer.  Studies on early Hungarian and Pontic History.  Aldershot:  Variorum, 1999.  DB 927 M33.  Includes biographic sketch.

Macler, Frédéric, ed.  Histoire d’Héraclius par l’évêque Sebeos.  Paris:  Leroux, 1904.  La Armen S443 h OLD CLASS, missing.

Macler, Frédéric, ed.  Histoire d’Héraclius par l’évêque Sebeos.  Paris:  Leroux, 1904;  Microform, 1996.  MICR DF 574 S4.

Macler, Frédéric.  «Pseudo-Sebeos, texte arménien traduit et annoté.»  Journal asiatique.  10th series 6 (1905) 121-155.  Continues Agathangelos.  Starts with Sassanids, includes concordance of Persian and Roman rulers.  Kushans, 131.

Magnus, Leonard A., tr.  The Tale of the Armament of Igor (AD 1185):  A Russian Historical Epic.  Oxford UP, 1915.  Map.  PG 3300 S6 1915.

Mahé, Jean-Pierre.  «Critical Remarks on the Newly Edited Excerpts from Sebeos.»  In Medieval Armenian Culture.  Ed: . . .  University of Pennsylvania Armenian Texts and Studies, 6.  Chico, CA: 1983.  218-239.  DS 171 D7.

Maksimovic, Ljubomir.  «Chronological Notes about Slavonic Raids into Byzantine Territories at the End of the Seventies and the Beginning of the Eighties of the 6th Century.»  Zbornik Radova Vizantoloskog Instituta.  Mélanges Georges Ostrogorsky.  8,2 (1964) 263-271.  In Serbian with English summary.

Malalas, John.  Chronicon.  Bonn Corpus, 1831, ed Dindorf.  See Jeffreys-Scott, Stauffenberg.

Malchus, 6th cent.  See Blockley.

Malkhasiants, S. S.  «Istorik Sebeos.»  VV NS 2 (1949) 94-105.

Malnory, A.  Saint Césaire, évêque d’Arles 503.  Paris, 1894.

Malone, Kemp.  «King Alfred’s North.  A Study in Medieval Geography.»  Speculum 5 (1930) 139-167.

Malone, Kemp.  «Ubbo Fresicus at Brávellir.»  Classica et Medievalia.  8 (1946) 115-120.  PA 9 C5.

Mangalam, S. J.  Kharosthi Script.  Delhi:  Eastern Books Linkers, 1990.  PK 119 M36.  Biblio.

Mango, Cyril.  «The Two Lives of St. Ioannikios and the Bulgarians.»  Harvard Ukrainian Studies.  Okeanos:  FS Ihor Sevcenko.  Ed:  Cyril Mango and Omeljan Pritsak.  7 (1983) 393-404.  DK 508 A2 H34.  Chronology.

Mango, Cyril.  Nikephoros Patriarch of Constantinople:  Short History.  Washington, DC:  Dumbarton Oaks, 1990.  DF 571 N513.

Mango, Cyril, and Roger Scott, trs.  The Chronicles of Theophanes Confessor.  CHSB 46.  Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.  DF 581 T4813.

Mann, J.  «The Struggle Between the Omeyad Caliphate and Byzantium.»  Journal of the American Oriental Society.  47 (1927) 364.

Mansi, Giovanni Domenico.  Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio.  53 vols.  Paris, 1903.  PIMS BQV 11 M2 folio;  Roba HEccl M Folio.

Manitius, Max.  Die Annales Sithienses, Laurissenses Minores et Einhardi Fuldenses.  Dresde, 1881.

Manutius, Aldus, ed.  Strabonis geographica.  Venice, 1516.  Editio princeps.

Markoff, A. de.  Catalogue de monnaies arsacides, subarsacides, sasanides, dabweihides, ainsi que des pièces frappées par les Ispehbeds du Tabouristan.  St. Petersburg, 1889.  Roba (Pims?) CJ 691 L4 and CJ 3404 L45.

Marquart, Josef [Markwart].  See also Bang, Boris.bib;  Orosius, Asia.bib.

Marquart, Josef.  «Die Assyriaka des Ktesias.»  Philologus, Supplement.  6 (1891/93) 501-657.

Marquart, Josef.  «Untersuchung zur Geschichte von Eran, I.»  Philologus.  8 (1895) 489-527.

Marquart, Josef.  «Untersuchung zur Geschichte von Eran, I.»  Philologus.  9 (1896) 23-244.

Marquart, Josef.  «Historische Glosse zu den alttürkischen Inschriften.»  Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes.  12 (1898) 157-200.  PJ 5 W6.  This for Boris, anything on Chyonitai?

Marquart, Josef.  Die Chronologie der alttürkischen Inschriften.  With preface and appendix by Willy Bang.  Leipzig:  Dieterich, 1898.  Fürstenliste, 72-98.  Anything on Chyonitai?

Marquart, Josef.  «Chronologische Untersuchungen.»  Philologus, Supplement.  7 (1899) 635-720.  Berosus, Hyksos, etc.  Index.

Marquart, Josef.  Eransahr nach der Geographie des ps. Moses Xorenac’i:  Mit historisch-kritischem Kommentar und historischen und topographischen Exkursen.  Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Philos-historische Klasse, NS 3,2.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1901.  AS 182 G812.  Rev:  BZ 16 (1907) 319.

Marquart, Josef.  Geographie von Ps-Moses.  Abh Kgl Ges Wiss, Göttingen, 3,2.  1901.  Rev:  BZ 16 (1907) 319.  per.bib.

Marquart, Josef.  Osteuropäische und ostasiatische Streifzüge:  ethnologische und historisch-topographische Studien zur Geschichte des 9. und 10. Jahrhunderts (ca. 840-940).  Leipzig:  Dieterich, 1903;  reprint Hildesheim:  Georg Olms, 1961.  D 123 M35, both original and reprint at Robarts.

Marquart, Josef.  «Untersuchung zur Geschichte von Eran, II.»  Philologus, Supplement.  10 (1907) 1-258.  Toponyms.

Marquart, Josef.  «Die Nichtslawischen (Altbulgarischen) Ausdrücke in der Bulgarischen Fürstenliste.»  T’oung Pao.  NS 11 (1910) 649-680.  Check journal for biblio of Marquart.

Marquart, Josef.  «Ueber das Volkstum der Komanen.»  Chapter 2 of Osttürkische Dialektstudien.  By Willy Bang and Josef Marquart.  Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Philos-historische Klasse, NS 13,1.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1914.  25-238.  AS 182 G812.

Marquart, Josef [Markwart].  Südarmenien und die Tigrisquellen nach griechischen und arabischen Geographen.  Studien zur armenischen Geschichte, 4.  Vienna:  Mechitharisten, 1930.  DS 199 S6 M3.

Marquart, Josef [Markwart].  A Catalogue of the Provincial Capitals of Eranshahr.  Pahlavi text version with commentary.  Ed:  G. Messina.  Analecta Orientalia, 3.  Rome:  Pontificio istituto biblico, 1931.  PK 6198 M3.

Marquart, Josef [Markwart].  Wehrot und Arang:  Untersuchungen zur mythischen und geschichtlichen Landeskunde von Ostiran.  Posthumous edition by Hans Heinrich Schaeder.  Leiden:  Brill, 1938.  G 107 M37.  Biblio.

Marquart, Josef.  «Studien zum Widsit.»  In FS V Thomsen.  Widsit = Lithuania;  Oueltai (in Ptolemy).  Check Wiltzi mentioned in Frankish sources.

Marquart, Josef.  «La province de Parskahayk.»  Revue des études arméniennes.  3 (1966) 252-314.  DS 161 R3.

Martin of Utrecht.  II vita S. Bonifacii auctore presbytero S. Martini Ultrajecti.  AASS June 1.  Page 471 for Frisian travel, 1,9.  BX 4700 B7 L48.  Jaffé, vol. 3.

Martin, P. E.  Etudes critiques sur la Suisse à l’époque mérovingienne (534-715).  Paris-Geneva, 1910.

Masai, François.  «Isaurien.»  Byzantion 33 (1963) 191-221.

Maspéro, Henri.  La Chine antique.  1955;  Paris:  PUF, 1985.  DS 735 A2 M3.

Matthew of Edessa.  Chronicle.  Armenian chronicler of the Crusades.  See Chabot, Dostourian, Dulaurier.

Mayer, Ernst.  «Die dalmatisch-istrische Munizipalverfassung.»  Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte: Germanistische Abteilung.  24 (1903) 211-308.  K S2673 Z45. Hopeless chronology.

Mayer, Leo A.  Bibliography of Muslim Numismatics.  Oriental Translation Fund, 35.  London:  Royal Asiatic Society, 1939.  PJ 408 O6.

Mayer, Th.  «Fredegars Bericht über die Slawen.»  Mitteilungen des Instituts für Oesterreichischen Geschichtsforschung.  Ergbd 2 (1929) 114-120.  per.bib.

Maximus Confessor.  For events of the seventh century.  See Izbornik.bib.

McCrindle, John Watson, tr.  The Commerce and navigation of the Erythraean Sea, being a translation of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea by an anonymous writer and of Arrian’s account of the voyage of Nearkhos from the mouth of the Indus to the head of the Persian Gulf.  London:  Trübner, 1879.  HF 386 M3.

McGeer, Eric.  «Tradition and Reality in the Taktika of Nikephoros Ouranos.»  DOP 45 (1991) 129-140.

Meinwerk.  Vita Meinwerci.  Tenckhoff.

Meyer, Wilhelm.  Review of Speyer, «Die Spaltung des Patriarchats Aquileia.»  1898.

Melioransky, Platon.  «Turestskye elementy v iazyke Slova o polku Igoreve.»  Izvestiia otdeleniia russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  7 (1902) …..  P LaSlav A.

Menander Protector.  History.  Bonn the original edition?  See Blockley.  The Ouar and the Khoun, known collectively as the Ouarkhônitai, IV, p. 246 (original edition).  Routes and travel, 125ff.  Avars, 93ff;  111ff.  Embassy from the Turks on behalf of Sogdian traders (Maniakh), 111.  Turxanthus, the Turkish leader, refers to the Uarkhonitae as his runaway slaves, 173f.  Ephthalites live in cities, 115.  Baian & Sigisbert, 127.  Alboin and Baian, 129.  Antae plundered by Avars, 51.  Avars and Slavs, 193f, 219ff.  Avars and Kutrigur Huns, 137;  Baian master of Kutrigurs and Utigurs, 139.  Baian against Sirmium, passim.  Suania, frag 6,1, lines 240ff;  310ff;  450ff.  Caucasian people, occupying a territory bordering on Lazica, disputed between Maurice and Khosrow;  occasionally subject to the Lazians.  Treaty to deny the Huns and the Alans access through the Caspian Gates.  Cf Ann St Bertin.

Menasce, Jean de.  «L’origine mazdéenne d’un mythe manichéen.»  RHR 174 (1968) 161-167.  The inscription of Janoshida may be related to the cult of Mani as Paraclete.

Menges, Karl-Heinz.  «Etymological notes on some Päcänäg names.»  Byzantion 17 (1944/45) 256-280.  Discusses Sarkel (258-9), recognizes possibility that this name may be Finno-Ugrian but does not continue with the obvious corollary:  Finno-Ugrian place names in the Pontic steppe point to early Finno-Ugrian settlements.  Menges also confuses Tork and Türk.

Menges Karl Heinz.  «The Oriental Elements in the Vocabulary of the Oldest Russian Epos, the Igor Tale.»  Word, suppl.  7 (1951).  P 1 W65.

Menges Karl Heinz.  «A Note on the Compound Titles in the Proto-Bulgarian Inscriptions.»  Byzantion 28 (1958) 441-453.

Menges Karl Heinz.  «Influences altaïques en slave.»  Bulletin de l’académie royale de Belgique, classe des lettres.  44 (1958) 518-541.  AS 242 B312.

Menges, Karl Heinz.  «Altaische Kulturwörter im Slavischen.»  UAJ Gabain Fs.  33 (1961) 107-116.  Re:  Sokacii «cook’s».  Author shows that this word could be Turkish in origin;  it was found in Danubian Slavic, in Hungarian, and Rumanian.  It has mostly died out in Slavic but it is attested as early as the Codex Suprasliensis.  It could be Avar.

Mentz, Arthur.  «Die Tironischen Notes.»  Archiv für Urkunderforschung.  17 (1942) 261-263.

Mercati, G.  «A Study of the Paschal Chronicle.»  Journal of Theological Studies.  7 (1905/06) 397.  VUEM.

Metcalf, David M.  «The Currency of Byzantine coins in Syrmia and Slavonia.»  Hamburger Beiträge zur Numismatik.  14 (1960) 429-444.  Mursa (Osijek) belongs to the same economic province as Sirmium.

Metcalf, D. M.  «The Slavonic threat to Greece circa 580:  some evidence from Athens.»  Hesperia 31 (1962) 134-157.

Metcalf, D. M.  «The Aegean coastlands under threat:  Some coins and coin hoards from the reign of Heraclius.»  Annual of the British school at Athens.  57 (1962) 14-23.

Metcalf, D. M.  «The Mint of Thessalonica in the Early Byzantine Period.»  Illyricum 111-129.

Metcalf, David M., and J. M. Merrick.  «Studies in the composition of early mediaeval coins.»  Numismatic Chronicle.  7:7 (1967) 167-181.

Metcalf, D. M.  Coinage in South-Eastern Europe (820-1396).  London:  Royal Numismatic Society, 1979.  CJ 2464 M43.  Pages 204-233 for the problems of interpretations faced by numismatists who try to account for the lack of coinage in Byzantine Serbia.

Metcalf, D. M.  «Avar and Slav Invasions into the Balkans peninsula (c. 575-625):  The Nature of the Numismatic Evidence.»  Journal of Roman Archaeology.  4 (1991) 140-148.  DG 11 J68.

Michael Syrus, Patriarch of Antioch, 1126-1191.  See Brooks, Dulaurier, Langlois, Nau.  For the Avar conquest of the Slavs.

Mickwitz, Gunnar.  «Le problème de l’or dans l’antiquité.»  Annales 6 (1934) 235-242.

Mickwitz, Gunnar.  «Byzance et l’économie de l’Occident médiéval.»  Annales 8 (1936) 21-28.

Mikkola, Joos J.  «Die Chronologie der türkischen Donaubulgaren.»  JSFO 30/33 (1913/18).

Miles, George C.  «Islamic and Sasanian Numismatics:  Retrospect and Prospect.»  Congrès international de numismatique.  Paris:  SFN, 1953.  Volume 1:129-144.  CJ 27 I6.

Milin, Milena.  «Epirus Nova sive Dalmatorum.»  Ziva antika.  47 (1997) 139-143.  RE:  Inscriptions.

Miller, William.  «Valona.»  JHS 37 (1917) 184-194.

Miller, William.  «The Rise and Fall of the First Bulgarian Empire (679-1018).»  Chap 8 of The Eastern Roman Empire (717-1453).  Vol 4 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  Cambridge UP, 1923.  230-245.  D 117 C3.

Minorsky, Vladimir Fëdorovich.  La domination des Dailamites.  Paris:  Leroux, 1932.  DS 288 M55.

Minorsky, Vladimir Fëdorovich.  Studies in Caucasian History.  London:  Taylor, 1953.  DS 186 M5.  Babak.

Miracula Demetri.  PG 116.  See Lemerle.

Mirchandani, B. D.  «Sind and the White Huns and identification of Hiuen Tsiang’s Sin-Tu Kingdom.»  Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay.  39/40 (1964/65) 61-93.  per.bib.

Mirkovic, Miroslava.  «Sirmium — Its History from the I Century A.D. to 582 A.D.»  In Sirmium:  Archaeological Investigations in Syrmian Pannonia.  Ed:  . . .  Belgrade:  Arheoloski Institut, 1971.  I:5-90.

Mirkovic, Miroslava.  «Fall of Sirmium under the Avars.»  Sirmium — Its History from the I century A. D. to 582 A. D.  In:  Archaeological Investigations in Syrmian Pannonia.  Belgrade, 1971.  DR 396 M57 S57.

Mocsy, Andras.  Pannonia and Upper Moesia.  London, 1974.  DG 59 D43.

Mohr, Walter.  «Die begriffliche Absonderung des Ostfränkischen Gebietes in Westfränkischen Quellen des 9. und 10. Jahrhunderts.»  Bulletin Du Cange.  24 (1954) 19-41.  PA 2801 B8.

Mohr, Walter.  «Bemerkungen zur Divisio Regnorum des Jahres 806.»  Bulletin Du Cange.  24 (1954) 131-157;  29 (1959) 91-109.

Mohr, Walter.  «Von der ‘Francia Orientalis’ zum ‘Regnum Teutonium.’»  Bulletin Du Cange.  27 (1957) 27-49.

Mohr, Walter.  Die Entwicklung des flämischen Eigenstandigkeitsgefühls bis zum Beginn des 18. Jahrhunderts.  Saarbrücken:  Die Mitte, 1977.  DH 801 F462 M6.

Mohr, Walter.  Studien zur Klosterreform des Grafen Arnulf I von Flander.  Leuven University Press, 1992.  Roba and Pims BX 2610 M63.

Mommsen, Theodor.  Die Chronik des Cassiodorus.  Pamph LL C.

Mommsen, Theodor.  «Zum Geographen von Ravenna.»  Berichte der königlich sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften.  1851:80-117.  AS 182 S214.

Mommsen, Theodor.  «Die Chronik des Cassiodorus vom Jahre 519 nach den Handschriften herausg.»  Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen.  8 (1861) 547-696.  AS 182 S213.

Mommsen, Theodor.  Gesammelte Schriften.  7 vols.  Berlin, 1905-1909.  Roba DG 15 M64.  HX contents.  Vol 7 for Ammianus, Ennodius, Eutropius, Vegetius, etc.

Monod, Gabriel.  CR:  Annales de Saint-Bertin by Dehaisnes.  Revue critique d’histoire et de littérature.  6 (1872) 242-254.  Z 1007 R45.  «L’oeuvre d’Eusèbe est une Chronique, non des Annales.  Le nom d’Annales s’applique presque exclusivement aux récits historiques contemporains où les événements sont notés année après année.  L’oeuvre d’Eusèbe a d’ailleurs en vue la chronologie plus encore que l’histoire.» (245n2).

Monod, Gabriel.  Etudes critiques sur les sources de l’histoire mérovingienne.  BEPHE, 8.  1872.

Monod, Gabriel.  Sur un texte de la compilation dite de Frédégaire relatif à l’établissement des Burgundions dans l’empire romain.  BEPHE, 35.  1878.

Monod, Gabriel.  «Du lieu d’origine de la Chronique dite de Frédégaire.»  Jahrbuch für schweiz. Geschichte/ Mémoires de la Société d’histoire suisse.  3 (1878) .

Monod, Gabriel.  La compilation dite de Frédégaire.  BEPHE, 63.  1885.  AS 162 B6.

Monod, Gabriel.  «Les aventures de Sichaire.»  RH 31 (1886) 259-290.  Gregory of Tours.

Monneret de Villard, Ugo.  «L’organiziatione industriale nell’Itallia Langobarda durante l’altomedioevo.»  Archivio storico Lombardo.  46 (1919) 1-83. DG 651 A7.  Diocletian to Charlemagne.

Moorhead, John.  Theoderic in Italy.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1992.

Mor, Carlo Guido.  «Lo Stato longobardo nell VII secolo.»   Caratteri del secolo VII in Occidente.  Settimane 5 (1954) 271-307.  per.bib.

Moravcsik, Guyla and Romilly J. H. Jenkins.  Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio.  2nd edition.  Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 1967.  Commentary.  London: The Athlone Press, 1962.

Mordtmann, Andreas David (1811-1879).  «Erklärung der Münzen mit Pehlvi-Legenden.»  ZDMG 8 (1854) 1-147;  12 (1858) 1-56.  Abteilung I:  Sassaniden.

Mordtmann, Jr, J. H.  «Miscellen über himjarischen Altertumskunde.»  ZDMG 31 (1877) 61-90.  Red Sea Periplus.

Moreau, Edouard de.  «Saint Amand.»  RHE.  22 (1926) 27-67.  BX 940 R5.  Vita written between 725 and 750.

Moreau, Edouard de, ed.  Saint Amand, apôtre de la Belgique et du Nord de la France.  Louvain:  Museum Lessianum (Section missiologique, 7), 1927.  Review F. Vercauteren.  Le MA. 28 (1927) 323-330.

Moreau, Edouard de.  «La Vita Amandi prima et les fondations monastiques de saint Amand.»  Analecta Bollandiana.  67 (1949) 447-464.

Morgenstierne, Georg.  New Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto.  Wiesbaden:  Reichert, 2003.  PK 6783 M673.

Morrison, Karl F.  «The Gold Medallions of Louis the Pious and Lothaire I and the Synod of Paris (825).»  Speculum 36 (1961) 592-599.  Re:  Munus divinum.

Morrison, Karl F.  «Numismatics and Carolingian Trade:  A Critique of the Evidence.»  Speculum 38 (1963) 403-432.  Offprint:  CJ 2682 M6.  «From the Carolingian era, approximately 8,000 individual coins are presently known, and approximately 150 coin finds are on record» (406).  This «points out the absence of any numismatic evidence of extensive commerce between the Franks and the Arabs» (407).  For description of coin finds and sources, 410f.  For sources on the value of the carolingian pound after the reform of 790, 414f and note 41.  For coins found in Scandinavia, Russia, etc. 427f, n72.

Moses, [Ps], Chorenaci [Moïse de Khoren].  Kovrat of Bulgaria, 17:25.

Moses, Larry W.  «A Theoretical Approach to the Process of Inner Asia Confederation.»  Etudes mongoles.  5 (1974) 113-122.  Not here.

Moss, H. S.  «The economic consequences of the Barbarian invasions.»  Economic History Review.  7 (1936/37) 209-217.

Muchar, A. Albert.  Beyträge zur Geschichte des österreichischen Kaiserstaates.  2 vols. Grätz:  C. Penz, 1825-26.  DG 59 N 7 M83.

Mühlbacher, Engelbert.  On the patriarchate of Aquileia, Documents.  DG G71 M84 Reel 1:7 mfm Pims.

Müller, Ludolf.  Des Metropoliten Hilarion Lobrede auf Vladimir den heiligen und Glaubensbekenntnis.  Wiesbaden, 1962.  Pims BQX 5787 I48.

Müller, Ludolf.  «Neue Untersuchungen zum Text der Werke des Metropoliten Ilarion.»  Russia Mediaevalis.  2 (Munich, 1975) 14.

Müller, Ludolf.  «Vzaimootnosheniia mezhdu opublikovannymi spiskami Slova o zakone i blagodaty i Pokhvaly Vladimiry Mitropolita Ilariona.»  In Kul’turnoe nasledie Drevnei Rusi.  (Istoki.  Stanovlenie.  Tradicii).  Moscow, 1976.  372-379.

Muller, H. F.  «A Chronology of Vulgar Latin.»  Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie.  Beiheft 78.  1929.

Munro, Dana C., ed, tr.  Jonas of Bobbio:  Life of St. Columban.  Philadelphia, 1895.

Muratori, L. A., general editor.  Rerum Italicarum Scriptores.  25 vols.  Milan:  1723-1751.

Musset, L.  Les peuples scandinaves au moyen âge.  Paris:  1950.  Pims DL 46 M85.  Robarts in recat, author spelt Mussett.

Narain, Awadh K.  The Indo-Greeks.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1957.  DS 451 N37.  Coins, geography esp Afghanistan.

Narain, Awadh K.  From Alexander to Kaniska.  Varanasi:  Banaras Hindu University, 1967.  DS 451 N36.  Articles, including Kharosthi, Kanishka, chronology, very early.

Nau, François Nicolas.  «Chronique de Michel le Syrien.»  Journal of the S As.  9th series 8 ( . . . ) 523.

Nau, François Nicolas.  «Histoire de Dioscore, Patriarche d’Alexandrie, écrite par son disciple Théopiste.»  JA 10th series 1 (1903) 1-108;  241-310.  Marcian, Pulcheria.  ema.bib also.

Nelson, Janet L.  «The Annals of St. Bertin.»  In Charles the Bald:  Court and Kingdom.  Ed:  Margaret T. Gibson and Janet L. Nelson.  Second revised edition.  Aldershot:  Variorum, 1990.  23-40.  DC 76 C48.  «the AB annalist simply takes up the story in 830 where the ARF left off in 829» (24).

Nelson, Janet L., tr.  The Annals of St. Bertin.  Manchester UP, 1991.  DC 70 A2 A713.

Nestor, Chronicle attributed to.  Poviest’ vremennykh let.  See Cross, Likhachov-Romanov.  Fur trade with CPL A.O. 6477, ch. 34;  A.O. 6453, ch. 27.

Neugebauer, Otto.  Khuwarizmi.  . . . QB I213 PASC.

Neumann, Carl.  «Ueber zwei unerklärte Völkernamen in der byzantinische Armee.»  BZ 3 (1894) 374-385.  Toulmatzoi.

Newell, Edward T.  The Byzantine Hoard of Lagbe.  Numismatic Notes and Monographs, 105.  1945.  CJ 3499 C46.  Iconoclast period.

Nicephorus of Constantinople [ca 758-828].  History.  See Alexander, Mango.  Citation in text of Boris article.  He wrote barely a century or two after the events but his ethnography of the region cannot be reconciled with Menander, Ammianus, etc, nor is it acceptable when one factors in more recent forms of scholarship, such as toponyms.

Nicephorus Uranos.  Tactica.  Ed:  Dain.  The Rhôsoi use akatía, 86-87.

Nicetas.  Vita Ignatii.  PG 105:525.

Nicetas of Byzantium.  See Boor.  For date and description of the Rhos in the days of Michael III.  check out BP 172 N53.

Nicholas I Mysticus, Patriarch of Constantinople.  See Jenkins-Westerink.

Nicole, Jules, ed.  Leontos tou Sophou to eparkhikon biblion:  Le livre du préfet ou l’édit de l’Empereur Léon le Sage sur les corporations de Constantinople.  1893;  reprint London:  Variorum, 1970.  Pims K B9984.  For newer dating, accepted by Boak, see Stöckle.

Nielsen, .  «Rose des vents.»  Classica et Mediaevalia.  7 (1945) 1-113

Nikolskaia, A. B.  Rev:  Hoffmann.  Izvestiia otdeleniia russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  30 (1925) 455-470.

Noll, R.  Das Leben des hl. Severin, lateinisch und deutsch mit Kommentar, Einleitung und Anhang:  Denkmäler des frühen Christentums in Oesterreich.  Linz, 1947.

Noe, S.  The Coinage of Metapontium.  1931. CJ 1641 C3 C6.

Noonan, T. S.  «When, How and Why Dirhams First Reached European Russia:  A Numismatic Critique of the Pirenne Theory.»  Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique.  21 (1980) 401-469.  DK 1 C3.  Transcaucasia in Eastern trade in the pre-Mongol period.

Norberg, Dag, ed.  Gregorii I papae registrum epistolarum.  2 vols.  CCSL, 140-140a.  Turnhout, 1982.

Obolensky, Dimitri.  «Byzantium, Kiev and Moscow:  A Study in Ecclesiastical Relations.»  DOP 11 (1957).

Obolensky, Dmitri.  «The Empire and its Northern Neighbours, 565-1018.»  In Byzantium and its Neighbours.  Part I of The Byzantine Empire.  Vol 4 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  Cambridge UP, 1966.  473-518.  D 117 C3 1966.

O’ Croinin, Daibhi.  «New Heresy for old:  Pelagianism in Ireland and the papal Letter of 640.»  Speculum 60 (1985) 505-516.

Ohnsorge, W.  Abendland und Byzanz:  Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Geschichte der byzantinisch-abendländischen Beziehungen und des Kaisertums.  Darmstadt, 1958.

Olajos, Thérèse.  «La chronologie de la dynastie avare de Baïan.»  REB 34 (1976) 151-158.

Orosius, Paulus, Old English Tr.  See Bately, Sweet.

Ostrogorsky, George.  «Die Chronologie des Theophanes im 7. und 8. Jahrhundert.»  Byzantinisch-neugriechische Jahrbücher.  7 (1928/29) 1-56.  # per.bib.

Ostrogorsky, George.  «Die byzantinische Staatenhierarchie.»  Seminarium Kondakovianum.  8 (1936) 41-61.  Reprinted 1973.

Ostrogorsky, George.  «Oleg… 907.»  Seminarium Kondakovianum.  11 (1939) 53-54.  Roba N 5950 I56;  PIMS N17 S4 Mfe Box 1-2.

Ostrogorsky, George.  «Agrarian Conditions in the Byzantine Empire in the Middle Ages.»  Cambridge Economic History of Europe.  1 (1942) 194-223;  579-583.

Ostrogorsky, George.  «The Byzantine Emperor and the Hierarchical World Order.»  The Slavonic and East European Review.  35 (1956) 1-14.

Ostrogorsky, George.  Quelques problèmes d’histoire de la paysannerie byzantine.  Brussels, 1956.

Ostrogorsky, George.  «Die Entstehung der Themenverfassung.  Korreferat zu A. Pertusi, la formation des thèmes byzantins.»  Akten des XI. Intern. Byzantinisten-Kongresses.  Munich, 1958. 1-8.  Reprinted 1973.

Ostrogorsky, George.  «The Byzantine Empire in the World of the Seventh Century.»  DOP 13 (1959) 1-21.  Reprinted 1973.

Ostrogorsky, George.  «Byzantine Cities in the Early Middle Ages.»  DOP 13 (1959) 47-66.  Reprinted 1973.

Ostrogorsky, George.  «La commune rurale byzantine.»  Byzantion 32 (1962) 139-166.  Reprinted 1973.

Ostrogorsky, George.  History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Blackwell, 1968.

Ostrogorsky, Georg.  Zur byzantinischen Geschichte:  Ausgewählte kleine Schriften.  Darmstadt:  Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1973.  DF 552 082.

Panchenko, B. A.  «The Slavonic monument in Bithynia of the seventh century.»  Izvestiia russkogo Arkheologicheskago Instituta v Konstantinopol’e.  8/1-2 (1902) 15.  Pims DR 20 A3 Mfc.

Parker, Edward Harper.  «The Origins of the Turks.»  EHR 11 (1896) 431-445.  Contains useful material, especially for the Avars, but not systematic.  «the recently discovered Turkish inscriptions of over a thousand years ago, deciphered by Professor Dr. Vilhelm Thomsen, of Copenhagen, and the Russian academician Dr. Radloff, of St. Petersburg, give as the national name the four letters T Ü R K, repeated over and over again, and in such a way as in meaning to correspond indubitably with the mutilated Chinese form t’u-küe, tut-kut, or tolkol, as they sound in different provinces to the ear of today» (433).

Parker, Edward Harper.  «China, the Avars, and the Franks.»  Asiatic Quarterly Review.  13 (1902) 346-360.  DS 1 A7.  Review of Gibbon.

Parker, Edward Harper.  «The Ephthalite Turks.»  Asiatic Quarterly Review. 14 (1902) 131-159.  DS 1 A7 Red Apex, Reprint per.bib.  Rev:  Pelliot.

Parker, Edward Harper.  A Thousand Years of the Tartars.  1895;  2nd revised edition London:  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1924.  DS 25 P37 1924.  See Orosius for notes.

Parthey, Gustav, ed.  Hieroclis Synecdemos et Notitiae Graecae Episcopatuum.  1866;  reprint.  Amsterdam:  Hakkert, 1967.  PA 4013 H4.

Pashuto, Vladimir Terentievich.  Necrology, see Vodoff.

Pashuto, Vladimir Terentievich.  «Cherty politicheskogo stroia Drevnei Rusi.»  In Drevnerusskoe gosudarstvo i ego mezhdunarodnoe znachenie.  Eds: V. T. Pashuto and Lev Vladimirovich Cherepnin.  Moscow:  Nauka, 1965.  21-24.  DK 71 A7.

Pashuto, Vladimir Terentievich.  «Vneshniaia torgovlia drevnei Rusi (do serediny XIII v.»  Istoriia SSSR.  3 (1967) 81-108.

Paul Deacon.  Pauli Historia romana.  Ed. H. Droysen.  Munich:  MGH, 1978.  DG 208 P3.

Paul Deacon.  Pauli Historia lombarda.  MGH:  SRL Bethmann-Waitz, Peters-Foulke.  See also DG 511 P38.  HL 2.26, the Lombards included also Gepids, Bulgars, Sarmatians, Pannonians, Suevi, Noricans.

Payne Smith, Robert, tr.  The Third Part of the Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus.  Oxford UP, 1860.  PIMS BQ 3969 O34A;  Roba BR 160 J6 P39.  Avars, Slavs, Lombards.

Peeters, Paul.  «Prise de Jérusalem.»  An Boll.  31 (1912) 301-308.

Peeters, Paul.  «Prise de Jérusalem.»  An Boll. 38 (1920) 137-147.

Peeters, Paul.  «La Prise de Jérusalem par les Perses:  texte arabe.»  Mélanges de l’Université de Saint-Joseph.  9 (1923) ??? PJ 3001 B54.  Cf Baynes, Grierson.

Pelliot, Paul.  FS:  DS 721 F72.  Where?  check PL 1064 P4 S6.

Pelliot, Paul.  For biblio of articles, check out TP, JA.

Pelliot, Paul.  «Le Fou-Nan.»  BEFEO 3 (1903) 57-112.

Pelliot, Paul.  Review of Parker on the Hephthalites.  Bulletin de l’Ecole française d’Extrême-Orient.  3 (1903) 99-101.  ROMF P S Ec, starts 1937;  Roba DS 532 E 395, check Old Class;  not published 1945-1950.

Pelliot, Paul.  «Deux itinéraires de Chine en Inde.»  BEFEO 4 (1904).

Pelliot, Paul.  «Les influences iraniennes en Asie Centrale et en Extrême Orient.»  Revue d’histoire et de littérature religieuses.  3 (1912) 97-119.  Roba BL 3 R35, now Gerstein?

Pelliot, Paul.  «Cycle sexagénaire.»  JA  . . .  (1913).

Pelliot, Paul.  «Les documents chinois trouvés par la mission Kozlov.»  JA 11th series 3 (1914) 503-518.  Buddhist, too late for Huns.

Pelliot, Paul.  «Li-kien, autre nom du Ta-ts’in (orient méditerranéen).»  T’oung Pao.  16 (1915) 690-691.  Alexandria = Cairo.

Pelliot, Paul.  «Meou-tseu ou les doutes levés:  traduit et annoté.»  T’oung Pao.  NS 20 (1919) 255-433.  Origins of buddhism in China, 255ff.  «traité dialogué» (258).  Check date:  Wright says early fourth century.

Pelliot, Paul.  «A propos des Comans.»  JA  11th series 15 (1920) 125-185.  Names of the Huns.

Pelliot, Paul.  Les grottes de Touen-Houang.  6 vols.  Paris:  Geuthner, 1920-24.  ROMF N 7291 M57.

Pelliot, Paul.  «Note sur les anciens itinéraires chinois dans l’orient romain.»  JA  11th series, 17 (1921) 139-145.

Pelliot, Paul.  «L’édition collective des oeuvres de Wang Kouo-wei.»  TP 26 (1929) 120-122.  Prononciation du proto-chinois.

Pelliot, Paul.  «Nestorian crosses.»  Revue des arts asiatiques.  (1931).

Pelliot, Paul.  «Tokharien et koutchéen.»  JA 224 (1934) 23-106.  Biblio.  «Ajouter que le ‘cycle des douze animaux’ est également attesté dans la région de Khotan;  et dès le temps des textes en écriture kharosthi» (105).

Pelliot, Paul.  «Tanggri.»  T’oung Pao.  37 (1944) 165-185.

Perets, Volodimir N.  «Igor and bible.»  Izvestiia otdeleniia russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  29 (1924) 23-55.

Perets, Volodimir N.  «Igor.»  Izvestiia otdeleniia russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  30 (1925) 143-204.

Perets, Volodimir N.  Slovo o polku Igorevim.  Kiev:  Akademiia Nauk, 1926;  reprint The Hague:  Mouton, 1962.  PG 3300 S63 P45.  Commentary, biblio.

Pernice, Angelo.  L’imperatore Eraclio.  Florence, 1905.  Rev:  Gerland.

Pertusi, Agostino, ed.  «Heracliadis.»  In Giorgio di Pisidia:  Poemi i panegirici epici.  Studia patristica et Byzantina, 7.  Ettal:  Buch Kunstverlag, 1959.  PA 5317 G4 A17.

Pertusi, Agostino.  «Bisanzio.»  Settimane 11 (1964) 77-133 and discussion 159-226.  per.bib.  Concerning roads and cultural diffusion.

Pertz, G H, ed.  The Astronomer:  Vita Hludowici.  MGH SS 2:615.  Folio.

Pertz, G H, ed.  The Chronicle of the Slavs by Helmold, Priest of Bosau.  DD 3 M82 v. 32 at Pims.

Pertz, GH.  «Martin I and Maximus Conf.»  Historisches Jahrbuch.  38 (1917) 213-236;  429-458.  D1 H76 and Old Class.

Peter, Bishop of Argos, St.  Sometimes confused with Peter of Sicily.  Floruit AD 900;  feast:  May 3.  Ed:  Cozza-Luzi.  See also Vasiliev.

Peters, Edward, ed., and William Dudley Foulke, tr.  Paul Deacon:  History of the Lombards.  Philadelphia:  U of Penn Press, 1974.  DS 511 P413 VUPT, SMC IMS.  ema.bib.  DG?

Pétrin, Nicole.  «Philological Notes on the Crossbow and Related Missile Weapons.»  Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies.  33 (1992) 265-291.

Pétrin, Nicole.  «Caranthani Marahenses:  Philological Notes on the Early History of the Hungarians and the Slavs.»  Eurasian Studies Yearbook.  Formerly Ural-altaische Jahrbücher.  70 (1998) 39-63.

Pétrin, Nicole.  «Further Philological Notes on the Early History of the Hungarians and the Slavs.»  Eurasian Studies Yearbook.  72 (2000) 29-111.

Pigeonneau, Henri.  Histoire du commerce de la France.  2 vols.  Paris:  Le Cerf, 1887-89.  HF 3554 P54.  «La Gaule franque» 1:56-90.

Pigulevskaia, Nina Viktorovna.  Vizantiia na putiakh v Indiiu.  Moscow:  Akademiia Nauk, 1951.  PIMS HF 405 P5.

Pigulevskaia, Nina Viktorovna.  «Imia Rous v siriïskom istochnike vi v. n. e.»  In Akademiku Borisu Dmitrievichu Grekovu:  sbornik statei.  Moscow, 1952.  42-48.  Pims DK 510.52 J57??  Rhos.

Pigulevskaia, Nina Viktorovna [Pigulewskaja].  Byzanz auf den Wegen nach Indien aus der Geschichte des byzantinischen Handels nach dem Orient vom 4. bis 6. Jahrhundert.  Berliner Byzantinische Arbeiten, 36.  Berlin:  Akademie-Verlag, 1969.  HF 405 P515.  Biblio.  Disappointing.  Choneum totally confused with Huns, 104.

Pilgrims, Chinese.  Fa-hien, Hiuen Tsiang

Pinder, Moritz, and Gustav Parthey, eds.  Ravennatis Anonymi Cosmographia et Gvidonis Geographica.  Berlin, 1860.  GA 6 G37.

Pippin.  Charter 6.  Grant of toll revenue to St. Denis, dated 8 July 753.  MGH Dipl. Karol. 1:9.  HAVE XEROX.  Mentions of Frisian and Saxon merchants.

Pirson, J.  «Le latin des formules mérovingiennes et carolingiennes.»  Romanische Forschungen.  26 (1909).  PC 3 R5.

Pogatscher, .  Zur Lautlehre der griechischen lat. und romanischen Lehnwörter im Altenenglischen.  Quellen und Forschungen zur Sprache und Kulturgeschichte der germ. Völker, 64,8.

Poncelet, Alb.  «Le ‘testament’ de saint Willibrord.»  An. Boll. 25 (1906) 163-173.  Concerning its authenticity.

Poncelet, Alb.  «Review Krusch Vitae Amandi.  SRM 5.  An. Boll. 29 (1910) 448-450.

Poole, S. L.  «Aureus au type d’Heraclius.»  JRAS (1874)

Popovic, Vladislav.  MEFRA 86 (1974) 597-656.  D 111 E43

Popovic, Vladislav.  «Les témoins archéologiques des invasions avaro-slaves dans l’Illyricum byzantin.»  MEFRA 87 (1975) 445-504.

Popovic, Vladislav.  «Sirmium.»  Revue des études augustiniennes.  21 (1975) 91-111.  PIMS.

Popovic, Vladislav.  «La descente des Koutrigours, des Slaves et des Avars vers la Mer Egée:  le témoignage de l’archéologie.»  Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Inscriptions.  1978:596-648.

Popovic, Vladislav.  «Aux origines de la slavisation des Balkans: la constitution des premières Sklavinies macédoniennes vers la fin du vi siècle.»  CRAI 1980:230-257.

Popovic, Vladislav.  «Une invasion slave sous Justin II inconnue des sources écrites.»  Numizmaticar 4 (1981) 111-126.  ROMS P.S. Nu 130, vols 7-12;  PIMS CJ 9 N835, vols 1-12.  «les sources historiques grecques ne signalent pas s’invasions sklavènes au sud du Danube entre les opérations du khan Zabergan en 558 et les grandes dévastations des années 578-586» (112).

Popovic, Vladislav.  «Byzantins, Slaves et autochtones dans les provinces de Prévalitane et nouvelle Epire.»  In Villes et peuplement dans l’Illyricum proto-byzantin.  Ed:  Gilbert Dagron.  Collection de l’école française de Rome, 77.  Paris:  Boccard, 1984.  181-243.  DF 628 I4 V55.

Postan, Michael Moïssey.  «Credit in Medieval Trade.»  Economic History Review.  1 (1928).  HC 10 E4.

Postan, Michael Moïssey.  Medieval Trade and Finance.  Cambridge University Press, 1973.  HF 395 P67.

Poppe, Nicholas.  «A Note on Turkic Lexical Elements in the Slovo o polku Igoreve and the Zadonscina.»  SEER 79 (2001) 2001-2111.  Biblio.

Poupardin, René, ed.  La vie de saint Didier, évêque de Cahors (630-655).  Paris:  Picard, 1900.  Collection de textes pour servir à l’étude et l’enseignement de l’histoire.  BX 4700 D48 V5.

Poupardin, René.  Le royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens (855-733.  BEHE, 131.  Paris, 1901.  Dates?

Poupardin, René.  «Les Annales de Saint-Bertin.»  BEC 66 (1905) 390.

Poupardin, René.  «Etudes sur l’histoire des principautés lombardes de l’Italie méridionale et de leurs rapports avec l’Empire franc.»  Le Moyen Age.  19 (1906) 1-25;  245-274.  21-25:  «Appendice:  la date du Capitulare Hlotharii de expeditione contra Sarracenos facienda.»  Re:  attack against Bari 850.

Poupardin, René.  «Etudes sur l’histoire des principautés lombardes de l’Italie méridionale et de leurs rapports avec l’Empire franc.»  Le Moyen Age.  20 (1907) 1-125.

Poupardin, René.  Etudes sur l’histoire des principautés lombardes de l’Italie méridionale.  Paris, 1907.

Poupardin, René.  Les institutions politiques et administratives des principautés lombardes de l’Italie méridionale.  Paris, 1907.

Praetorius, Franz.  «Himjarishe Inschriften.»  ZDMG 26 (1872) 417-440.

Praetorius, Franz.  «Inschriften vom Dammbruch zu Marib.»  ZDMG 53 (1899) 1-24.

Prinz, Otto, ed.  Die Kosmographie des Aethicus.  Vol 14 of MGH:  Quellen der Geistesgeschichte des Mitttelalters.  Munich, 1993.

Prinz, F.  «Zur Vita Severini.»  Deutsches Archiv.  25 (1969) 531-536.  DD 126 A104.

Priscus.  Fragmenta.  Ed.  Bonn Corpus, 158;  CPorph.;  Müller, FHG.  Tr:  Blockley, Dieterich, Thompson.  Pims DG 205 B48;  Roba DG 205 B58.

Priscus, fl AD 461.  De Leg in CPorph 141, p. 12ss  «où il question de deux rois des Huns, Basikh et Koursikh, qui avaient tenté une incursion contre l’Iran occidental» (Hambis 251n3).  Hunnoi Kidaritai, AD 456-468, see Cribb.

Pritsak, Omeljan.  «Ein hunnisches Wort.»  ZDMG 104,1 (1954).

Pritsak, Omeljan.  «The Slavs and the Avars.»  Gli Slavi Settimane, 30,2.  1983.  353-432.  Unusable article.  «There is general agreement [...] that the Avars were instrumental in the appearance of the Slavs on the stage of history.  [...] it was the Avars who caused the Slavs to move and develop.»  The Slavs are mentioned continually in Procopius, whose historical work closes before the appearance of the Avars.  «The Avar realm in Europe was one of a sequence of Eurasian steppe “nomadic empire”» (357)  Cf “Astikos ho ethnos” in Menander.

Pritsak, Omeljan.  The Origins of the Old Rus’ weights and monetary system:  two studies in Western Eurasia.  CJ 3021 P75

Procopius of Caesarea.  Bella Persica.  Ed:  Dewing.  «The Romans and their Hunnish allies were nearly all hippotoxotai» (i,I,15).  Mentions the White Huns of Central Asia.

Procopius of Caesarea.  Historia anecdota.  Slavs, §18.

Prosper of Aquitaine.  Chronica minora.  PL 51.  Ed:  Mommsen in vol 9 of MGH AA.  Berlin, 1892.

Prostko-Prostynski, J.  The Emperor Anastasius I’s Gothic Policy (491-518).  Poznan, 1994.  Rev:  Rochette.

Prudentius of Troyes, died 861.  Annales de Saint-Bertin.  See Ganshof, Grat, Nelson, Waitz.

Pryor, John H.  «A study of the voyages of Saewulf.»  In Peregrinationes tres:  Saewulf, John of Würzburg, Theodericus.  CC Continuatio Mediaevalis, 139.  Turnhout:  Brepols, 1994.  PIMS BQ 310 C9.

Pulleyblank, Edwin G.  «A Sogdian colony in Inner Mongolia.»  T’oung Pao.  41 (1952) 317-356.  One of the Tribes «were the Sa-ko… There cannot be the slightest doubt that we have here to do with Sogdians» (343f).

Pulleyblank, Edwin G.  «Gentry Society:  Some remarks on recent work by W. Eberhard.»  BSOAS 15 (1953) 588-597.  Of the Sha-t’o confederacy, he writes:  «as long ago as 1926 the Japanese sinologist Kuwabara had noticed the presence of many Sogdians among the Sha-t’o» (596).

Pulleyblank, Edwin G.  «The Consonantal system of Old Chinese.»  Asia Major.  9 (1963) 58-144;  206-265.  Appendix:  «The Hsiung-nu language» 239-265.  Includes notes by Bailey.  DS 511 A65.  Ouarkhônitai, 259.  Nezak Tarkhan, Hephthalite ruler of Afghanistan in the 7th century, 257.  «The simplest hypothesis [...] is that the Hsiung-nu spoke a language of the Yenissei family and that the Mongolians and Turks who followed them as masters of the eastern steppes inherited elements of culture and political organization, with the corresponding names» (265).

Pulleyblank, Edwin G.  «Chinese and Indo-Europeans.»  JRAS  . . . (1966) 9-39.  Biblio.  Huns.

Pushkarev, Sergei Germanovich.  Dictionary of Russian Historical Terms from the Eleventh Century to 1917.  New Haven:  Yale UP, 1970.

Radloff, W.  Die alttürkischen Inschriften der Mongolei.  1895.  PL 31 R32.  Includes Nachwort by Hirth concerning the Inscription of Tonjakuk, p. 116ff.

Rasowski, D.  A.  «Pétchénègues, Torkes, et Bérendés en Russie et en Hongrie.»  Seminarium Kondakovianum.  6 (1933)  . . . Roba N 5950 I56;  PIMS N17 S4 Mfe Box 1-2.

Rasowski, D.  A.  «Comans.»  Seminarium Kondakovianum.  11 ( . . . ).  Roba N 5950 I56.

Rauch, Georg von.  «Frühe christliche Spuren in Russland.»  Saeculum 7 (1956) 40-67.  D 2 S22.  Abundant sources.

Reiske, Jo. Jac., ed.  Constantinus Porphyrogenitus:  De Cerimoniis.  Corpus scriptorum historiae byzantinae, 7.  Bonn:  Weber, 1822.

Reinaud, Joseph Toussaint.  «Mémoire géographique, historique et scientifique sur l’Inde antérieurement au XIe siècle de l’ère chrétienne, d’après les écrivains arabes, persans et chinois.»  Mémoires de l’Institut de France:  Académie des Inscriptions.  18 (1849) 1-399.  Additions 565.  AS 162 P318.  With maps, important.  Relevant for numeration, Science.bib.

Reinaud, Joseph Toussaint.  «Mémoire sur le Périple de la mer Erythrée et sur la navigation des mers orientales au milieu du troisième siècle de l’ère chrétienne d’après les témoignages grecs, latins, arabes, persans, indiens et chinois.»  Mémoires de l’Institut de France:  Académie des Inscriptions.  24,2 (1864) 225-277.  AS 162 P318.

Renou, Louis.  La géographie de Ptolémée.  L’Inde.  1925.  MICR G87 P82

Renou, Louis, ed.  Mémorial Sylvain Lévi.  1937.  PK 103 L4

Renou, Louis, FS.  Bibliography.  Mélanges d’Indianisme à la mémoire de Louis Renou.  Publications de l’Institut de civilisation indienne, 28.  Paris:  Boccard, 1968.  127-142.  DS 423 M44.

Reverdy, Georges.  «Les relations de Childebert II et de Byzance.»  RH 114 (1913) 61-85.  HX.  Alliance contre les Lombards.  Epistulae Austrasicae.

Rimbert.  Vita Rimberti.  AASS Feb, 4.  1:559-571.  See also Ansgar.

Robert, Louis.  «Noms de métier dans des documents byzantins.»  In Mélanges A. Orlandos.  4 vols.  Athens, 1964.  1:324-347.  CC 65 C 54.

Robinson, Ch H., tr.  Anskar:  The Apostle of the North:  801-865.  1921.  BX 4700 A5815 R513.

Rochette, Br.  Rev:  Prostko-Prostynski.  Byzantion 69 (1999) 260.

Rochette, Raoul.  «Bactriane.»  Journal des savants.  1835.

Rochette, Raoul.  «Bactriane.»  Journal des savants.  1844.

Rolland, Paul.  «De l’économie antique au grand commerce médiéval.»  Annales 6 (1936) 245-284.

Rostovtseff, check out for Noricum.

Rostovtzeff, Michael.  «Le culte de la Grande Déesse dans la Russie méridionale.»  Revue des études grecques.  32 (1919) 462-481.

Roth, Helmut.  «Handel und Gewerbe vom 6. bis 8. Jh. östlich des Rheins.»  VJSWG 58 (1971) 323-358.  H5 V6.  Mostly local industry, not much on Eastern trade.

Rouan, M. F.  «Etienne le Jeune.»  TM 8 (1981) 415-436.

Rouillard, Germaine.  La vie rurale dans l’Empire byzantin. Paris, 1953.  Le bourg (chôrion ou kômê) s’oppose au domaine (chthêsis), 87.  HN 11 R68.  Autres livres par cet auteur.

Ruben, Walter.  Indisches Mittelalter.  Zurich and New York:  Europaverlag, 1944. DS 451 R8.  Mostly concerned with period from 550-1500, but first chapter deals with Guptas.  «Die turkisch-mongolischen Toba (386-556: Wei) hatten [China] erobert» (3).  The Wei period is the one when the Animal calendar was introduced in China.

Rudakov, A. P.  Ocherki vizantiskoi kultury po dannym grecheskikh agiograf.  ROBA DF 541 R8.

Ruinart, ed.  Gregorius Turensis.  Reprinted in Patrologia latina.  1849.  71:159-575.  Includes Fredegar.  Seventeenth century edition.

Rybakov, B. A.  «Torgovliia i torgovlye puti.»  In Istoriia kul’tury drevnei Rusi:  Domongol’skii period.  Ed:  Voronin. 1:315-369.

Sabbe, Etienne.  «Quelques types de marchands des ixe et xe siècles.»  Revue belge.  13 (1934) 176-187.  With sources, capital importance.

Sabbe, Etienne.  «L’importation des tissus orientaux en Europe occidentale au Haut Moyen Age, ixe et xe siècles.»  Revue belge.  14 (1935) 811-848;  1261-1288.

Sabbe, Etienne.  «Papyrus et parchemin au haut moyen âge.»  In Miscellanea Historica in honorem Leonis van der Essen.  2 vols.  Brussels:  Editions universitaires, 1947.  1:97-103.  Volume 2 is catalogued and shelved at D6 M57, but volume one is shelved at BX 4662 R64, and uncatalogued.

Sabbe, Etienne.  «Les relations économiques entre l’Angleterre et le continent au haut moyen âge.»  Le Moyen Age.  61 (1950) 169-195.

Sachat, .  «Homélies de Léonce.»  Recherches de science religieuse. 51 (1977) 234-243.  PIMS.

Sachau, Eduard.  Die Chronik von Arbela:  Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis des ältesten Christentums in Orient.  Abhandlungen der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil-hist Kl.  Berlin, 1915, fasc 6.  AS 182 B34.  Maps, covers AD 100-551, with intro and translation.  «In diesem Jahre (484) starb der Perserkönig Pêrôz im Monat Ab (August) auf dem Pfade des Kriegs mit den Hunnen.»  (87).  «… die Perser wurden gezwungen umzukehren, um ihre Länder gegen die wilde Wut der Hunnen, welche angefangen hatten sich auf sie zu stürzen, zu beschützen.» (88).

Saffrey, H. D.  «Le chrétien Jean Philopon et la survivance de l’Ecole d’Alexandrie au vie siècle.»  REG 67 (1954) 512-517.  DF 10 R4.

Salin, Edouard.  La civilisation mérovingienne d’après les sépultures, les textes et le laboratoire.  Paris, 1950.

Salmon, R.  «Fredegar.»  BZ 30 (1929-30) 102-110.

Samolin, William.  «A Note on Kidara and the Kidarites.»  CAJ 2 (1956) 295-297.  Re:  Ghirshman 1948.  Shapur II and his allies the Kushans and the Khionites, 295;  Cf Ammianus xvi,9,3-4;  xviii,4,1-6;  xix,2,3.

Samolin, William.  «Hsiung-nu, Hun, Turk.»  CAJ 3 (1957) 143-150.  Chronology out of whack, unusable.

Sansterre, Jean-Marie.  Les moines grecs et orientaux à Rome aux époques byzantine et carolingienne (milieu du VIe s. fin du IXe x.).  2 vols.  Brussels:  Académie royale de Belgique, 1980.  BX 2450 S25.

Sas, Louis.  The Noun Declension System in Merovingian Latin.  Paris, 1937.

Sathas, Konstantin N., ed.  Khronikon anekdoton Galakseidiou.  Athens, 1865.  191-221.  Compiled in 1703 by the monk Euthymius who had first class early sources.

Sathas, Konstantin N., ed.  Mesaionike Bibliotheke  [Bibliotheca graeca medii aevi].  7 vols.  Venice and Paris:  Maisonneuve, 1872-94.  Old Class LGr. .C S.

Sathas, Konstantin N., ed.  «Anonyme de Sathas.»  In his Bibliotheca Graeca M A.  7 vols.  Volume 7, 1-610.  Artavasdus, p. 124.

Schatz, J.  Altbairische Grammatik.  PIMS with many others on the subject.

Schatz, J.  «Zur Sprachform altbairischer Ortsnamen.»  Zeitschrift für Ortsnamenforschung.  4 (1928) 3-16.  HX

Schier, B.  «Pelze und Stoffe als Zahlungsmittel in alter Zeit.»  Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur.  72 (1950) 301-314.  PF 3003 B5.  Etymologies not always secure but wide range of sources.

Schieffer, Theodor.  Angelsachsen und Franken:  zwei Studien zur Kirchengeschichte des 8. Jahrunderts.  Mainz, 1951.  BR 844 S35.

Schilling, Hugo.  König Aelfred’s angelsächsische Bearbeitung der Weltgeschichte des Orosius.  Halle:  Niemeyer, 1886.  ROBA PR 1568 S4.

Schnetz, Joseph.  «Jordanes beim Geographen von Ravenna.»  Philologus 36 (1925) 86-100.

Schnetz, Joseph.  «Onogoria.»  Archiv für slavische Philologie.  40 (1926) 157-160.  See ESY for discussion.

Schnetz, Joseph, ed.  Ravennatis Anonymi Cosmographia et Guidonis Geographica.  Itineraria Romana, 2.  Leipzig, 1940.

Schnetz, Joseph.  Untersuchungen über die Quellen der Kosmographie des anonymen Geographen von Ravenna.  Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, 6.  Munich, 1942.  AS 182 M823.

Schnetz, Joseph.  Flurnamenkunde.  1952.  Old Class LaG. Gr S3599fl.

Schnetz, Joseph.  Flurnamenkunde.  Reprint 1997.  PF 3576 S37.

Schnetz, Joseph, tr.  Eine Erdbeschreibung um das Jahr 700.  Nomina Germanica:  Arkiv för germansk Namnforskning, 10.  Uppsala, 1951.

Schnürer, G.  Die Verfasser der sogenannten Fredegar-Chronik.  Collectanea Friburgensia, 9.  1900.  DC 64 S34 HX.  «Die Fortsetzungen bis 642 bzw. 658.»  89-143.  Samo 110ff.

Schoell, Rudolf, and Wilhelm Kroll.  Justiniani Imperatoris Novellae.  Vol 3 of Corpus Iuris Civilis.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1963.  3:94 and 654-664.  KJA 1062.1.  HXp Novellae 11 and 131 re Justiniana Prima.  Check exact editions and call numbers.

Schönfelder, J. M., tr.  Die Kirchengeschichte des Johannes von Ephesus.  Munich, 1862.

Schoff, Wilfred Harvey, ed.  Parthian Stations by Isidore of Charax:  An Account of the Overland Trade Route Between the Levant and India in the First Century BC.  London, 1914;  reprint Chicago:  Ares, 1989.  PA 4213 I4 P3.

Schoff, Wilfred Harvey.  «Navigation to the Far East under the Roman Empire.»  JAOS 37 (1917) 240-249.  Includes Chinese sources, too early for the Huns.

Schove, Derek Justin and Alan Fletcher.  Chronology of Eclipses and Comets:  AD 1-1000.  Woodbridge, Suffolk:  The Boydell Press, 1984.  PASC QB 51 S34. HX p. 156f.  Check for Ammianus, AD 360.

Schwartz, Ernst.  «Ahd. wihs ‘Dorf’ in Ortsnamen.»  Zeitschrift für Ortsnamenforschung.  1 (1925) 51-54.  NX.

Schwarz, Ernst.  «Walchen- und Parschalkennamen im alten Norikum.»  Zeitschrift für Ortsnamenforschung.  1 (1925) 91-99.  HX.

Schwarz, Ernst.  «Die Frage der slawischen Landnahmezeit in Ostgermanen.»  Mitteilungen des Instituts für Oesterreichischen Geschichtsforschung.  43 (1929) 187-260.  DB 1 V5.

Schwartz, Jacques.  «L’empire romain et le commerce oriental.»  Annales ESC.  15 (1960) 18-44.  AP 20 A58.

Schweder, E.  «Ueber eine Weltkarte des achten Jahrhunderts.»  Hermes 24 (1889) 587-604.  Re Beatus and the TP.  See incuna.bib for more.

Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum tempore ducum regumque stirpis Arpadianae gestarum.  2 vols.  Budapest, 1937-1938.  DB 903 S38 Re: Bessi, Tenin.

Sebeos.  See Macler, Malkhasiants.

Segrè, Angelo.  «The Byzantine Colonate.»  Traditio 5 (1947) 103-133.

Selmer, Carl.  «The Lisbon Vita sancti Brandani abbatis.»  Traditio 13 (1957) 313-344.  D 111 T7.  Navigation, trade routes.

Senart, Emile.  «Le manuscrit Kharosthi du Dhammapada:  Les fragments Dutreuil de Rhins.»  JA ninth series 12 (1898) 193-305, plate.

Senart, Emile.  «Nouvelles et mélanges.»  JA ninth series 13 (1899) 531-534.  Kharosthi.

Serebrennikov, B. A.  «O nekotorykh sledakh vliianiia finno-ugorskogo iazykovogo substrata v iazyke kazanskikh Tatar.»  In Festschrift Viktor Vladimirovich Vinogradov.  Moscow:  Akademiia Nauk, 1956.  214-224.  P 49 A4.

Serruys, Daniel, ed.  «Les actes du concile iconoclaste de l’an 815.»  MEFRA 23 (1903) 345-51.  See Chronology, MaxConf.

Serruys, Daniel.  «Recherches sur l’Epitomé (Théodore de Mélitène, Léon le Grammairien, Syméon Logothète, etc.»  BZ 16 (1907) 1-51.

Serruys, D.  «De quelques ères usitées chez les chroniqueurs byzantins.»  Revue de philologie.  31 (1907) 151-189.  Notes in Chrono.bib.

Shahîd, Irfan.  «Heraclius:  pistos en Christo Basileus.»  DOP 34/35 (1980/81) 225-237.

Shchapov, Iaroslav Nikolaevich.  «Tserkov’ v sisteme gosudarstvennoi vlasti Drevnei Rusi.»  In Drevnerusskoe gosudarstvo i ego mezhdunarodnoe znachenie.  Moscow, 1965.  315-326.  Pims DK 71 N6;  Roba DK 71 A7.

Shchapov, Iaroslav Nikolaevich.  «Ustav kniazia Iaroslava i vopros ob otnoshenii k vizantiiskomu naslediiu na Rusi v seredine XI v.»  Vizantiiskii Vremennik.  31 (1971) 71-83.  HCopy.

Sherwood, P.  «Date list of the works of Maximus Confessor.»  Studia Anselmiana.  30 (1952).

Shetelig, Haakon, and Hjalmar Falk.  Scandinavian Archaeology.  Tr:  E. V. Gordon.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1937.  Have notes on early period, check Vikings.

Siebenkees, Joannes Philippus, ed.  Strabonis rerum geographicarum libri XVII.  With Carl Heinrich Tzschucke from Book 7 on.  6 vols.  Leipzig:  Weidmann, 1796-1811.  G 87 S86 1796.

Silva-Tarouca, C.  «Lettere di papi.»  Gregorianum.  12 (1931) PIMS PER.

Silva-Tarouca, C.  Epistularum Romanorum pontificum ad vicarios per Illyricum aliosque episcopos.  Collectio Thessalonicensis.  Textus et documenta, series Theologica.  Rome, 1937.  PIMS BR 1050 I4C3

Simson, Bernhard von, ed.  Annales Xantenses et Annales Vedastini.  SRG in usum scholarum, 12.  Hannover:  Hahn, 1909.  DC 70 A2 A57.  Citation in text.

Sinclair, T. A.  «On Strabo xi,8,2 (p. 511).»  Classical Review.  37 (1923) 159-161.  Tochari.  Inconclusive.

Sinor, Denis.  «Autour d’une migration de peuples au Ve siècle.»  Journal asiatique.  235 (1946-7) 1-79.  ogur =  «forme rhotacisante du nom de peuple bien connu:  oguz» (5f).  «Quoique nous n’ayons aucun vestige de la langue de ces peuples ogur, leurs noms seuls paraissent nous indiquer qu’il s’agit bien là de langues du type tchouvache» (6).  «La langue hongroise contient de nombreux éléments turcs dont une grande partie y a pénétré avant la conquête du pays.  Ils montrent, partiellement tout au moins, des particularités phonétiques tchouvaches» (58).

Sircar, Dineschandra.  Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India.  Delhi, 1960.  DS 408.5 S5.

Sircar, Dineschandra.  Indian Epigraphy.  Delhi:  Motilal Banarsidas, 1965.  CN 1170 S49.  Index:  Huns, Huentsang.

Sircar, Dineschandra.  Indian Epigraphical Glossary.  Delhi:  Motilal Banarsidas, 1966.  CN 1170 S488.

Sircar, Dineschandra.  Epigraphic Discoveries in East Pakistan.  Calcutta, 1973.  DS 485 B47 S57.

Skanda Paurana.  Palaeography.  JRAS (1903) 193.

Smith, Vincent Arthur [Sir].  «Huns of Toramana.»  JASB (1894) 186-7.

Smith, Vincent Arthur [Sir].  «Coins:  White Huns.»  JRAS (1907) 91.

Smith, Vincent Arthur [Sir].  The Early history of India from 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan Conquest.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1904.  Recat 5/17/2000.  HIn S6626e.  Also:  DS 451 S65;  DS 436 S55.  Have Xerox: 8-21; 264-281.  Huns.

Sobolevsky, Aleksei Ivanovich.  «Russko-skifskii Etiudy.»  Izvestiia otdeleniia russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  26 (…).

Sobolevsky, Aleksei Ivanovich.  «Russko-skifskii Etiudy.»  Izvestiia otdeleniia russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  27 (…).

Sobolevsky, Aleksei Ivanovich.  «Zametki praslavianskim drevnostiam.»  Izvestiia otdeleniia russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  31 (1926) 1-9.

Sobolevsky, Aleksei Ivanovich.  «Russko-skifskii Etiudy.»  Izvestiia otdeleniia russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  31 (1926) 10-30.

Sobolevsky, Aleksei Ivanovich.  «Nazvaniia rek i ozer russkogo severa.»  Izvestiia otdeleniia russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  32 (1927) 1-42.

Sobolevsky, Aleksei Ivanovich.  Slaviano-russkaia paleografiia.  reprint? 1970.  PIMS, ROBA Z 115.2 S6.

Solovëv, Alexandre V.  «Les traités anciens entre Grecs et Russes.»  Slavia 15,3 ( . . . ) 402-417.  PIMS PG 1 S6;  MICR mfm PG 5529.

Solovëv, Alexandre V.  «Arkhôn Rhôsias.»  Byzantion.  31 (1961) 237-244.

Sorlin, Irène.  «Femmes et sorciers:  Note sur la permanence des rituels païens en Russie, XI-XIXe siècles.»  Travaux et Mémoires.  8 (1981) 459-475.  Vladimir, 460f.

Specht, Edouard.  «Etudes sur l’Asie centrale d’après les historiens chinois.  I:  Indo-Scythes et Ephthalites.»  Journal asiatique.  2 (1883) 317-350.  Chinese sources:  Ma-Touan-lin, author of an encyclopedia, and Pien-i-tien:  Description of foreign lands. P. 317.  But these are compilations.  Specht uses instead dynastic histories (Tching-sse), p. 318.

Glass introduced into China, p. 329;  sulphur, p. 336.  «Après que le tchen-yu Mao-thun eut attaqué les Yue-tchi et que le tchen-yu Lao-chang ayant tué leur roi, eut fait de son crâne une coupe à boire, les Yué-tchi s’en allèrent au loin» (322).  The incident described is dated to the last centuries BC and connected with the Scyths.  This is a Scythian, and not an Avar custom.

The Ye-tha (Ephthalites):  «Ils n’ont pas d’écriture et font leurs contrats avec des morceaux de bois. Ils ont des relations avec les royaumes environnants et leur envoient des ambassadeurs.  Comment alors ont-ils des livres barbares écrits sur de la peau de mouton qui leur sert de papier?  Ils n’ont pas d’administration.»  (338).  P. 337f:  Good archers, polyandry, women wear a very strange headgear.

Spiegel, Friedrich von.  Eranische Alterthumskunde.  5 vols.  Leipzig:  Engelmann, 1871-1878;  reprint in 3 vols Amsterdam:  Oriental Press, 1971.  DS 275 S75.  See Asia.bib for earlier material.  AD 515 Hunnish raid, Cf Theophanus 1,249;  Cedrenus 1,633;  Malalas, p. 406.  These Huns are also called Sabeiri (3:402).  AD 518 Huns (3:415).  AD 533 Hunnish raids (3:417).  AD 540 Hunnish raids (3:423).

Spiro, Friedrich.  «Ein Leser des Pausanias.»  In Festschrift Johannes Vahlen zum siebzigste Geburtstag.  Berlin:  Reimer, 1900.  129-138.  PA 26 V3.  Re:  Strabo, Arethas.

Sprengling, Martin.  Third Century Iran:  Sapor and Kartir.  Chicago:  Oriental Institute, 1953.  WCat 20.

Sproemberg, H.  «Marculf und die fränkische Reichskanzlei.»  Neues Archiv.  47 (1928) 77-147.

Staab, Franz.  «Ostrogothic Geographers at the Court of Theodoric the Great:  A Study of Some Sources of the Anonymous Cosmographer of Ravenna.»  Viator 7 (1976) 27-64.

Starr, J.  «St. Maximos and the Forced Baptism at Carthage in 632.»   Byzantinisch-neugriechische Jahrbücher.  16 (1940) 192-196.  #per.bib.

Stauffenberg, Alexander Schenk Grav von.  Die römische KG bei Malalas:  Griechischer Text der Bücher IX-XII und Untersuchungen.  Stuttgart:  Kohlhammer, 1931.  D 17 M252 S34.

Stein, Aurel [Sir].  Old Routes in Western Iran.  London:  Macmillan, 1940.  DS 261 S819.  Caravan cities.

Stein, Ernst.  «Zur Geschichte von Illyricum im v-vii Jahrhundert.»  Rheinisches Museum für Philologie.  74 (1925) 354-364.

Stephanus of Alexandria.  MGH AA, vol. 13.

Stephanus Byzantinus.  Ethnika.  See Holstein, Westermann.  Check Müller, GGM, G 87 A1.

Stephen the Younger, St.  Life.  PG 100:1101.  Iconodule adversary of Copronymus, contemporary of Pope Zachary.  See Vasilievsky.

Sternbach, Leo.  «De Georgii Pisidae apud Theophanem aliosque historicos reliquiis.»  Rozprawy Akademii Umiejetnosci, Wydzial filologiczny.  Cracow, Poland.  NS 15  (1900) 1-107.  PLa P, Row 6.  «De Pisidae fragmentis a Suida servatis.»  108-198.  «Observationes in Pisidae carmina historica.»  199-296.

Sternbach, Leo, ed.  «Analecta Avarica.»  Rozprawy Akademii Umiejetnosci, Wydzial filologiczny.  Cracow, Poland.  NS 15  (1900) 297-365.  PLa P, Row 6.  Homily by Theodore Syncellus, reprinted in Makk 1975.

Stevens, Wesley M.  Review of Aethicus by Hillkowitz.  Speculum 51 (1976) 752-755.

Stevens, Wesley M.  «The Figure of the Earth in Isidore’s De Natura Rerum.»  Isis 71 (1980) 268-277.  HX.

Stolte, Bernardus Hendrikus.  «De Cosmographie van den Anonymus Ravennas:  Een Studie over the Bronnen van Boek II-V.» Ph.D. diss.  University of Amsterdam, 1940.  Zundert:  Vosselmans, 1949.  Reviews:  REL (1949) 351f.  AC (1949) 510.  Union Cat:  MiU, DDO, and others.

Sturmer, Vita.  PL 105:425.  For Slavs near Fulda.  Also MGH.  SS.  2:265.

Sullivan, R.  «The Carolingian Missionary and the Pagans.»  Speculum 28 (1953) 705-40.

Sweet, Henry, ed.  The Old English Orosius.  Early English Text Society, OS 79.  Oxford University Press, 1883;  reprint 1969.  VUPT, ROBA 1555 A13;  PR 1119 A2 PIMS;  TRIN PR 119 A2A4.

Syme, Sir Ronald.  «The Argonautica of Valerius Flaccus.»  Classical Quarterly.  23 (1929) 129-137.  PA 1 C68.  Crucial article about the Sarmatians and the Limigantes dwelling between the Danube and the Theiss.

Syme, Sir Ronald.  «Obituaries in Tacitus.»  American Journal of Philology.  79 (1958) 18-31.  PA 1 A5.

Syncellus, George.  See Adler and Tuffin.

Tabari, Al-.  See Williams, Zotenberg.

Tamassia, N.  «Sulla seconda parte dell’ Anonimo Valesiano.»  Archivio storico italiano.  71,2 (1913) 3-22.  VUCR PER, Roba DG 401 A and A72, per.bib.  Theoderic.

Tangl, Georgine.  «Die Passvorschrift des Könige Ratchis und ihre Beziehung zu den Verhältnis zwischen Franken und Langobarden vom 6-8 Jahrhundert.»  QF 38 (1958) 1-67.

Tangl, Michael, ed.  Bonifatii et Lulli Epistolae.  MGH Epistolae.

Tangl, Michael.  «Die Tironischen Noten in den Urkunden der Karolinger.»  (1908)

Tangl, Michael.  «Die Tironischen Noten der Vatikanischen Handschrift der Libri Carolini.»  Neues Archiv 36 (1911) 753.

Tangl, Michael.  «Studien zur Neuausgabe der Bonifatius-Briefe.»  Neues Archiv.  40 (1916) 639;  776-782.

Tangl, Michael.  «Studien zur Neuangabe der Bonifatiusbriefe.»  Neues Archiv.  41 (1919) 23.

Tangl, Michael.  Das Mittelalter in Quellenkunde und Diplomatik:  Ausgewählte Schriften.  Berlin, 1966.

Tartaglia, Luigi, ed.  Carmi di Giorgio di Pisidia.  Turin: Editrice Torinese, 1998.  PA 5317 G4 A53.

Taylor, Pauline.  The Latinity of the Liber Historiae Francorum.  New York, 1924.

Teall, J.  «The Barbarians in Justinian’s armies.»  Speculum 40 (1965) 294-322.

Tenckhoff, T, ed.  Vita Meinwerci.  MGH SS in us schol.  Hannover, 1921.  Roba BX 4700 B7L48.  §173 for description of costly furs.

Thakur, Upendra.  «Skandagupta and Hunas.»  Journal of Bihar Research Society.  47 (1961) 72-88.

Thakur, Upendra.  «The second phase of the Huna Invasions of India.»  JIH  44 (1966) 67-92.

Thakur, Upendra.  The Hunas in India.  Varanasi:  Chowkhamba Sanskrit Office, 1967.  DS 432 H8T5.  Biblio.

Theophanes.  Chronographia.  Bonn Corpus 46-48.  See Mango-Scott.  Also new edition in Pims.  Ca AD 625 The Huns or the Avars who are called Bulgarians, and the Slavs and the Gepids.

Theophanes Cont.  Martyrs of Hadrianople (see Delehaye), V,5.  Art and the conversion of Boris, see Mango.

Theophylakt Simocatta.  See Wirth, Whitby.  Ouarkhônitai, p. 286, Bonn.  Turkish digression in Book 7, see Bury.  Members of Avar tribes found their way to the middle Danube towards the end of the VIth century:  the Tarniakh, the Kotsager and the Zabender (Bonn, 286, lines 13-17).

Thierry, François.  «Sur les monnaies turgesh.»  In Coins, Art and Chronology:  Essays on the pre-Islamic History o the Indo-Iranian Borderlands.  Ed:  Michael Alram and Deborah E. Klimburg-Salter.  Vienna:  1999.  321-349.  CJ 60 A783 C65.  Western Central Asia, under Tang Dynasty.

Thomas Presbyter.  See Brooks.  Slavs in Crete, AD 623.

Thomas, F. W.  «A Greek Official Title in a Kharosthi Inscription.»  In Festschrift für Ernst Windisch.  Leipzig:  Harrassowitz, 1914.  362-365.  PK 2 Z5 W56.  Theodoros the Meridarch (i.e. District Officer) makes donations for the Lord Sakyamuni.  Hellenistic or early Roman date.

Thompson, James Westfall.  «Profitable Fields of Investigation in Medieval Studies:  Northern Trade.»  American Historical Review.  18 (1912/13) 490-504.  E 171 A57.  Generalities

Thompson, James Westfall.  «The Commerce of France in the Ninth Century.»  The Journal of Political Economy.  23 (1915) 857-887.  HB 1 J7.  «The expulsion of the Syrian merchants from the West, I have no doubt, was primarily due to the increasing competition of the Venetians … [whose] goods must have been of Levantine origin» (806f).

Thompson, James Westfall.  «The Statistical Sources of Frankish history.»  American Historical Review.  40 (1935) 625-645.  E 171 A57.  Taxes under Merovingians (Samo?).

Thompson, James Westfall.  The Dissolution of the Carolingian Fisc in the ninth century.  U of Calif. Publ Hist, 23.  Berkeley, Calif, 1935.  D6 C35;  also DC 70 T46.

Thomsen, Vilhelm.  «Déchiffrement des inscriptions de l’Orkhon et de l’Iénisséi.»  Bulletin de l’Académie royale des sciences et des lettres de Danemark.  1893:285-299.

Thomsen, Vilhelm.  Inscriptions de l’Orkhon déchiffrées.  Mémoires de la Société finno-ougrienne, 5.  Helsinki, 1896.  For the use of the name Turk.  The name Turk appears very late (6 or 7th century), and in the Far East.  See also Parker.

Thorpe, Benjamin, ed., tr.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.  2 vols.  Nendeln:  Kraus Reprints, 1964.  DA 150 A633.

Tieche, E.  «Fredegars Notiz über die Schlacht bei Wangen:  ein Beitrag zur Syntax des Mittellateins.»  Museum Helveticum.  6 (1949) .  PA 3 M73  Also see PA 2320 B44, per.bib.

Timpe, .  «Drusus’ Umkehr an der Elbe.»  RhM 110 (1967) 289-306.

Tobler, Titus, and Augustus Moliner.  Itinera Hierosolymitana et descriptiones terrae sanctae.  Geneva:  Fick, 1879.  DS 104.5 I847.  Vol 1, p. 134:  Monk from Bari in 870.

Toivonen, Y. H.  «Zur Frage der finnisch-ugrischen Urheimat.»  Journal de la Société finno-ougrienne.  56,1 (1952) 3-41.  PH 1 S7.

Tomaschek, W.  Die Goten in Taurica.  Limes Tauricus, 15f.

Toutain, J.  «Inscription d’Henchir-Mettich.»  Mémoires de l’Académie des Inscriptions. 11 (1901) 26.  Colonate.

Toutain, J.  «Inscription d’Henchir-Mettich.»  Nouvelle revue historique de Droit.  (1947) 373-415.  Limitanei.

Traina, Giusto.  «Faustus of Byzantium, Procopius, and the Armenian History (Jacoby, FGrHist 679, 3-4).»  In Novum Millennium:  Studies on Byzantine History and Culture Dedicated to Paul Speck.  Ed:  Claudia Sode and Sarolta Takácz.  Ashgate:  Variorum 2001.  405-414.  DF 521 N69 2001.

Treadgold, Warren T.  The Byzantine State Finances in the eight-ninth Centuries.  New York:  Columbia UP, 1982.  HJ 232 T73.

Treadgold, Warren T.  The Byzantine Revival 780-842.  Stanford UP, 1988.  Although this book deals with the Iconoclasts, the author did not use the important Acta S. Pancratii, as delicately pointed by M. van Esbroeck in his review AB 109 (1991) 186-7.

Tremp, Ernst.  «Thegan und Astronomus:  die beiden Geschichtsschreiber Ludwigs des Frommen.»  In Charlemagne’s Heir:  New Perspectives on the Reign of Louis the Pious.  Ed:  Peter Godman and Roger Collins.  Oxford: Clarendon, 1990.  692-700.  DC 74 C45.

Tremp, Ernst, tr.  Thegan, Die Taten Kaiser Ludwigs;  Astronomus, Das Leben Kaiser Ludwigs.  MGH, 64.  Based on edition by GH Pertz.  Hannover:  Hahn, 1995.  DC 74 T4415.

Trever, K. V.  «Kushany, Khionity i Eftality po armianskim istochnikam V-VII vv.»  Sovietskaia Arkheologiia.  21 (1954) 131-147.  DK 30 S69, first series incomplete.

Tristram, Hildegard.  «Aethicus.»  Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum.  111 (1982) 157-167.  PF 3003 Z5.

Tschan, Francis Joseph, tr.  The Chronicle of the Slavs by Helmold, Priest of Bosau.  1935;  New York:  Octagon, 1966.  Roba DD 145 H4818;  Pims DD 145 H483.

Turlej, Stanislaw.  «The so-called Chronicle of Monemvasia:  A Historical Analysis.»  Byzantion 68 (1998) 446-468.

Udal’cova, Zinaida Vladimirovna.  «Sel’skoe zavisimoe naselenie Italii vi veka.»  VDI  3 (1955) 85-115.  D 51 A424, incomplete.

Udaltsova, Zinaida Vladimirovna.  Italiia i Vizantiia v shestom veke.  Moscow:  Nauka, 1959.  DG 506 U3.

Uddholm, Alf.  Formulae Marculfi:  Etudes sur la langue et le style.  Uppsala, 1953.  Pamph LL M. BU;  Pims:  PA 8547 M5U3.  Also AS…

Uddholm, Alf.  Le Formulaire de Marculf.  Uppsala, 1953. Pamph LL M. B U and AS section.

Uddholm, Alf.  «Les traits dialectaux de la langue des actes mérovingiens et le Formulaire de Marculf.»  Bulletin Du Cange.  25 (1955) 47-70.

Uddholm, Alf.  Marculfi Formularum libri duo.  Uppsala, 1962.  Additions and translation.

Ujfalvy, Charles de.  «Mémoire sur les Huns blancs (Ephthalites de l’Asie centrale, Hunas de l’Inde) et sur la déformation de leurs crânes.»  L’Anthropologie.  9 (1898) 259-277;  384-467.  GN 1 A65.  «… Kadphisès, franchit l’Hindou-kouch, envahit le pays des Arsacides et s’empara de Kaboul, de Po-ta, de Ki-pin et forma un grand royaume…les autres peuples les appelaient Kouchans, nom que nous trouvons sur leurs monnaies» (264).  Poor chronology.

Unger, Richard.  The Ship in the Medieval Economy, 600-1600.  London, 1980.

Uspenski, Theodore I.  «Chatalar.»  IRAIK. 10 (1905) 545.  Founding of Preslav:  «ito de ho keros hotan ektistin Boulgaris ti sigoralem, Grikis ti indiktionos ie.»  «The only 15th indiction that fell during the reign of Omurtag was current from Sept. 1, 821 to Aug. 31, 822.»  Bury ????:128.  Beseveliev for text.

Vacandard, E.  «Saint Ouen avant son épiscopat.»  Revue des questions historiques.  (1898) 1.  «Nutriti.»

Vacancard, E.  Etudes de critique et d’histoire religieuses.  Pims BQX 87 V1.

Vacandard, E, ed.  Vie de Saint Ouen, Evêque de Rouen (641-684).  Paris:  Lecoffre, 1902.  BX 4700 O8V3.  Vita Audoeni.  AASS Aug IV:794-840.

Vaes, M.  «La papauté et l’Eglise franque à l’époque de Grégoire le Grand.»  RHE 6 (1905) 537 and 775.

Väänänen, Veikko.  Introduction au latin vulgaire.  3rd ed Paris:  Klincksieck, 1981.  PA 2619 V3.  Appendix Probi, 200-203, HX.

Vailhé, S.  «Projet d’alliance turco-byzantine au VIe siècle.»  Echos d’Orient.  12 (1909) 206-214.  PIMS.  Silk route, Persia.

Vaihlé, S.  «Les Juifs et la prise de Jérusalem en 614.»  Echos d’Orient.  12 (1909) 15-17.  PIMS.

Valk, M. van der.  «Manuscripts and Scholia:  Some Textual Problems.»  GRBS 25 (198) 39-49.  Stephanus Byz, Apol Rh.

Vandenhoff, B.  «Ueber die in der Weltgeschichte des Agapius von Menbig erwähnten Sonnenfinsternisse.»  ZDMG 71 (1917) 299-312.

Vandenhoff, B.  «Nachtrag.»  ZDMG 72 (1918) 157-160.  Does not record the eclipse of AD 360 mentioned by Ammianus.

van den Ven, Paul.  «La patristique et l’hagiographie au concile de Nicée de 787.»  Byzantion 25-27 (1955-57) 325-362.  See also asia.bib, core.bib for this author.

Van der Essen, L.  Etude critique et littéraire sur les Vitae des saints mérovingiens de l’ancienne Belgique.  Louvain, 1907.  St. Amandus 336-349.

Van de Vyver, André.  «Cassiodore et son oeuvre.»  Speculum 6 (1931)  244-292.  Acc Momigliano, very important.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  Anecdota Graeco-Byzantina.  Moscow, 1893.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «Slaviiane v Gretsii.»  VV 5 (1898) 404-438.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «Vizantiia i Araby pri imperatore Theofile (829-842).»  Vizantiïskiï vremennik.  6 (1899) 380-447.  per.bib.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «Agapii Manbidzhskii, Khristianskii arabskii istorik X veka.»  Vizantiïskiï vremennik.  11 (1904) 574-587.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «Proiskhozhdenie imperatora Vasiliia Makedoniianina.»  VV 12 (1906) 148-165.  Biblio.  Was he of Slavic descent?

Vasiliev, Alexandre A., ed, tr.  Histoire universelle écrite par Agapius (Mahboob) de Menbidj.  Patrologia Orientalis, 8,3.  Paris:  Firmin-Didot, 1912.  399-550.  Edition spread over several volumes of PO 5, 7, and beyond 8;  covers late antiquity and early middle ages.  Vol 7 stops at the death of Valens in battle with the Goths (see Asia.bib, ema.bib).  Mention of «Saqalibah» under Justinian (vol 8).

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «La Russie primitive et Byzance.»  In L’art byzantin chez les Slaves:  Les Balkans.  Ed:  Gabriel Millet.  Premier recueil dédié à la mémoire de Théodore Uspenskij.  Orient et Byzance, 4.  2 vols.  Paris:  Paul Geuthner, 1930.  N 6250 A77.  9-19.  Pontic Rhôs.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «Was Old Russia a Vassal State of Byzantium?»  Speculum 7 (1932) 350-360.

Vasiliev, Alexander Alexandrovich.  HBE.  Ostrogothic campaign, AD 535-554;  conquest of Dalmatia, which formed part of the Ostrogothic kingdom, 1:136.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «Economic Relations between Byzantium and Old Russia.»  Journal of Economic and Business History.  4 (1932) 314-334.  Old Class P. Pol. Sci J.  Fur trade of the Pontic Rhôs according to Arabic sources, 318.  «… the Russian state which was founded in the middle of the ninth century in the Dnieper basin inherited from time immemorial a very powerful economic organisation» (315).

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  Byzance et les Arabes (820-867).  With Marius Canard.  3 vols.  1935-1950.  PIMS DF 552 V33;  ROBA DF 552 V27.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  The Goths in the Crimea.  Cambridge, Mass., Mediaeval Academy of America, 1936.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «An Edict of the Emperor Justinian, September 688.»  Speculum 18 (1943) 1-13.  Re Slavs.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  The Russian Attack on Constantinople in 860.  Medieval Academy Publ, 46.  1946.  DF 588 V3;  Pims DK 72 V3.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «Life of David of Thessalonica.»  Traditio 4 (1946) 115-147.  D 111 T7.  David died in AD 540, but the story is connected with the proposed move of the prefecture from Thessaloniki to Justiniana Prima, in 535 (§13, §20, page 122, 127).  Reception by Theodora, §16, she died in AD 548.  The text was compiled in Thess in AD 718-720 (128).  Reference to Avar aggression which caused the prefecture to be removed from Sirmium to Thess.  Avars are named Scythians (131, 135f).  Vasiliev misses the point entirely:  «it mentions… barbarian invasions in the Balkan peninsula in the sixth century, naming the Avars, who, as we know from other evidence, invaded the peninsula in that century along with the Slavs» (146).  Notes in Ammian.art.  Cf Procopius.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «The Life of St. Peter of Argos and its Historical Significance.»  Traditio 5 (1947) 163-191.  D 111 T7.  Biblio, synopsis.  Dated by invasions of Tsar Symeon in Thessaloniki.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «The Second Russian Attack on Constantinople.»  Dumbarton Oaks Papers.  6 (1951) 161-225.  Re Oleg’s raid of 911.  Stupid comparison to St. Demetrius.  Biblio of sources.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «The Iconoclastic Decree of 726.»  Speculum 32 (1957).  Where is this?

Vasiliev, Alexander Alexandrovich.  Bibliography.  By Sirarpie Der Nersessian.  Dumbarton Oaks Papers.  9/10 (1956) 1-22.

Vasilievsky, Vasilii Grigorevich.  «Zhitie Stefana Novago.»  Zhurnal min.  191 (June 1877) 2:283-329.  Reprinted 1912.

Vasilievsky, Vasilii Grigorevich.  «Zhitie Stefana Novago.»  In his Trudy.  Vol 2, part 2.  1912.  297-329.

Vasilievsky, Vasilii Grigorevich.  Trudy.  4 vols.  St. Petersburg:  Akademiia Nauk, 1908-1930;  reprint Russian Reprint Series, 69, The Hague:  Mouton, 1968.  PIMS DK 32 V27;  Roba DF 531 V35.

Vercauteren, Fernand.  «La circulation des marchands en Europe occidentale du vie au xe siècle:  aspects économiques et culturels.»  Centri.  Settimane 11 (1964) 393-411;  441-451.  Title per.bib.

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Verlinden, Charles.  «Problèmes d’histoire économique franque:  Le Franc Samo.»  Revue belge.  12 (1933) 1090-1095.

Verlinden, Charles.  «L’origine de sclavus – esclave.»  Bulletin Du Cange.  17 (1942) 97-128.  PA 2801 B8.

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Vernadsky, George Vladimirovich.  «Feudalism in Russia.»  Speculum 14 (1939).

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Vernadsky, George Vladimirovich.  Ancient Russia.  Yale UP, 1969.  Pims DK 510.52 V47.  Up to AD 862.

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Vetter, P.  Das Buch des Mar Abas von Nisibis.  Stuttgart, 1893.

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Vogel, Walther.  «Wik-Orte und Wikinger.  Eine Studie zu den Anfängen des germanischen Stadtwesens.»  Hansische Geschichtsblätter.  60 (1936).  DD 801 H17 H3.

Vogel, Walther.  «La Hanse d’après les publications récentes.»  Revue historique.  172 (1937) 1-33.  D1 R6.  Mostly late.

Vogt, Albert, ed, tr.  Constantin Porphyrogénète:  Cérémonies.  3 vols.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1967.  Pims DF 541 C75;  Roba DF 541 C66.

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Vryonis, Speros.  «The Question of the Byzantine Mines.»  Speculum 37 (1962) 1-17.  Prasinos.

Vulic, Nikola.  «Ain Wassel.»  Wiener Studien.  22 (1905) 140.

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Waitz, Georg.  «Ueber die Münzverhältnisse in den älteren Rechtsbüchern des fränkischen Reiches.»  Abhandlungen der kgl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen.  (1861) 221-259.  AS 182 G812.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  MGH:  Scriptores Rerum langobardicarum et italicarum saec. VI-IX.  Hannover:  Hahn, 1878.  DD 3 M8 S6.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  Origo gentis Langobard.  In MGH:SRL.  1878.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  Andreae Bergomatis Historia.  In MGH:SRL, 1878, 220-230.  Heraclius’ victory over Persia, §25.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  Chronica patriacharum Gradensium.  In MGH:SRL 1878.  392-397.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  Gesta Episcoporum Neapolitanorum.  In MGH:SRL 1878.  398-424.  See Achelis.  [AD 750??]  Ratchis, qui apud Foroiuli dux fuerat effectus, in Carniolam, Sclavorum patriam, cum suis ingressus, magnam multitudinem Sclavorum interficiens, eorum devastavit §38.

Waitz, Georg.  «Annales Bertiniani.»  Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos-hist Klasse.  Berlin, 1883.  AS 182 B343.

Waitz, Georg.  Paul Deacon.  DG 511 P38.

Waitz, G.  Annales Colon.  DD 145 B87.

Waitz, G.  Einhard.  DC 73.3 H65.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  Annales Bertiniani.  MGH SS.  13:26.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  «Die Ravennatischen Annalen als Hauptquelle für die Geschichte des Odovakar.»  Nachrichten der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft und der Georg-August Universität zu Göttingen.  1865:81.  AS 182 G834 per.bib.

Waitz, Georg.  «Ueber die kleine Lorscher Franken Chronik.»  Berichte der K. Akad. der Wissenschaften zu Berlin.  19 (1882).  # per.bib

Waitz, Georg, ed.  Annales Bertiniani.  SGR in usum scholaris.  Hannover:  Hahn, 1883.  DC 702 A23.  Citation in text.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  Vitae Anskarii et Rimberti.  Hannover:  Hahn, 1884.  BX 4700 A5815 R5.

Waitz, Georg.  «Chron. Grad.»  Neues Archiv für ältere deutsche Geschichte.  2 (…) 375.  per.bib.

Waitz, Georg, FS.  Historische Aufsätze für G. Waitz.  Hannover, 1886.  Order received.

Waitz, Georg.  Annales Altahenses.  DC 702 A23.

Waitz, Georg.  Widukindi monachi Corbeiensis rerum gestarum saxonicarum liber tres.  Hannover:  Hahn, 1904.  HG W6418r.  Carinthia.

Wallace-Hadrill, J M.  Bulletin Du Cange.  25 (1955) for index of late Latin forms.

Wallace-Hadrill, J M.  «Fredegar and the History of France.»  Bulletin, John Ryland Library.  40 (1957/58).  Z 921 M3 J7.

Wallace-Hadrill, J. M., ed, tr.  The Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar with its Continuations.  London:  Nelson, 1960.  DC 60 F77.  Excerpts in c:\sorabia.

Wallace-Hadrill, J. M.  France, Government and Society.  London, 1957.

Wallner, .  Altbairische Siedlungsgeschichte.

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Wattenbach, W.  «Zu den Annales Bertiniani.»  Neues Archiv.  16 (1890) 607-609.

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Weitzmann, K.  Die byzantinische Buchmalerei des 9. und 10. Jahrhunderts.  Berlin, 1935.  ND 2930 W4.  Pancrace, 86.

Werner, Fritz.  Die Latinität der Getica des Jordanes.  Pamph LL J.

Werner, Joachim.  «Zur Ausfuhr koptischen Bronzegeschirrs ins Abendland während des 6. und 7. Jahrhunderts.»  VJSWG 42 (1955) 353-356.  H5 V6.

Werner, Joachim.  «Fernhandel und Naturalwirtschaft im östlichen Merowingerreich.»  Bericht der Römisch-germanischen Kommission.  42 (1961) 321.  DD 53 D42.

Werner, Joachim, and Eugen Ewig.  Von der Spätantike zum frühen Mittelalter:  Aktuelle Probleme im historischer und archäologischer Sicht.  Sigmaringen:  Thorbecke, 1979.  D 62 V66.

Werner, Karl Ferdinand.  «Les principautés périphériques dans le monde franc du VIIIe siècle.»  I Probleme dell’Occidente nel secolo VIII.  Settimane 20 (1973) 483-514.

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Whitby, Michael, and Mary Whitby, trs.  Theophylakt.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1986.  DF 573.5 S513.  The Avars «are Huns, who dwell beside the Ister» (I,3,1).  One reference to Bulgars, 183f (VII,4).

Whitby, Michael.  Evagrius.  Liverpool, 2000.  BR 160 E6 W45.

White, H. J.  «The Codex Amiatinus and its Birthplace.»  Studia biblica et ecclesiastica.  21 (1890) 273-324.  #per.bib.  Important for sources.  Mentions OE Orosius, but not the Latin original.

White, Jr., Lynn.  «The Byzantinization of Sicily.»  American Historical Review.  42 (1936) 1-21.  HX.

Whittaker, C. R.  «Late Roman Trade and Traders.»  In Trade in the Ancient Economy.  Ed: P. Garnsey, K. Hopkins and C. R. Whittaker.  London:  The Hogarth Press, 1983.  HF 375 T73.

Wiarda, Tilemann.  Altfriesisches Wörterbuch.  LaTeut W631 a

Wilkens, H.  «Zur Geschichte des niederländischen Handels im Mittelalter.»  Hansische Geschichtsblätter.  14 (1908) 205-356.  Heavy on sources.  DD 801 H17H3 and MICRO.

Williams, John Alden, tr.  Al-Tabari:  The Early ‘Abbasi Empire.  2 vols.  Cambridge UP, 1988-1989.  D 17 T2313.

Willibad.  Vita Bonifatii.  Ed: Wilhelm Levison, SRM in usum scholarum, Hannover, 1905.  BX 4700 B7 L48.  Page 49 for a mention of Frisian rivers also mentioned in Fredegar, p. 92.

Willibald, Vita.  MGH SS 15:93.  See also travels of Willibald, including stopover amongst the Slavs.

Willibrord, Life by Alcuin.  MGH.  SRM 81-141.  7:127 for Charles’ defeat of Radbod in 714, after W is appointed bishop of Utrecht.  Travelling along the Frisian Coast.  Willibrord «pervenit in confinio Fresonum et Daenorum ad quandam insulam, quae a quodam deo suo Fositae ab accolis terrae Fositesland appellabatur» (124). Jaffé 6:35-79.

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Wuttke, Heinrich.  Die Kosmographie des Istriers Aithikos.  Leipzig:  Dyk, 1853;  2nd 1854.  Lindsay recommends 2nd ed.  Rev:  Kunstmann.  WCat 7, + mfm.

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Zachary, Patriarch.  De Persica captivitate.  PG 86:3236ff.

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Zangemeister, Karl.  «Zum Anonymus Valesianus.»  RhM 30 (1875) 309-316.  Text history.  Emendations.  Theoderic.

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Zeiller, Jacques.  Les origines chrétiennes dans les provinces danubiennes de l’empire romain.  BEFAR, 112.  Paris, 1918.  Also:  BR 182 Z44.  Mention of Emona in Pannonia, from Pliny NH III 18,128.

Zeiller, Jacques.  «Sur l’origine de Spalato.»  In Mélanges Cagnat.  Paris, 1922.  419-426.  DG 77 M45.  Re:  DAI.

Zeiller, Jacques.  «Le site de Justiniana Prima.»  In Mélanges Charles Diehl.  Paris, 1930.  I:299-304.

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Composée en Egypte au 7e siècle, traduite en grec, mais connue selon une traduction éthiopienne basée sur une version arabe (1877:451).  L’auteur a suivi la même chronique que Malalas, Jean d’Antioche, la Chronique pascale (1878:245).  Third installment is the most important;  it begins with Maurice, mentions Anuchirwan, 303ff, and has important data on Heraclius, 1879:326ff.  Justin and the Huns, 1878:326f.  In Alexandria of Egypt, Theophilus the Confessor and Stylite had predicted that Heraclius would be raised to the throne (1879:342).  Heraclius crowned at the church of St. Thomas the Apostle (1879:347).

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Zuckerman, Constantine.  «The Early Byzantine Strongholds in Eastern Pontus.»  Travaux et mémoires. 11 (1991) 527-553.

The Geography of Orosius

February 16, 2010

The Geography of Orosius:
Notes on the Early History of the Eurasian Nations

In the first book of his Histories Against the Pagans, Paulus Orosius inserted a prose description of the inhabited world (I,2).  This cosmography has long earned its place in the history of science.  Riese included it in his Geographi minores (56-70).  In his History of Ancient Geography, Bunbury wrote that it was *drawn up with clearness and intelligence, and has the merit of being original+ (2:691).

However Orosius wrote in AD 417 and his reputation has suffered from his position at the cusp of antiquity and the middle ages.  Historians of ancient geography have mostly ignored him as being too late, while medievalists have studied not so much what Orosius’ cosmography meant in its own late antique context, but how it was used by his medieval successors.  In order to redress this imbalance, Yves Janvier dedicated an entire book to the subject:  La géographie d’Orose (1982), both a study and a partial edition.

Orosius included a cosmography with his Histories the way a modern historian might add a map for the convenience of his readers.  In antiquity maps seem to have been crafted and displayed to enhance prestige;  their practical value was perhaps nil (Arnaud 1989:18).  Words were the preferred medium to create and disseminate a mental picture of the world, for instance the verse cosmography of Dionysius Periegetes, who wrote under Emperor Hadrian (AD 117-138), and was translated into Latin by Avienus and later Priscian (ed:  Bernhardy).

Orosius chose to enhance his Histories with a verbal description, as the most effective tool, which these were until standardized maps were invented:  *the first great advance in comparative cartography was the introduction of printing in the 15th century.  Before this, a map was subject to as many stages of possible corruption as there were hand-copies+ (Bagrow and Skelton 1985:89).  Until then, chorographies provided a narrative picture of the world, based on itineraries.  Diagrams could not compete with words.  *La cartographie ancienne était donc un espace tragiquement borné, si on le comparait à l’expansion infinie du texte géographique+ (Arnaud 1989:14).

Since their authors lacked accurate information and measurements, verbal maps were not a perfect instrument.  Historians rarely included chorographies in their narratives.  Orosius was an exception.  On the subject of Polybius, Horsfall notes that *maps had no place in the composition or publication of historical works+ (198).  Notwithstanding their limitations, verbal maps were the best available instrument for historians who felt the need for orientation.  Allowing for shortcomings, these chorographies are now available for research into the history of ancient peoples.

In his cosmography, Orosius mentions an Eastern nation bearing a name which could be that of the Huns:  *a fontibus Ottorogorrae usque ad civitatem Ottorogorram inter Hunos Scythas et Gandaridas mons Caucasus+ (I,2,45).  However, the information he provides on their location does not allow for a secure identification with those Huns who were raiding Palestine and Asia minor in his own days, and whom Attila later made famous.  Moreover the surviving manuscripts of Orosius, some 300 of them, do not agree on the spelling of this ethnic name.

Consequently Janvier withheld judgement:  *son texte situe assurément les Gandarides dans l’ancien Gandhara, actuellement le nord du Pakistan+ (107).  *Les Chuni [...] seraient donc plus à l’ouest [...] On ne sait même pas si Orose avait bien écrit leur nom [...] les manuscrits offrant concurremment Chunos, Hunos, Funos [...] on ne peut pas s’arrêter à une assimilation des Chuni aux Huns, tentante mais douteuse+ (108).

On the basis of data supplied by Orosius, Janvier believed that these Chuni, Huni, Funi dwelled around modern Peshawar, in Pakistan (107).  We do have evidence from Eastern sources and from archaeology for the presence in that region at that time of a nation bearing such a name.  They were neighbours of the Persian empire and are called Xyon in Sassanian sources.  In Chinese, they are called Hsiung-nu;  in Sogdian Xwn;  in Sanskrit Hûna.  Ammianus Marcellinus, who completed his History in AD 391, mentions them under the name Chionitae.  The anonymous Descriptio orbis terrae, dated to the mid fourth century (edited by Sinko in 1904;  see also Rougé 1966), places a nation known as Chioni, Ioni, on the confines of India, i.e. in the same vicinity.

Under the name Hûna this nation dwelling around Peshawar later played an important role in the history of India, and it has attracted the attention of Indian scholars.  On the basis of evidence from Fa-hien (a Chinese pilgrim who was an older contemporary of Orosius), corroborated by the historical works of the Armenian Faustus of Byzantium, and of Ammianus, the Indian scholar Sahi would date the arrival of the Hûna in Peshawar to AD 359-363.

I agree with Sahi’s general argument but I would date their arrival some twenty years earlier, on the basis of a source which Sahi does not discuss:  the Descriptio orbis terrae, dated ca 348, mentioned above.  This anonymous work of commercial geography describes the Roman Empire up to the Parthian borders, including Bosra and Arabia.  It surveys the East in a sketchy fashion, and lacks the geographical competence of Orosius but it does record a nation bearing such a name situated on the edge of the Indian world:  *gens sic appellanda Ioneum+;  Sinko records the variant *Choneum+ found in some manuscripts (’14).  Not surprisingly in the case of a forgotten nation, the text is corrupt;  but the context supports a reading to match Khyon, Hûna, Chyonitai, Hsiung-nu.

Writing in AD 417 Orosius mentions the Chuni of Peshawar;  these people were recent comers to the Hindu Kush, having settled there less than a century earlier, as demonstrated by Sahi.  Therefore Orosius could not have learned about their existence in early authors such as Pliny’s Natural History or, as suggested by Klotz in a very influential paper, in the lost map of Agrippa, created in the days of Augustus (1930).  Scholars who have accepted Klotz’s argument (for instance Uhden 1933) have overlooked the case of the Chuni / Chyonitai whose migrations in the early fourth century invalidate this hypothesis.

The Map of Agrippa was a landmark in the history of science;  for general studies, see Detlefsen, Klotz 1931, Müllenhoff, Petersen, Reinhold, Roddaz, Schnabel, Schweder, Shipley, Tierney.  *Die Weltkarte des Agrippa war die grossartigste Leistung der Römer auf dem Gebiete der Geographie.  Auch dieses Werk trägt ganz den Stempel ihres Geistes;  während den Griechen die Sterne die Führer bei der Bestimmung der Erdoberfläche waren, gingen die Römer von den Meilensteinen aus+ (Hosius 1935:331).  However for all its technical expertise, it could not have provided testimony for the Chyonitai in Peshawar at a time when they dwelled North West of China.

Like any other historical investigation, the etymology of an ethnic name requires signposts, such as dated documents.  One of the links in the chain of evidence concerning the Hsiung-nu / Khyôn is provided by the Ancient Sogdian Letters;  Henning dates these documents to AD 313, based on a mention of the destruction of the city of Lo-yang by the Hsiung-nu, which took place in AD 311 (1947/48:603f).  Because we have sources in both languages, Chinese and Sogdian, which refer to the same datable event, we can be confident that the Hsiung-nu of the Chinese histories are the same people as the Xwn of the Ancient Sogdian letters.

At the beginning of the Christian era, in the days of Pliny the Elder and Agrippa, the Khyôn held sway on China’s North West border, and are only known to us at present by way of the Chinese sources who call them Hsiung-nu, and the Ancient Sogdian Letters who call them Xwn.  The Descriptio orbis terrae provides evidence that they migrated sometime before AD 348, almost a century before Orosius put pen to paper, and two centuries after Agrippa crafted his world map.  Whatever source Orosius used, it was later than the migration of the Khyôn from China’s northern border to the Hindu Kush which took place sometime between AD 315 and 345.

Before they were driven out by the Chinese, the Hsiung-nu ruled for centuries over a rich and powerful state;  they could have been known by name and reputation to Augustan Rome.  In fact, they may be the mysterious people called Choamani by authors of the Principate (Mela 1,2,11;  Pliny 6,47).  In his edition of Mela, Silberman comments on the Choamani:  *Peuple de Bactriane (cf Pline VI,47):  Commani, Comani, Choamani), entre les Chomarae et les Propanisadae;  il n’est pas autrement connu+ (1988:107n7).  Surviving manuscripts of Pliny have mostly commani in this passage;  the Codex Leidensis Vossianus has comani.  In his edition of Pliny (1892-1909), Mayhoff restored Choamani on the basis of Mela’s text.  This emendation has a long history;  the probability that Pliny’s commani were Mela’s Coammani was suggested in the fifteenth century by the noted humanist Ermolao Barbaro (ed:  Pozzi, vol 2, page 477).  It has now been accepted by the Budé editors of Pliny who, like Silberman, describe the Choamani as otherwise unknown (André and Filliozat, 1980:62n4).

Because Mela lists the Choamani amongst the nations of Bactria, Silberman assumes that they were one of the Bactrian nations.  This is a natural assumption but it founders upon an unresolved problem of ancient geography.  True to classical teaching, Mela starts his description of the world with the Ocean.  On the shore of this mythical world river, he places the Scyths to the North, the Seres next to them, to the East, and the Indians next in line, that is South of the Scyths:  *Tribus hanc e partibus tangit oceanus, ita nominibus ut locis differens, Eous ab oriente, a meridie Indicus, a septentrione Scythicus+ (I,1/8).  *In ea primos hominum ab oriente accipimus Indos et Seres et Scythes.  Seres media ferme Eoae partis incolunt, Indi et Scythae ultima … + (I,2/11).

The Seres are normally equated with the Chinese, although there are reasons to doubt this attribution.  The Greeks and the Romans knew correctly that North and East from India there was a world class empire, bordering on the Ocean but they knew almost nothing about it, the people, the culture, the history.  As summarized pithily by McHugh:  *Mention of the Seres is not rare … but the most that can be affirmed of them with any certainty is that they are remote easterners+ (1986:341).  Even the name is uncertain.

Janvier has shown in a major article on the Far East (1984) that the name Seres applied to the great power in the Far East was not that of the Chinese themselves but possibly an Iranian name of Western neighbours of the Chinese.  It was not until the fourth century AD that the name Sina or Tsinista, or some variant of this name became known to the Greco-Roman world (Marcian of Heracleia, Cosmas Indicopleustes).  This is not an uncommon problem in the study of geographic names:  the Romans used the name of the neighbouring Graeci for the Hellens and this misnomer has endured to the present.  Fortunately, even under the misnomer Seres, we can recognize China, however imperfectly known.

The Greeks and the Romans were no less ignorant of the vastness of Eurasia.  In Mela’s scheme, there is nothing between European Russia and Northern China;  Mela imagines that they are contiguous, and that China runs all the way from the Urals to the Himalaya.  In reality of course, the Urals and China are separated by Siberia, Mongolia… immense territories, filled with a multitude of nations, including the Hsiung-nu, frequently mentioned by the Chinese in the same period as Pliny and Mela, as well as other Altaic speaking peoples.  The vastness of Mongolia simply disappeared in the *thick fog of pernicious schematization+ which, according to Horsfall, characterized ancient geography (198).

Siberia’s invisibility affected all of ancient geography.  It can be read clearly in Ammianus:  *Beyond these regions of the two Scythias, toward the east, a circling and continuous barrier of lofty mountains fences round the Seres, who dwell thus secure in their rich and spacious plains+ (23,6).  This follows earlier authors like Ptolemy who writes:  *Serica is terminated on the West by Scythia beyond the Imaeus mountains … on the north is unknown land+ (6,16,1).  Imaeus corresponds roughly with the Himalaya, considered by by the ancients to be one of the mountains of the great Asian chain which they called Taurus.  Ammianus’ *lofty mountains+ are the Urals;  they are indeed immediately beyond Scythia… but thousands of miles away from China, separated by the vast lands occupied by Mongols, Mandchou, and many Altaic speaking nations.

If one were to take a paper map made by modern cartographers, and fold it so that the Great Wall of China coincided with the Urals, one would have a good approximation of how the ancients perceived Eurasia.  This brings up another problem of Greco-Roman geography, clearly described by Strabo who divides Asia into a northern and a southern half with the help of a chain of mountains, called Taurus.  According to him and apparently all ancient geographers, this mountain chain runs like a belt across Asia east and west (Strabo 11,1,2).  At the western end of this mountainous spine are found regions like Armenia and Cappadocia;  at the eastern end lie China and India.  North are the Scyths, and south are the Persians.  This neat scheme made the Indians and the Chinese neighbours of the Scyths of the Pontic steppe.  In reality they were thousands of miles apart.

The ancients imagined that the Hindu Kush and the Himalaya were the continuation of the Caucasus between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.  This is not surprising:  they based their descriptions of the world upon the reports of travellers (ambassadors, military and intelligence personnel, and above all traders) who had ventured forth as far as the Caucasus and the Caspian sea, when travelling north-east by land;  from the other direction, the lands as far as Afghanistan were known to them from the adventures of Alexander of Macedon, who reached the Pamir.  They assumed that these reports covered the whole world and they thought that the mountains reported by all these travellers were one and the same as the Caucasus.  In fact, of course, they included as well the Pamir, the Hindu Kush, the Himalaya, etc.  Above all, there were vast, fertile and prosperous spaces between these mountain chains, filled with nations which could not be fitted into their rigid scheme.

One final difficulty in ancient geography impacts the early history of the Eurasian nations:  the Caspian Sea.  Many ancient authors, including Strabo, thought that the Caspian was not a closed sea, as some travellers reported but a gulf of the Northern Ocean.  This posed a major difficulty in plotting the dwelling places of ancient nations.  Just south of the Caspian Sea is the modern province of Mazanderan, an immensely fertile and prosperous region, known as the kingdom of Tabaristan in the middle ages, and as Hyrcania to the ancient Greeks and Romans.  The association between Hyrcania and the Caspian sea/gulf was so well known that this body of water was sometimes called the Hyrcanian sea (Strabo 11,1,7).

West of the Caspian lived nations well known to the Roman empire:  Armenians, Albanians, Iberians.  North of this sea dwelled the Massagetae, later known as the Alans;  to the west, the Alans had the Huns as their neighbours, just across from the river Tanais;  to the east, they reached as far as Samarkand.  The identification of the ancient Massagetae with the later Alans rests upon a long series of ancient authors, amongst them Ammianus:  *the Halani, once known as the Massagetae+ (31,2,12).  Synesius is more allusive in his De regno where he mentions *the Getae and the Massagetae [... who] spread terror amongst you, crossing over in their turn, assuming other names+ (’11, translated by FitzGerald).  The Getae and the Massagetae who have changed their names are the Goths and the Alans;  the literary equation between Getae and Goths is well known from Jordanes, the Getica.

The change from Massagetae to Alans was familiar from earlier writers, and could be alluded to.  Cassius Dio writes in his Roman History:  *A second war was begun by the Alani (they are Massagetae) at the instigation of Pharasmanes.  It caused dire injury to the Albanian territory and Media, and then involved Armenia and Cappadocia+ (69,15,1).  In the fourth century, Jerome still uses the name Massagetae, expecting his readers to understand whom he means:  *For news came that the hordes of the Huns had poured forth all the way from Maeotis (they had their haunts between the icy Tanais and the rude Massagetae where the gates of Alexander keep back the wild peoples behind the Caucasus)+ (Letter # 77,8 to Oceanus, on the death of Fabiola, dated 400).

Otherwise, we have almost no information on the Alans:  they played a marginal but persistent role in Greco-Roman affairs, and later in Byzantium.  Their geographic location however is impaired because ancient geographers believed that the Caspian was a gulf of the Arctic ocean, instead of a closed sea.  *Milesian traders knew the Caspian sea was a closed one, but geographers needed symmetry in their maps+ (Myres 1896:609).  The Massagetae later known as Alans lived in the lands where Strabo assigned immense water, deep, cold Arctic sea water at that.  This intrusive Caspian gulf makes Strabo’s description difficult to work out in the real world.

Strabo divides Asia into regions.  The first, which he called Tanais after the Don River, lies north of the Caucasus;  it is bounded by the Don River, the Ocean and the Caspian gulf (11,1,5).  He describes the second region, just east of it, as inhabited by *the Scyths who are neighbours of the Indians+ (11,1,7), with the Caspian gulf separating these two northern regions.  In fact both regions are contiguous, and run seamlessly north of the Caspian sea.  As for Strabo’s Indians, they are the Iranian speaking people of Inner Asia, dwelling in the regions of Samarkand, Bukhara, etc., those plains which interfered with the solid rampart of the Taurus postulated for Inner Asia.

Just how *compacted+ a view of the East was held by the ancient writers can be seen in the Meteorologica of Aristotle:  he believed that when a traveller had crossed the Paropamisus, i.e. the Hindu Kush, *the outer ocean, whose farther limit is unknown to the inhabitants of our part of the world, is already in sight+ (I,13,3).  By the outer ocean, he means at this point what we call the Arctic and the Pacific oceans;  for him, this was one body of water.  A quick look at any map of Asia will show what vast regions were not even known to exist.  To compound this *minimising+ of Asia, let us note also that Aristotle believed that both the Don River of Southern Russia and the Indus of India flowed out of the Hindu Kush.

This deficient knowledge suggested to the ancients that the Scyths were neighbours to the Indians;  they had no factual information on this proximity.  Their belief did not rest on the reports of travellers who had journeyed from the land of the Scyths to India, by crossing the Hindu Kush;  their belief was the result of combining the itineraries of Northern travellers to the lands of the Scyths with totally unrelated itineraries of travellers to Afghanistan.  Nowadays we have sufficient data to plot what was known and even more importantly what was unknown to the ancients, so that we can make accurate sense of what they did know.

This image of a *compacted+ Asia obtained until the end of the middle ages.  After the fall of Constantinople cut off Mediterranean trade from the Black Sea, the quest for the Northern Passage revealed the Siberian immensity.  To this period of Eastern exploration belong Russia’s struggle against the Golden Horde, Marco Polo’s journey to the court of the Mongol emperor, etc.  The conquest and subsequent serious mapping of Siberia starts under Tsar Ivan IV (styled the Terrible, 1530-1584);  crowned first Tsar of Russia in 1547, he spent most of his life recovering territories from the Livonians in the West, from the Tartars in the South and from the Mongols in the East.  The first trans-Uralian expeditions begin in 1579.  However this chapter of Siberian history belongs to a totally different research project.

Renaissance geographers working within the ancient tradition should have taken classical sources like Mela, and inserted into the old scheme the newly discovered territories, and their nations.  They should have done the reverse of what I proposed above:  they should have cut open the ancient maps and inserted the vast arc of land which stretches from the Urals to the Great Wall of China.  They needed to fit in Siberia, Mongolia, and the Altaic people in the space between the Urals and China.  It is specifically this failure of historical geography which has made it possible for modern historians to believe the Hsiung-nu neighbours of the Chinese were also the Huns of Southern Russia — because ancient sources believed mistakenly that China started at the Urals, and that there was only one, albeit immense, mountain chain in Inner Asia, which comprised the Caucasus and the Himalaya, and everything else in between.

In his influential article *Hunni+ in the Realencyklopädie, Kiessling writes:  *Iordanes (c. 5) liest dieselbe Karte ab und ist besonders klar und anschaulich in seiner Angabe:  Skythien hat an seiner Ostseite die Seres, in ipso sui (sc. Scythiae) principio ad litus Caspii maris commanentes, d. h. die Seren reichen im Norden bis an den Eingang und schmalen Hals des Kaspischen Golfes heran, der, ab Oceano euroboreo abzweigt+ (1913, vol 8, col 2596).  Well, yes.  Not only Jordanes but all ancient authors believed that China and Scythia were contiguous.  Unfortunately they were all wrong, a point which Kiessling somehow overlooked.

This problem was never resolved by historians of geographical science.  Instead of recognizing the flaw, modern geographers inserted the recently discovered lands into the space between Scythia and China on their maps, but they filled this space with imaginary Asian Scyths, from ancient catalogues of nations, instead of the real Altaic people, mostly unrecorded in Greek and Roman sources.  They stretched the word Scythia to include the newly discovered territories and applied the name Scythian to the newly discovered Altaic peoples… even though the nations of Siberia were not Scyths.  If the ancient Greeks and Romans ever heard any report of nations from the Altaic group, they categorized them as either Seres or members of the Iranian or Indian groups because their schematic maps provided no other space to fit them in.

Not only were the immense territories between the Urals and the Great Wall of China lost to ancient geographers, Scythia was split erroneously into two regions, European Scythia and Asiatic Scythia… even though Scythia was known to them, indeed poorly known, but not terra incognita like Siberia.  The geographers of the post-Renaissance were misled by the ancient concept of two Scythias which is, like the other difficulties we face, the result of pernicious schematization.

The Scyths occupied the lands between the Vistula and the Urals, ranging from the Baltic to the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.  Greek geographers established the Don (the Tanais) as a dividing line through this territory creating a European Scythia and an Asiatic Scythia separated by this river.  This division rests upon a political concept, and has nothing to do with physical or human geography:  the Don was the boundary between the Greek and Iranian zones of influence.  The ancient authors compounded their misrepresentation of the Great North by utterly overlooking the vastness of Siberia, while they incorrectly placed China right on the other side of the Urals.  Faithful to this erroneous tradition, post-Renaissance scholars have imagined that the Asiatic Scyths were these overlooked nations to the North and North West of China, East of the Urals, even though in the ancient scheme the Asiatic Scyths dwelled between the Don and the Urals, not east of the Urals, and they were called Asiatic by the Greek because they happen to fall into the Iranian zone of political and mercantile influence.

When describing Scythia, Strabo suffers from inadequate orientation.  He describes the nations and rivers which run from the mouth of the Danube to the mouth of the Don as though they were further and further north… rather than further and further east (7,3,17).  In his scheme, the Rhoxolani who dwell by the Don are the northernmost of the nations of Scythia.  In his note on this passage Baladié asks:  *Comment expliquer que des peuples aussi septentrionaux aient pu intervenir … dans un conflit qui eut pour théâtre la Chersonèse Taurique?» (page 197, note 1 for page 101).  Simple :  Strabo made a mistake, north instead of east.   Mela, writing a few decades after Strabo, places the Rhipaean Mountains, which he did not consider mythical, beyond the Tanais.  This is correct from Rome’s perspective but he also places north instead of east, and so far north that they overlook the Arctic Ocean (1,19/117).  We must allow for this error in orientation when dealing with the Northern nations in antiquity.

The Age of Exploration revealed that the Urals, not the Don, formed the dividing line between Europe and Asia.  It also confirmed unheeded reports by ancient travellers that the Caspian was a closed sea, not a gulf of the Arctic Ocean.  With this discovery, Renaissance and later geographers redistributed the Scyths:  European Scyths to the West of the Urals (no longer the Don), and Asiatic Scyths to the East of the Urals.  In fact, these two groups of Scyths never existed sui generis:  they were so labelled to reflect international politics in ancient times.  Later geographic space was incorrectly labelled to preserve the erroneous categories and assign some meaning to them.  For the Scyths themselves, there was only one Scythia, and the Don is only one of innumerable rivers which crisscross it.

One finds frequently that modern maps of ancient nations cover the lands of Siberia and Mongolia with Scyths;  however, this area should be left blank to represent the fact that to the Greeks and the Romans it was quite literally terra incognita:  they did not even know it existed, and they knew nothing about the nations which dwelt there.  Scythia ended at the Urals;  ancient authors did not locate any Scyths between the Urals and China because they did not even realize that this territory existed.  They did not place any Scyths East of the Urals because they thought the Seres dwelled there:  Ptolemy and Ammianus, cited above, make that quite clear.

One further detail:  Ammianus knew that the dividing line between Scythia and what he thought were the Seres was the Ural range;  earlier sources realized that the end of Scythia was marked by some sort of boundary;  but they thought this boundary was the Caspian Sea, or as they imagined, the Caspian gulf of the Arctic Ocean.  Ammianus and Justin had more accurate knowledge of the region than did Strabo.  The most ancient sources knew that there were some important mountains in Scythia, which they called the Rhipaeans, but they had no idea that it formed Scythia’s eastern border.  They looked for it in the northernmost regions, and of course did not find them there.

Eastern trade and expansion from the middle ages onward revealed that the lands from the Elbe to the Straits of Bering formed an immense plain, interrupted north of the Caspian sea by a major mountain range, running north-south:  the Urals.  This vast open space was totally unknown to the ancients, who could even speculate that the Caspian Sea was a gulf of the Arctic Ocean, as Strabo makes clear:  *but these parts of the country beyond the Elbe that are near the Ocean are wholly unknown to us.  For of the men of earlier times I know of no one who has made this voyage along the coast to the Eastern parts that extend as far as the north of the Caspian Sea+ (7,2,4).  While Renaissance geographers expanded the smallish ancient Scythia to fit into this enormous territory, they failed to identify the Urals as the only mountain range which could have been meant when poorly informed travellers told stories about the Rhipaean Mountains, rejected as *mythical+ by Strabo, who considered it a phantom of men’s ignorance (7,3,1).

Having abolished the Rhipaean mountains, ancient geographers had difficulties plotting the course of the Don (Tanais) river:  *Now the Tanais flows from the northern region [...]  This has caused some to assume that the Tanais has its sources in the Caucasian Mountain [...] and others to assume that it flows from the upper region of the Ister+ (Strabo 11,2,2).  In other words, these unnamed geographers proposed that the Don River flowed northwards out of the Caucasus, unseen and unrecorded, and turned around to flow south into the Black Sea;  the alternate hypothesis was that the Tanais flowed east out of the Alps (where the Ister/Danube has its sources) and that it eventually turned south, likewise unseen and unrecorded.

The prize for the sources of the Tanais should be awarded to Aristotle, who in his Meteorologica places its origin in an Eastern mountain range which appears in manuscripts as Parnassus, but must evidently be the Paropamisus, namely the Hindu Kush (I,13,3).  Aristotle plots the course of the Tanais from the Araxes (by which he probably means the Syr Darya) to Lake Maeotis, i.e. the Sea of Azov.  Nevertheless, the Rhipaean mountains, which he branded as fanciful in the same passage, remained a more sensible alternative to this fluvial absurdity, as we find in the Late Latin poet Avitus:  *Non aliter Tanais, nivibus cum pascitur albus, // Riphaeo de monte ruens inliditur amni+ (De diluvio mundi 441-442).  In Hecquet-Noti’s translation:  *De la même manière, lorsqu’il se repaît de neige, le blanc Tanaïs dévalant le mont Riphée est emporté dans ses remous+ (2:87).  Avitus echos Mela who also believed that the Tanais had its sources in the Rhipaean Mountains (1,19/115).  In fact the great rivers of the steppe have their sources not in mountains, but in plains.

Scientific writers reported what they knew… and did not know:  *Sarmatia … is bounded by the Tanais river and by the line which extends from the sources of the Tanais river toward the unknown land as far as the indicated terminus+ (Ptolemy 3,5,10, page 79 of Stevenson’s translation).  Ptolemy must have believed that the Rhipaean mountains existed in the real world since he provides latitude and longitude for them:  63o and 57o 30′ (page 79 of Stevenson).  This is not to suppose that the figures were accurate:  another thousand years needed to pass before longitude could be measured (see Aujac, Jones, Mahoney, Quill for further references).

However we must not denigrate the ancients’ hopeless theories since they enable us to establish their actual knowledge on the subject of Eastern lands.  *Was man aber in Wirklichkeit vom Don wusste, beschränkt sich einzig und allein auf das Mündungsgebiet des Tanais;  sein Mittel- und Oberlauf waren gänzlich unbekannt+ (Beckers 1914:539).

There is only one significant chain of mountains in this Northern region:  the Urals.  Therefore, the Urals must be the Rhipaean mountains.  True, ancient informants provided geographers with confused information on its location, which explains Strabo’s disbelief.  However, even though they were ignorant of their location, ancient travellers knew correctly that some very important mountains existed in that general area.

Ancient geographers seemed to have imagined the world as a series of concentric circles, with the Ocean Stream on the outside.  Since Scythia was as far north as one could go, and since the Rhipaean mountains were some distance away from the Pontic belt, they must have been very far north;  within this framework, an Eastern location for the Rhipaean mountains would have made no sense to them.  To Claudian, the North Pole was the Rhipaean Pole:   *at si Phoebus adest et frenis grypa iugalem // Riphaeo tripodes repetens detorsit ab axe+ (Panegyricus de sexto consulatu Honorii augusti, edited by Dewar, verses 930-931).

Ancient geography was not in any way an exact science:  consider that Herodotus imagined the Danube ran north-south, instead of west-east.  And yet the Danube was exceedingly well known to Greek traders, judging from archaeological remains.  But Herodotus did get some of the data right:  he located the source of the Danube in the lands of the Celts, and its mouth in the Black Sea;  he also understood the great significance of this river.  In his description of the Scyths, he mentions the Danube as their western border;  since however he imagined that the Danube ran North-South (like the Nile) and not West-East, his description still confuses his readers today.  While discussing the Nile, Herodotus provides incidentally some information on the source of the Danube [the Ister] which has been misread since the days of Aristotle:

The Ister *flows from the land of the Celtae and the city of Pyrene through the very midst of Europe;  now the Celtae dwell beyond the pillars of Heracles, being neighbours of the Cynesii, who are the westernmost of all nations inhabiting Europe.  The Ister, then, flows clean across Europe and ends its course in the Euxine sea, at Istria, which is inhabited by Milesian colonists+ (2.33).

He repeats part of this information once more later in his Histories:

*for the Ister traverses the whole of Europe, rising among the Celts who, save only the Cynetes, are the most westerly dwellers in Europe, and flowing thus clean across Europe it issues forth along the borders of Scythia+ (4.49)

In his Meteorologica, a century later, Aristotle corrected what he thought was a mistake in Herodotus:

*From Pyrenê (this is a mountain range towards the equinoctial sunset in Celtice) there flow the Istrus and the Tartessus.  The latter flows into the sea outside the Pillars of Heracles, the Istrus flows right across Europe into the Euxine+ (1,13).

Aristotle’s mistake was picked up over a hundred years ago by historians of the Celts:  *Toutefois, il faut observer qu’Hérodote parle d’une ville de Pyrène, et non d’une montagne de ce nom;  il est donc possible qu’il n’ait pas commis l’erreur où l’auteur des Météorologiques est certainement tombé+ (Bertrand and Reinach 1894:8).

Pyrene, according to Herodotus, was a city close to the source of the Danube;  therefore it must be sought in the Alps, possibly the archaeological site known today as Die Heuneburg.  Excavated from 1950 to 1979 (Kimmig 1985), this ancient city was located on the west bank of the Danube between Sigmaringen and Ulm.  Its location and its importance for trade make it a prime candidate for Herodotus’ Pyrene.  By the days of Aristotle, the First Celtic Empire (known to archaeologists as the Hallstatt Culture) had come to an end;  the Second Empire flourished (the La Tène Culture);  Pyrene was now abandoned, and Aristotle did not know it had ever existed.  He confused the name of a forgotten city with the name of a mountain range still current today.

The Cynesii or Cynetes who lived west of the Celts are difficult to locate if one assumes that Herodotus uses the locator west as we would today.  But if we look at Europe in this period, the only large ethnic group beyond the Celts were the Northern Germans:  Frisians, Angles, Saxons, Scandinavians.  In our terms they were North-West of the Celts;  since they were the only substantial ethnic group outside of Keltike, they must be the people Herodotus know as Cynesii/Cynetes.  It is difficult to link them with nations known during the day of Roman domination over Western Europe because *their name disappears early from geography+ (How and Wells 1:178)

What was the land of the Celts in the days of Herodotus?  Archaeology provides the answer:  *the wholly or partially Celtic world from Iberia to the Carpathians+ (Piggott 220).  That its flowering was contemporary with Herodotus is clear from the same author:  *The last phase of Celtic culture in Europe, a mature stage of which constituted the Celts as known to the Greek, and soon the Roman world, begins in archaeological terms around 500 B.C.  The date is determined by the Etruscan and Greek objects found in graves+ (215).  It is also possible to determine its focus:  *But with the chieftains’ chariot-burials and other graves with rich offerings including Etruscan and Greek imports (notably bronze wine-flagons) the archaeological phase of La Tène begins in the Rhineland and almost concurrently in the Marne+ (215f).

The Celts were the Scyths’ Western neighbours.  In the days of Herodotus, the lower Danube and the Vistula formed the border of Scythia in the West.  The Danube was known to him, but not the Vistula.  These boundaries were later blurred by upheavals in the Celtic world, altered by Roman advances beyond the Danube, and later when the Goths gained power over the Pontic steppe.  In the days of Orosius, Gothic power had fallen, and Attila had not yet established his rule over the region.  To situate these chapters of Pontic history within the context of Mediterranean affairs, let us note that Roman advances in Dacia took place under Trajan (for his reign, see De la Berge);  the loss of Dacia to the Goths happened under Aurelian (see Homo for this emperor).

On the subject of Scythian geography, most ancient sources are so deficient on the Rhipaean mountains that they merely report on their existence, and their association with the Scyths.  Orosius’ near contemporary, the ecclesiastical historian Philostorgius testifies that these mountains were associated with the Huns of Scythia:  *eien d’an hoi Ounnoi hous hoi palaioi Neurous erônomazon, kai para ta Rhipaia katôkêmenoi orê, ex hôn ho Tanaïs eis tên Maiôtida limnên kata suromenos to rheithron ekdidôsin+ (9,17).  The geographical markers which Philostorgius provides for the Huns, known to the ancients as Neuroi, are the Sea of Azov (Palus Maiotis), the Don river and the Rhipaean Mountains.  Later authors, including the poet Avitus, cited above, were not as scientific as Strabo, but they had better information on the geography of the Pontic steppe.

Other sources agree with them, such as Justin, Histories:  *Scythia autem in orientem porrecta includitur ab uno latere Ponto, ab altero montibus Riphaeis, a tergo Asia et Phasi flumine.  Multum in longitudinem et latitudinem patet.  Hominibus inter se nulli fines+ (11,2,1-3).  Justin (or his source Trogus Pompeius) makes correctly the Rhipaean mountains the limit of Scythia, even if he is a little off in his orientation.

The court poet Claudian mentions the Hun raids of AD 395 in his two savage invectives against Eutropius, Praetorian Prefect at Constantinople, of whom he left *un portrait aussi sombre que célèbre+ (Demougeot 185).  The noted late imperial scholar Alan Cameron has described the content of this malicious propaganda as *nil+ but it does offer some geographical data, albeit couched in poetic terms.  *The new geographical knowledge, at least so far as a name of tribe or river, was not scorned by the Roman poets as it had largely been by their Alexandrian models, Empire was too glamorous to resist [...] Lucan’s excesses are well known+ (Mayer 1986:54).

First however a quick survey of the political situation which informs Claudian’s invectives.  The Hunnish raids of 395 had a profound impact upon the Empire’s internal affairs;  yet we do not know how they happened.  The Eastern prefect Rufinus, holding office in Constantinople, is alleged by some of his contemporaries to have masterminded this devastation of his own provinces though this claim has not gone unchallenged:  *The rumor that Rufinus had invited the barbarians to attack the Empire out of sheer malice is, of course, absurd, but that it gained credence is a proof of Rufinus’ unpopularity+ (Levy 1935:23/1971:241).

Rufinus’ accusers were the rival court of the Western Emperor Honorius, his Prefect Stilico and their official poet Claudian.  Stilico may have engineered the raids himself for the purpose of discrediting Rufinus and gaining control of Constantinople.  Stilico’s rule is marked by deleterious involvement in the affairs of the East;  there would be nothing surprising in such an action. .As pointed out by Greatrex and Greatrex *Stilicho at this time still held control of both the eastern and western field armies+ (71).  He had plenty of contacts with the nations beyond the borders who were a reservoir of mercenaries.

Rufinus’ failure to protect his provinces from the Huns cost him his job and his life.  His successor was the eunuch Eutropius whose appointment triggered another spate of invectives from the Western court, again in relation with the Huns.  Claudian, Stilico’s propagandist, presents the eunuch Eutropius as biologically unfit to deal with the Hun menace, yet Eutropius did just that:  he scored a lasting victory over them.  One scholar has commented:  *Stilicho may well have envied Eutropius’s freedom to take the reward of a consulate for his success against the Huns in Armenia+ (Long 237).  What else but envy could have motivated such a vicious attack — regardless of literary merit — upon a man who had just delivered the empire from a serious danger?

While all scholars who have worked on these invectives agree that they are politically biased and nearly worthless as historical sources, they do contain geographical allusions which are congruent with Claudian’s contemporaries.  This is not surprising:  political fabrications need to contain some truth if they will be believed.  After their raid of AD 395, the Huns brought back many captives from Rome’s Eastern provinces, and Claudian tells us exactly where they took them:  north of the Sea of Azov.  *Beyond the Cimmerian marshes, defence of the Tauric tribes, the youth of Syria are slaves+ (In Eutropium I:242-250).  However, he does not blame the Huns themselves for the raids, but the Prefect Eutropius, as he indicates with poetic allusions:  *Seek not now thy foe on Riphaeus’ heights:  what boots it to rouse the storm of war amid Caucasia’s ravines?+ (In Eutropium II:151f, cited from the Loeb translation by Platnauer).  Here again we meet the same cluster of names:  Huns, Scyths, Rhipaean Mountains, Palus Maiotis, etc.

A rough contemporary of Claudian, Marcian, author of a Periplus dated to possibly AD 400 by Schoff, adds one detail to the geography of the Huns.  *The region about the Borysthenes beyond the Alani is inhabited by the so-called European Chuni+ (II:39 transl:  Schoff).  It is not clear why Marcian uses the qualifyer European for the Chuni;  he could be using the name of the Huns as synonymous with Scythian, in which case European means *west of the Tanais+;  he could indicate that he does not mean the Chuni / Khyoni of Peshawar.  However, the mention of the Borysthenes and the Alans makes the identification secure.

Ancient geographers knew little about Scythia and even less about the lands beyond the Urals.  Their ignorance, however, was neither absolute, nor impenetrable and we can now return to the Choamani mentioned by Pliny and Mela.  Assuming that the Choamani were the Hsiung-nu (indeed a rival of the Chinese in the days of Pliny and Mela), and that echoes of their wealth and power had reached the Romans of the Principate… how could Mediterranean geographers fit this Altaic nation into the inherited scheme of Greek geography which assigned to China the space from the Urals to the Himalaya?  The answer is easy:  they could not.  They could only squeeze these Mongolian peoples inland amongst the nations of Inner Asia, the Bactrians and Paropanisadae so well known since the days of Alexander of Macedon.

Having blocked out the edges of Eurasia with the Scyths and the Seres, Mela then places inland the various nations he knows inhabit the gorgeous East:  Gandarans, Sogdians, etc… including the Hsiung-nu (assuming that these are the people whom he calls Choamani).  The Hsiung-nu were actually north west of the Chinese, and should have been listed between the Scyths and the Seres, as bordering on the Northern Ocean — still keeping to the Procrustean bed of a World Ocean and nations settled along its shore.  Not only Pliny or Mela:  Strabo may also be a witness for the Hsiung-nu.

When describing the nations north of the schematic Taurus, the oriental Cordillera which according to ancient geographers divided Asia into north and south regions, Strabo mentions a people whose name is uncertain.  Editors have tentatively restored Thoanes and Soanes;  they have however overlooked a manuscript reading, Choanes, which was brought to my notice by the noted Strabo expert, Sarah Pothecary.  Strabo mentions these Soanes/ Thoanes/ Choanes twice in his text, and once more in the lost Proem of his Book Eleven.  Here is the most significant entry:

*Near them are the Soanes [Thoanes, Choanes], who are no less filthy, but superior to them in power, ‑‑ indeed, one might almost say that they are foremost in courage and power.  At any rate, they are masters of the peoples around them, and hold possession of the heights of the Caucasus above Dioscurias.  They have a king and a council of three hundred men, and they assemble, according to report, an army of two hundred thousand;  for the whole of the people are a fighting force, though unorganized.  It is said that in their country gold is carried down by the mountain torrents…+ (11,2,19).

First we need to address the phonological issue:  was the correct reading Soanes, Thoanes, Choanes?  Some sort of fricative is indicated but the variants do not appear to be meaningful:  alternate spellings are found for various ethnic names in various authors.  Priscian’s paraphrase of Dionysios shows this (v 705:  Thynoi vs Ounoi for the Hounnoi, ed:  Woestijne 1953).  Marcian of Heracleia has both Sinae and Thinae for what is presumably China:  *the people of the Sinae [beyond the Ganges], whose metropolis, which is called Thinae+ (‘I;16, ed:  Schoff).  Even if we could recover the exact sound, a hopeless quest, this would not help with the identification.  Geographical profiling provides more secure grounds.

In 11,2,14 Strabo places the Soanes/ Thoanes/ Choanes in the same general region as the Armenians, the Iberians, the Hyrcanians (modern Mazanderan).  Therefore scholars have sought a Caucasian nation to represent these unknown people.  This, I think, was a mistake.  The Soanes/ Thoanes/ Choanes were an empire ruling over various other people;  they were rich in fighting men and gold.  Had they been immediate neighbours of the Romans and the Parthians, the pages of Roman history would be filled with conflicts involving the Soanes/ Thoanes/ Choanes.  They are not:  no single mention of them occur in the history of Rome’s expansionist wars.

The Soanes/ Thoanes/ Choanes then did not dwell in the Caucasian region AS WE SEE IT.  Therefore we need to interpret Strabo’s point of vantage.  Strabo divides the area north of his abstract Taurus into three:  the nomad Scyths of Tanais;  the Massagetae north of the Caspian;  and the third region which includes the Armenians, the Iberians, and east of them, the Hyrcanians.  Into this third region, he places the otherwise unknown Soanes/ Thoanes/ Choanes.  Since his unrealistic physical geography involves an open gulf for the Caspian body of water, and a solid chain of mountains south of it, his human geography is totally dislocated.

I propose a dwelling place for the Choanes roughly north of the Pamir, east of both the Hyrcanians and the Massagetae.  Since Strabo mistakenly believed that the Massagetae were neighbours of the Chinese, he could not locate the Soanes/ Thoanes/ Choanes in that region.  But we know, having access to oriental sources, that the Chinese were not immediate neighbours of the Massagetae;  we know that the unruly semi-nomadic but rich and powerful state of the Hsiung-nu lay between them;  it is mentioned frequently by Chinese historians, amongst them Ssi-ma Tsien.

With our knowledge of Chinese sources, it is impossible for us, as it was for Strabo, to place China on the border of the Massagetae;  the historical records likewise demand that we remove the mysterious Soanes/ Thoanes/ Choanes from the immediate vicinity of the Roman empire.  Strabo’s scheme for Asia requires a northern location for these people.  Any argument concerning the Soanes/ Thoanes/ Choanes must respect these fixed points.

Furthermore, we can compare the Soanes/ Thoanes/ Choanes with the Hsiung-nu of the Chinese sources for points of contact and similarity.  They are numerous:  a powerful empire, indeed an empire of the first rank, rich in gold and fighting men, in a northern location.  The rivers which bear gold nuggets could be those from the Altai mountains.  Another detail:  the Hsiung-nu lived in well padded tents in a very inhospitable climate;  they had neither city baths nor warm streams or lakes for the daily ablutions so dear to the fastidious Greeks, Persians and Chinese.  This probably accounts for the strictures on the personal hygiene of the Hsiung-nu by the Chinese, and on the Soanes/ Thoanes/ Choanes by Strabo.

Pliny, Mela, Strabo… another author from the Principate may also be reporting on the Khyôn / Hsiung-nu:  Dionysius Periegetes.  Writing under Emperor Hadrian (AD 117-138), he lists the following Northern nations:  *Primi sunt enim Scythae, quiqui cronium prope mare maritimam oram incolunt ad ostium Caspii maris;  deinceps Hunni;  post hos Caspiorum natio, ac deinde feroces Albani, quique super asperam terram habitant Cadusi;  prope Mardi, Hyrcanii, Tapyri…+ (Bernhardy’s translation, verses 727-734).

Bunbury comments on Dionysius:  *A still more celebrated name is found for the first time in this little poem — that of the Huns — if indeed an obscure tribe mentioned by our author on the east side of the Caspian, under the name of Unni, be correctly identified with that far-famed people+ (2:486).  We cannot agree entirely with Bunbury:  if the Unni mentioned here had been totally obscure and insignificant, Dionysius would not have mentioned them in a school text.

The chief difficulty in dealing with Dionysius is that he places his Unni east of the Caspian Sea.  In the notes to his edition of Dionysius, Bernhardy deemed this confusion to be a problem of text transmission (514f).  However, perhaps this is correct, and Dionysius’ Unni were not the Huns of the Maeotic region but the Hsiung-nu neighbours of the Chinese.  Whoever his Unni were exactly, he includes them in the same Caucasian list as Strabo’s third region, where the Choanes/ Soanes/ Thoanes dwell.

Ptolemy, dated AD 172, mentions a nation bearing a similar name, the Khounoi (Geographia 3,5,25);  they lived between the Bastarnae and the Rhoxolani, north of the Crimea;  the Rhoxolani are presumably the Alans of the Volga, Rha being an older name for that river:  *between the Basternae and the Rhoxolani are the Chuni, and below the mountains named from these are the Amadoci and the Navari+ (page 80 in Stevenson).  These Khounoi must be Attila’s ancestors:  the location just north of the Sea of Azov is attested by many writers of the fourth century, Ammianus, Jerome, Claudian, etc.

It should be noted that Dionysius and Ptolemy wrote after the conquest of Dacia by the Romans;  this  brought the Empire closer to the nations of the Pontic steppe, one of which was that of the Huns.  Conquests benefited geographical science as Strabo testifies (I,2,1).  Pliny the Younger counted this expertise as one of Trajan’s merits:  *Dix ans sous les drapeaux t’ont permis d’apprendre les moeurs des peuples, la géographie des régions, les opportunités des lieux et les différences de température des eaux et des climats+ (Panegyric of Trajan 15,3, in Durry’s elegant translation).

The readings I propose are possible if one accepts that the Choamani or Choani may have been the Hsiung-nu.  I do not wish to persuade my audience that this hypothesis is proven, only that it exists.  Pelliot writes concerning the well-known Türki medieval nation of the Comans:  *au milieu du XIe siècle … les Petchénègues unis aux Ouz sont pour la première fois désignés par les écrivains byzantins sous le nom inexpliqué de Komanoi… au XIIe siècle, Edrisi parle des Qoman … aussi Michel le Syrien+ (1920:133).  Pelliot evaluated and rejected the identification of the Hsiung-nu with the Comans for reasons which are not fully articulated.  Since both nations demonstrably spoke Türki languages, this hypothesis deserves consideration.

On the face of it, it seems unlikely that a name might be recorded by Strabo, Pliny and Mela, and then disappear from the historical record for a thousand years, which is what may have happened to the Choamani / Comani / Hsiung nu.  However, we do have the example of Paktyïkê, recorded in Herodotus for the region around the Kabul river (3,202;  4,44), a very ancient name which has left only a faint trace throughout the centuries and survives today for the Pashtun.  This identification was made a century ago and is recorded in How and Wells’ commentary on Herodotus:  Pactyice *perhaps survives in Pushtoo, the Afghans’ name for themselves+ (1928:1:289;  1:319).

These issues require much more research.  For the purpose of this particular piece on Orosius, however, I simply want to establish that the political evolution of the nations listed in his Geography have a bearing on the date of his sources.  If the Choamani known to Pliny and Mela, and the Choanes possibly described by Strabo can be proven to be the Hsiung nu known to the Chinese, then they are the same nation known as Chyonitae, Khyon, etc in the days of Orosius, except that they (or at least an important contingent of them) have now migrated from Siberia or the Chinese Turkistan to Peshawar.

Were the Chyonitai of Peshawar the Huns whom Attila made famous?  Janvier considered this unlikely.  The Chyonitai who established themselves at Peshawar during the mid fourth century soon became a rich, powerful and famous people who eventually conquered vast regions of India and traded with their Chinese and Iranian neighbours.  Ammianus mentions them and their king Grumbates as allies of the Persians at the siege of Amida in 369 (19,1,7)  But the Chyonitai cannot be the people who raided Palestine in the days of Jerome, and incidentally cost Prefect Rufinus his job and his life.  As one of the most educated people of his days, Jerome is quite specific about the raiders who disturbed his scholarly solitude at Bethlehem, and their movements.

Jerome describes the raids in two letters.  His Huns did not come from Peshawar, traversing the whole of Iran;  they came from north of the Crimea, over the Caucasus.  *The East, it is true, seemed to be safe from all such evils:  and if men were panic-stricken here, it was only because of bad news from other parts.  But lo! in the year just gone by [AD 395], the wolves (no longer of Arabia but of the whole North) were let loose upon us from the remotest fastnesses of Caucasus and in a short-time overran these great provinces+ (Letter 60,16).

Recollecting these traumatic events a few years later, Jerome adds:  *For news came that the hordes of the Huns had poured forth all the way from Maeotis (they had their haunts between the icy Tanais and the rude Massagetae where the gates of Alexander [i.e. the Caspian Gates], keep back the wild peoples behind the Caucasus);  and that, speeding hither and thither on their nimble-footed horses, they were filling all the world with panic and bloodshed+ (Letter 77, dated AD 400).

There is considerable agreement amongst authors contemporary with the events, not only on the geography but on the ethnography of the Huns.  In his commentary on the Prophet Isaiah, Jerome points out that the Assyrians and the Chaldeans are no longer the instruments of God’s wrath but *feras gentes et quondam nobis incognitas, quarum et vultus et sermo terribilis est, et femineus incisasque facies praeferentes virorum+ (In Isaiam 7,21).  It has long been recognized that this passage refers to the Huns:  ritual scarification and the newness of the exposure seal the identification.

The barbarian threat was a powerful commonalty.  In his De Regno, Synesius of Cyrene mocks the once powerful Empire now trembling from the menace of barbarians crossing the rivers which form its borders.  In the commentary on his translation of Synesius, Lacombrade realizes the Huns are included amongst the dangerous nations, but he fails to factor in all the information.  He translates Synesius:  *ces derniers … ont … parfois même altéré leurs traits par artifice afin de simuler je ne sais quelle horrible race nouvellement sortie de terre+ (1951:54f).  Lacombrade notes:  *Au mépris de la vérité ethnographique, l’orateur ici attribue à l’artifice ce que la physionomie des Huns a de repoussant+ (55n92).  Here Synesius is referring to the same feature which was noted by Jerome:  ritual scarification.  Lacombrade missed it, and charged Synesius with ethnographic incompetence.

Jerome agrees with his contemporaries.  I have already mentioned Claudian’s notorious invectives and their allusions to the Huns:  the pagan poet is in agreement with St Jerome the great Christian scholar.  The recent raids in Cappadocia, the Cimmerian marshes (i.e. the Sea of Azov), the reference to the Riphaean mountains, the invasion over the Caucasus, all these point unambiguously to the Huns though they are not named.  There is nothing in Claudian which would place the Huns on the confines of India.

The raids of 395 took the Romans by surprise but the Huns were not unfamiliar with the Near East.  Writing shortly before these raids, Ammianus notes on the Pontic people:  *In their plundering and hunting expeditions [the Halani] roam here and there as far as the Maeotic Sea and the Cimmerian Bosporus, and also to Armenia and Media+ (31,2,21).  In the sources, the Alani and the Huns are often cited in the same breath;  the mountain trails of the Caucasus seemed to have been well known to the nomads of the steppe who coveted the riches of the Orient.

Moreover, the Huns had considerable familiarity with the Roman empire since they frequently served as mercenaries.  Bishop Synesius of Cyrene describes some military action against nomads from the Sahara in which the Roman commander used some Marcoman troups, and much valued cavalry, the Unnigardae.  Synesius discusses this military campaign in his two Catastases and in his Letter 78 to Duke Anysios.  The origin of these documents composed by Synesius is unclear:  they may be extracts from an official speech in praise of the military governor since katastasis is the rhetorical term for *narrative+ but the letter to the military governor provides the historical context.  *Synésius ne cesse de demander à Constantinople … des renforts Unnigardes, cavaliers hors de pair .. à identifier … avec les Hunigari de Jordanès+ (Lacombrade 1951a:106).  This may be the earliest written record of the name Hungarian, unless the Ourgoi/Oungroi (spelling uncertain) whom Strabo places at the mouth of the Danube be the same as the Unnigardae (7,3,17).

We have additional confirmation from sources which are neither Greek nor Roman:  had the Huns who raided Syria-Palestine come from Peshawar, their activities would have been mentioned in Oriental sources.  What we do find however are references to invasions of Roman lands, but not further East.  The following is from the Chronicle of Edessa, ’40, edited by Guidi with a Latin translation:  *Eodem anno [= AD 397] mense tammûz (iulio), Hunni in Romanorum ditionem transgressi sunt.+  Had they come from Peshawar, the Huns would have cut a trail of devastation across Persia before reaching the Romans and the Syrians.

The Syriac Chronicle of AD 724 reports also that at least parts of Armenia were ravaged in the course of the same raids.  In the year of Theodosius’ death [i.e. AD 395], the chronicler writes:  *Et hoc ipso anno, venit populus maledictus Hunnorum in regiones Romanorum et peragrarunt Sophenen, Armeniam, Mesopotamiam, Syriam, Cappadociam ad Gallatiam usque;  captivos plurimos abduxerunt, et regressi sunt ut reverterent in regionem suam+ (edited and translated by Brooks and Chabot, 106).  Here again one finds no mention of Persian provinces being overrun by Oriental invaders.

Though he leaves them out of his cosmography, the Huns who raided the Eastern Provinces were known also to Orosius:  he reports on them and their conflicts in his narrative (7,33,10; 7:34,5;  7,37,3;  7,37,12;  7:41,8).  Of the fifty-four nations which fill Rome’s Northern European border, from the Don to the Arctic Ocean, he only mentions the Alans, who were the easternmost, settled north of the Caucasus, the Goths of Dacia, and the Suebi of the Upper Rhine (I:2,52-53).  The conflicts which Orosius reports pitted the Huns against the Goths, and later against the Alans (VII:33,10;  VII:37,3).  This would situate the Huns between the Alans and the Goths, i.e. in the Crimea, and in the lands north of the Sea of Azov, where Jerome also places them.  Ammianus mentions these same conflits between the Huns and their neighbours;  according to him, they attacked the Goths in AD 376 (31,12).

Since the ancient name of the Massagetae was sometimes used for the more recent Alans, we have another point of reference with Jerome’s Epistle 77,8:  he makes the Huns neighbours of the Massagetae of the Don.  So does Ammianus describing the nations of Scythia, including the Huns and the Alans:  *the Halani, once known as the Massagetae+ (31,2,12).

Janvier’s purpose in studying the cosmography of Orosius was to understand the author himself, and his grasp of geography.  He deliberately avoided issues of Quellenforschung which occupied previous generations (1982:140).  However there is a gap here in the history of the scholarship.  Earlier studies overlooked Orosius’ passage on the Chuni of Peshawar because they assumed that it referred to the well-known Huns, the ancestors of Attila.  This is plainly impossible, since Attila and his Huns did not come from Peshawar, but from the steppe north of the Crimea.  This leaves one question of Quellenforschung wide open:  where did Orosius obtain this information on the Chuni of Peshawar?

On the subject of the Chuni in faraway Peshawar, Orosius was surprisingly up-to-date:  they had migrated from China’s North Western border about a century earlier.  Concerning the invasive Goths, however, Orosius’ cosmography was totally out of date:  he recorded them as being in Dacia, which indeed they were… until they were driven out by the Huns in the mid 370’s, as surely he knew.

On the basis of these two elements of his cosmography, namely the Chyonitae of Peshawar and the Goths in Dacia, one would be tempted to date this half book of Orosius to the years between AD 350 and 374, i.e. after the settlement of the Chyonitai in the region of Peshawar, but before the exodus of the Goths from Dacia.  But of course Orosius, a young priest in AD 417, was not even born then.

Could Orosius have borrowed his cosmography, without providing essential updates, from an author who did write during those years, an author well versed in Oriental affairs?  Ammianus comes to mind;  like Orosius, he may have included a cosmography in his first book, now lost (for the lost books of Ammianus, see Michael 1880).  In about AD 415, Orosius spent more than a year in Palestine, visiting with the great Christian philologist, Saint Jerome, *sitting at his feet+ as he himself records in his Liber apologeticus (3,2).  As literary studies have established, Jerome had access to Ammianus’ Res gestae, including presumably the lost books.  Sir Ronald Syme shows, convincingly I think, that Jerome read and admired Ammianus, and was inspired by him (1968:17-24).  Through Jerome, Orosius had access to the works of Ammianus.  These issues of literary history take us far from the Huns, and I will return to them in a separate article.

We still need to account for a problem of geography in Orosius.  We note a paradox between the Crimean Huns mentioned in the narrative but not in the cosmography, and the Peshawar Chyonitai who make an appearance in the cosmography but play no role in the narrative;  these discrepancies are frequent in the Histories:  *il y a un décalage important entre le chapitre I,2 et les autres chapitres et livres des Historiae.  D’une part, la majorité des noms géographiques figurant en I,2 n’ont pas resservi dans le reste de l’ouvrage;  [...]  D’autre part et inversement les Historiae fourmillent de noms géographiques amenés par le récit des événements, mais qu’Orose n’a pas situé au préalable dans son bref tableau de l’oecoumène+ (Janvier 1982:138).  If Orosius simply copied a cosmography drafted by Ammianus for his own very different Histories, the discrepancies need not surprise us.

If we attribute Orosius’ geographic excursus to Ammianus, we can also account for its up-to-date description of the lands and nations on the Eastern borders of the Persian empire;  while Orosius had no particular reason to be interested in these people, Ammianus was demonstrably well informed about them;  he mentioned them frequently in the surviving books of his narrative.  He mentions the ruler of the Chyonitai by name (Grumbates, 19,1,7);  he makes a reference to an eclipse of the sun in 360 which was not visible west of Kabul (20,3;  see Büdinger 1896).

These geographic questions must be settled in order to read Orosius accurately.  Arnaud-Lindet who edited him did not address them:  *Les Alains, pour leur part, venaient de la région caspienne, où leur empire avait été détruit par les Huns en 375 en même temps que l’état gotique d’Ukraine+ (3:147, note 3 on VII:38).  The note does not match the text:  Orosius mentions separate conflicts;  he does not indicate that the Huns destroyed the Alans and the Goths at the same time, nor does he make the Huns the aggressors.  Since by all accounts, the Huns were sandwiched between the Goths and the Alans, the Huns could not possibly have destroyed both neighbours *en même temps+;  one after the other perhaps, but not at the same time.

According to the *Mongolian+ hypothesis first propounded in the eighteenth century, the Huns of Southern Russia and the Chyonitai (Xwn, Hûna) of Peshawar were two branches of a single nation who emigrated from a single point.  One of its leading advocates writes:  *Les Huns n’apparaissent en réalité dans l’histoire [occidentale] que vers 375, au moment où, franchissant le Tanaïs (le Don) qui leur servait de limite, ils se jettent en Germanie et sur l’empire romain+ (Drouin 1887:406).  There is a fatal flaw in this argument :  Drouin never considered the geographical implications;  he overlooked the fourth century sources testifying that the Huns lived not east but west of the Tanais.

Before invading the Near East over the Caucasus, the Huns needed to cross the Tanais eastwards, into the territory of the Alans, their usual allies.  Of the Huns and their raids against Armenia, Syria, Cappadocia in 395, Claudian writes:  *Est genus extremos Scythiae vergentis in ortus // Trans gelidum Tanain, quo non animosus ullum // Arctos alit+ (In Rufinum liber primus verses 323-324).  As I have demonstrated earlier, Ammianus (an older contemporary of Claudian) believed that there were only two Northern nations:  the Scyths and the Seres, separated by a vast mountain range.  The Huns were Scyths, dwelling across the Tanais from the Alans;  since they were Scyths living in Scythia, they did not come for anywhere else.

In order to accept Drouin’s claim, we must discard all evidence that the Huns were established in the Pontic steppe north of the Crimean much earlier than AD 374.  I have cited St Jerome, the greatest scholar of his generation.  In Letter 77, paragraph 8, he writes:  *Herodotus informs me that this people [the Huns] had held the East in captivity for 20 years under Darius, King of the Medes+. Concerning this passage, a noted expert on Late Antiquity, Palanque, comments:  *Jerome’s account is in need of certain qualifications.  These Mongolian Huns [...] were certainly not the descendants of the Scythian tribes who had invaded western Asia in the seventh century B.C.+ (1952:181).  So Palanque believes… without evidence to support it.

Philostorgius, an ecclesiastic historian belonging to a sect most inimical to Jerome, supports this statement:  *eien d’an hoi Ounnoi hous hoi palaioi Neurous erônomazon+ (9,17).  Philostorgius claims that the Huns were descended from the Neuroi *of old+, i.e. the Neuroi of Herodotus.  Neither man needed to consult Herodotus directly;  this information had lasting currency.  Ptolemy (second century of the Christian era) also placed the Huns and the Neuroi (Navaroi) in the same region (3,5,25).  Now I cannot prove that these authors were correct;  but I can demonstrate that they are in agreement on the Huns, whether Pagans or Christians, and amongst Christians, Orthodox, schismatics, and heretics.  Before we can reject their testimony, we need evidence, not some unsupported hypothesis.  Palanque fails to provide any.

The Mongolian hypothesis is refractory to evidence.  According to Kingsmill, one of its most passionate supporters, Dr Hirth, *sought to find additional evidence in favour of the long exploded error of Deguignes that the Hiung Nu of the old Chinese writers were to be identified with the Hunni of Ammianus Marcellinus.  Deguignes confessed that his surmise arose only from the superficial and apparent resemblance of their names+ (1901/02:136).  What Kingsmill did not add is this:  the Hsiung-nu correspond not to the Hunni in Ammianus, but to the Chyonitai in the same author.  Any hypothesis which would make the Huns and the Chionitae two branches of one nation, separated in the fourth century, must founder on the evidence of Ammianus who reports on both… without any indication that he thought them to be related.

In the above cited article *Hunni+, Kiessling presents the case made by Deguignes and Hirth in favour of the Mongolian hypothesis, but not the rebuttals by Klaproth, Kingsmill, etc (2584f).  A fair survey of the scholarship requires presenting both sides by someone who has mastered both the Eastern nor the Western sources, or takes care to rely upon those who have done so.  Kiessling does not present a fair survey.  There are many problems connected with the *Mongolian+ hypothesis, one being the absence of the Siberian regions from ancient maps, which would make the Huns of Southern Russia neighbours of China, and the migration plausible.  Other aspects require attention.

Historical linguistics provides tools to assist the recovery of the pre-history of the steppe nations.  To illustrate:  if we look at the British Isles today, we can see that Celtic is a marginal language group (at the risk of offending my Irish, Scottish, Cornish, and Welsh readers);  but when we look at evidence from the past, for instance place names, we can see that, once, Celtic must have dominated the islands.  London (Lugdunum) is only one of many thousands such survivals.  The Celtic groups became marginalized when new comers, mostly Germanic (Angles, Saxons, Frisians, Danes, etc), invaded Britain, gained power and drove out or assimilated the older population.  There is nothing unique about this:  the phenomena are found all over the world.

The ancient dwellers of the Pontic steppe did not use writing, at least not in their own language;  however, their linguistic remains point in one direction — Finno-Ugrian.  Ancient toponyms such as Rha for the Volga, pre-Slavic names such as Kiev, Neva, Moskva, are Finno-Ugrian;  many Hunnish names, like Uldin, the trans-Danubian native prince who delivered Gainas’ head to Emperor Arcadius, are Finno-Ugrian (Zosimus 5,22).  The same ruler’s name turns up also in the Annotations of Ekkehart in a manuscript of Orosius under the passage 7,37,15:  *atque in nostros] milites Honorii et Huldin et Saron+ (edited by Clark 1932:35).

Decisive evidence for the language of the Scyths is found in Hungarian whose bearers migrated to the West in the late ninth century from the Pontic steppe.  The tenth century chronicler Regino of Prüm reports on this and he is supported by ninth century sources such as the Bavarian Geographer, the Anonymous Cosmographer of Ravenna, and the Old English translation of Orosius, made under King Alfred, who all place Onogoria in the Pontic belt (for sources and references, see Pétrin 1998:49ff).

In their article on the ancestry of Odoacer, the fifth century ruler, Reynolds and Lopez addressed the confusion over the Pontic nations.  Was Odoacer a Torcilingus, or a Scirus, or a Hun, or were these ethnic names equivalent, and were these people Germanic or something else — those were some of the questions they posed.

They wrote:  *As far as etymologies go, however, it is not difficult at all to suggest them, if the starting assumption is that the Torcilingi were some sort of Turks+ (39).  If by Turks, one means an Altaic people, the linguistic brothers of the present day Turks, descendants of the Ottoman Turks, that possibility does not exist.

The name Türki for Altaic speakers is recent;  it is not attested before AD 700 (see Chavannes on the Chinese sources).  It occurs in the Ienissei valley, not amongst the Khyôn of Inner Asia, or their Avar offshoots along the Danube.  While the language of the Avars contains some vocabulary, such as Khagan, which belongs to the family we moderns know as the Altaic Türki, these people did not call themselves Türki but Khyôn or Obri, or Abares, or Hephthalites.  The name Türki apparently did not exist in the mid sixth century when they emigrated;  when it does appear, it is not on record for Inner Asia, but for Siberia.  Concerning these, Parker writes *the recently discovered Turkish inscriptions of over a thousand years ago, deciphered by Professor Dr. Vilhelm Thomsen, of Copenhagen, and the Russian academician Dr. Radloff, of St. Petersburg, give as the national name the four letters T Ü R K, repeated over and over again, and in such a way as in meaning to correspond indubitably with the mutilated Chinese form t’u-küe, tut-kut, or tolkol, as they sound in different provinces to the ear of today+ (1896:433).

The Hsiung-nu, a powerful neighbour of China in the days of the Han dynasty, were known centuries earlier than the Turks of the Orkhon valley;  they too spoke a Türki language (as we can tell from their linguistic remains), but the Hsiung-nu were not called by the name Türki.  Turkic is the name which we moderns give this branch of Altaic languages on the basis of a usage unrecorded before the seventh century of the Christian era, but very common in our own days.

Torcilingus, the ethnic name applied to Odoacer, is connected with the Tauric peninsula.  The name Tauros for the Crimea is attested since time immemorial, along with such variants as Toretai, Torkoi, Torkhoi.  The Torks, already known to Pliny, are still mentioned in Medieval Russian chronicles and in the Slavic life of Constantine the Philosopher, also known as St. Cyril, who created the Slavic literary language.  The name Tourkoi given to the Magyars by Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the De Administrando Imperio refers to this ancient Crimean nation and has nothing to do with the Altaic people whom we now know as the Turks, for instance the Ottoman Turks (for all references see Pétrin 1998).  Some twelve centuries separate the earliest appearances of these two names, the Altaic Türki and the Torki from the Crimea.

The nations of the Pontic hinterland who supplied the Greek and Iranian city states with raw materials had many names besides Torkoi/Toretai;  these occur in ancient sources:  Scythi, Sciri, Neuroi/Nervi/Navaroi, etc.  Aytek Namitok has surveyed what slivers of evidence can be found concerning them (40ff with an extensive bibliography of ancient sources, 112f for Slavic sources).

However varied, the ancient linguistic remains from the Pontic steppe, such as Rha for the Volga, are Finno-Ugrian.  Our word rhubarb (Rhos barbaricon) is derived from this source.  Then there are the mysterious Rhipaean mountains, located somewhere in Scythia, which were only known by hearsay to the Greeks and the Romans.  Philostorgius testifies that these mountains were associated with the Huns (9,17).  Avitus, cited earlier, also connects them with the Don (*De diluvio mundi+ 441-442).

As for the Sciri, one of the suggestions made by Reynolds and Lopez is that they might have been Iranians.  Impossible.  Iranian languages are marked by palatalisation:  Shiri might be possible, Shchiri, or something along these lines.  But such names would be rendered Siri by both Latin and Greek writers;  see for instance how Shapur and Ardashir turn up as Sapor and Ardasir in classical authors.  Sciri like Scythi and Scrithifinni cannot be Iranian:  the consonant /k/ in both points to a different linguistic system.

Location also favours the Pontic steppe for the Sciri, as Reynolds and Lopez as indicated in a source which they provide:  *At some time after 300 BC … “Galatae and Sciri” tried unsuccessfully to capture Olbia [Odessa].  That is all the Protogenes Inscription has to say about the Sciri+ (40).  Well, not quite:  it indirectly offers also information on geography.

The *Galatai+ in this inscription were probably migrants from Central Europe looking for a new home after the collapse of Keltikê, the great Celtic empire which was eventually absorbed by the Romans.  They need not have been ethnic Celts.  As noted by Ellis Minns, *For most Greeks a Scythian, Skythês, was any northern barbarian from the east of Europe, just as a Galatês was any such from the West+ (1913:35).  These particular Galatai could be the Goths who later established an empire in the steppe region.  Using a very ancient and widespread tactic, they would recruit local vassal people in order to gain control of a commercially significant stronghold in their new territory.

As for the Galatai who conquered Olbia, we know from the archaeological remains that this city, like the whole region, became Gothic during the third century.  The Goths gained control of these city states, their trade and their wealth.  For the history of Olbia under Roman rule, see Slavin 1959.  See also Belin de Ballu, 1972, page 167 to the end, who dates this Gothic destruction to second century (182).  The westward shift of gravity, from the Crimea to Moldova, brought about the economic collapse of the Crimean Bosphorus and its Greek and Iranian city-states (Gaidukevic 1949, especially chapter 12).  After the imperial revival under Emperor Diocletian and his colleagues, the Romans were now able to keep Gothic raiders out of the Balkans and out of Asia minor but they could not restore their lost power over the steppes and the city-states.

The Sciri must have lived in Olbia’s hinterland:  the Pontic steppe.  Otherwise the joint campaign with the Galatai makes no sense.  Other information on the Sciri points in the same direction, as Reynolds and Lopez write:  *About 381 and again in 408 AD [the Sciri] were combined with the Carpi, Sarmatians and Huns in affrays along the Lower Danube+ (40).  The Pontic steppe is clearly indicated as their permanent base.  For scholarship on Olbia (ancient Odessa), see Belin de Ballu, Gaidukevich, Slavin, Wasowicz.

Reynolds and Lopez commented:  *But if there was any substance under Pliny’s text, his Sciri lived in lands now postulated to have been the ancestral homes of Baltic or Slavic tribes, or even by Finns.  Perhaps etymologizing with those languages should be attempted+ (42).  Yes indeed, as the name of Uldin, the slayer of Gainas, shows:  he is sometimes described as a Hun chieftain, sometimes as the ruler of the Sciri, and a relative of Odoacer;  this name is still found today amongst Estonians, a Finno-Ugrian people.  The geography is also congruent.  We are told that Gainas left the Empire, crossed the Danube, and was killed by Uldin, the leader of the Huns, who sent his head to Arcadius; the death of Gainas is dated December 23, 400 (Zosimus 5,22).

The Northern fringes of the once extensive Finno-Ugrian territories still hold speakers from that group:  Finns, Estonians.  Some groups were assimilated by the Russians fairly recently, such as the Permians who were converted to Christianity by St. Stephen starting in the 1370s.  When Ammianus describes the Huns as occupying the territory from the Black Sea to the Arctic (31,2,1), he describes the area where Finno-Ugrian remains are still found;  therefore, in this passage, he may be using the term Huns generically for the Finno-Ugrian speaking nations.

How long had the Finno-Ugrians lived in the Pontic steppe before the Huns became famous?  They could have been indigenous to the area.  Socrates the Scholastic who calls the Huns *neighbours+ of the Goths;  this word points to an old settlement, not a recent invasion:  *Not long after the barbarians [ie the Goths] had entered into a friendly alliance with one another, they were again vanquished by other barbarians, their neighbors, called the Huns+ (Socrates, 34).   Orosius testifies to the same;  he writes that Emperor Theodosius *attaqua sans hésiter ces très grands peuples scythes qui avaient été redoutés de tous les anciens … à savoir les Alains, les Huns et les Goths …+ (7,34,5, transl:  Arnaud-Lindet, 3:94).

Synesius calls the Huns *earth-born+ (De regno 11).  We have no evidence for toponyms before the Finno-Ugrians;  we have no evidence that the Finno-Ugrians came from somewhere else.  We have no archaeological evidence for widespread population replacement in the early Christian period;  in fact, the archaeological evidence points to overall continuity for some thousands of years.  The Cimmeri (Gomeri) of the Classical and Biblical world could have been Finno-Ugrians.  The diversity of Finno-Ugrian survivals in our times points to an exceedingly ancient history.

The linguistic evidence provides an acid test to separate Attila’s Huns from the Hsiung-nu of Chinese sources, and the Khyon of the Iranian documents.  Though most scholars ignore it, this has been known for some 150 years:  *The Huns … were a race of Ugrians … The Hiong-Nu were not Ugrians.  It was Klaproth … who … first proved that the Hiong-Nu were Turks+ (Howorth 1874:398).  Klaproth wrote in 1836, with Rémusat.

We have no direct linguistic evidence for the Chyonitai though we do have a chain of evidence which connects them to the Hsiung-nu who spoke a Türki dialect from the great Altaic family of languages.  Louis Bazin (1948) worked on the earliest Türki text in the historical record:  an oracle by a Buddhist monk, Fo-tu-teng, delivered in AD 329 to a Hsiung-nu king in what is now Northwestern China (incidentally, not all the Hsiung-nu were driven out in the 310’s, but these problems are way beyond my modest article).

Bazin’s oracle is recognizably proto-Türki, even though it is only known from a Chinese transcription, and the exact value of the original has been debated for the better part of the last century (Bazin 1948;  Gabain 1949).  In an article dated 1944/45, Maenchen-Helfen claimed that *it is impossible to affiliate the Hsiung-nu language with one of the great linguistic families of Eurasia+ (224).  This is no longer true.  The evidence is unshakable:  the Hsiung-nu spoke a Türki dialect.  For the latest instalment on the linguistic history of the Hsiung-nu, see Horwath 2007.

Bazin’s oracle is a brief but continuous text.  Loan-words of Türki origin turn up even earlier.  Ssïma Tsi’én, the Herodotus of China, completed his work in BC 99 (Hirth 1917:91).  In describing the events on the Western frontier, he writes that the Khan of the Hsiung-nu *made [a man named Chang Ki'en] governor of the Western ordu [city, or fortified camp]+ (Hirth’s translation 1917:100).  The words khan and ordu are recognizably Türki;  these words still exist today, as for instance the Golden Horde [Golden City, minus the epenthetic /h/], Kesarordu, for Constantinople, etc.  The Hsiung-nu / Khyon have left no literature, only loan-words in foreign languages.  These slivers however contain political vocabulary which is Türki:  khan, qatun, orda… (Bazin 1948, 1953/54).

Türki loan-words into Ancient Sogdian, including the Ancient Sogdian Letters which equate the Hsiung-nu with the Xwn, provide further evidence:  Chagan, Bagpur, Khatun, etc (Pelliot 1921 and 1931) .  In his review of the edition of these Letters, Pelliot identifies some Uigur loan words:  *Dans ce document sogdien très obscur, M. R. a déjà reconnu le nom ouigour Il[El?]bars …+ (1931:461).  He also comments:  *dans srgh, je suis bien tenté de reconnaître le nom de Srg = Sarag sous lequel les gens d’Asie Centrale, jusque sous les T’ang, ont toujours désigné Lo-yang+ (1931:458).  Sarag means market place, as in Sarajevo in Bosnia).  For early Türki, see also Constantine, Horvath, Shiratori.

The coins of the Ephthalites, a confederacy formed in the fifth century of the Christian era, and including a contingent of Chyonitai, show traces of Türki political vocabulary in their legends:  see Specht 1901 for the coins of Shahi Tigin, whose name recalls the Tegin element in the royal onomastics of the Orkhon (504).  *Le mot chad se rencontre dans les inscriptions turques trouvées en Sibérie … celui qui était à la tête des troupes+ (505).  Specht also points out *le titre de khan qui se trouve placé après le nom du souverain+ (503), as well as *le mot uludj “seigneur”+ (497).  Shad is a poor example as it seems to be an Iranian loan-word into Türki;  but uludj does appear to be native Türki.

Coins contribute more data for research.  Maenchen-Helfen wrote:  *Ghirshman [1948] has proved that Ammianus Marcellinus’ Chionitae, the hyôn (xyôn, xiyôn) of the Pahlavi books, the Hephthalites (OIONO on their coins), and the Hûna (hûna) of the Indian sources were the same people.  He rightly separates them from the Attilanic Huns.  But few will accept his thesis that these names have nothing to do with Ounnoi = Huni.+ (1959:227f).

The reading on the coins of the early Hephthalites, off-handedly mentioned by Maenchen-Helfen, appears to be as yet unresolved by palaeographers;  it was once debated but set aside without clarification, and we still don’t know whether they are inscribed OIONO or XIONO or something else (Hansen 1951:45f).  In the article by Maenchen-Helfen just cited, one would think the problem did not exist, but it does.  Hansen made some useful suggestions.  *Dieses neue O‑Zeichen … ist vielleicht eigentlich ein Φ+ (46).  He adds as an illustration *der Name des Königs Vima Kadphises in griechischen Zeichen OOHMA geschrieben … OOHMA kann man daher *hvima lesen+ (46n1).  Those perceptive comments by Hansen must be kept in mind.

We know that the name on these coins started with a fricative, not with the vowel /o/;  therefore the unreadable letter on the coins must stand for a fricative, whether /X/ or /Φ/, or some sound or cluster which can only be rendered approximately in Greek and/or Aramaic (since both alphabets were used in these regions).  I have mentioned earlier the confusion in literary sources on ethnic names from Inner Asia:  Choanes, Soanes, Thoanes.  For the problems of adapting scripts, whether Greek, or Estranghelo, or Brahmi, to Türki phonemes, in particular /ü/ and the fricative velar gutturals, both voiceless and voiced, see Maue 1997:4ff.

Western sources from the early middle ages, after the settlement of the Avars along the middle Danube, allow us to settle the issue.  Like Paul the Deacon, the Chronicle of Fredegar provides information on *the Avars called Huns+ and their conflicts with the Slavs in the fortieth year of the Merovingian Clothar’s reign.  *The Slavs had already started to rise against the Avars called Huns and against their ruler, the Khagan.  The Wends had long been subjected to the Huns, who used them as Befulci.  Whenever the Huns took the field against another people, they stayed encamped in battle array while the Wends did the fighting.  If the Wends won, the Huns advanced to pillage, but if they lost the Huns backed them up and they resumed the fight.  The Wends were called Befulci by the Huns because they advanced twice to the attack in their war bands, and so covered the Huns+ (Chapter 48, from Wallace-Hadrill’s translation).

The Chronicle of Fredegar is a very curious document with considerable literature on its credibility but the author could hardly have invented the Türki word Khagan;  moreover, it is found in other Merovingian sources with reference to the ruler of *Huns who are the Avars+.  Khagan is unmistakably Türki.  Incidentally, Attila is not called a Khagan in fifth century sources.

Bazin’s work on the Oracle of the Hsiung-nu opened a window on the early history of the Türki languages;  he also provided a synthesis (1953/54) on the subject of the ancient neighbours of China but he spoiled it with his uncritical adherence to the *Mongolian+ hypothesis:  *quand les Hiong-nou occidentaux, ou Huns, séparés dès 44 avant Jésus Christ du gros de leur peuple, arriveront en Europe à partir du IVe siècle, on pourra constater, d’après les vestiges de leur onomastique transmis par les historiens européens, que leurs dirigeants ont en grande partie des noms typiquement turcs de consonnance…+ (134).

Bazin finds that Hunnish names *sound+ Turkish.  Well, Türki languages have many features in common with the Finno-ugrian family;  they may even have both derived from a common Palaeolithic ancestor spoken over 30,000 years ago:  the so-called Nostratic theory.  Both families do have some phonetic resemblance.  They are both highly vocalic;  that is, they have a high ratio of vowels to the consonants.  Modern languages which are noted for their high vocalism include Italian, Serbian and… Finnish.

Like Turkic languages, the Finno-ugrian group is characterized by vocalic harmony.  But these two remain, nonetheless, totally separate families.  Myself, as a linguist, I have observed untrained people who hear speakers of Italian and Serbian side by side, both melodious and highly vocalic languages, and claim that they sound the same.  Indeed the words may *sound+ the same, but they don’t mean the same thing.  The case for the Huns being a branch of the Türki needs more than mellifluous sounds;  it needs the presence of such early attested words as Khagan, ordu, etc in their linguistic remains.

Greek, Latin, Chinese, Iranian… so many languages are required to sort out the fragments of the remains on the Huns and the Chyonitai.  That nothing be spared the hapless linguist, Sanskrit also makes a contribution to this tangled web.

In his article on the Ancient Sogdian letters, Henning comments that Sogdian xwn is *employed not of nomads of vague definition, but actually of the genuine Far-Eastern Hsiung-nu [...] well before the time when either the European Huns or the tribes that became known as Hûna to the Indians made their first appearance in history+ (615).  Henning’s statement is correct on the subject of the Hûna in Sanskrit sources;  for the rest, he was misled by the *Mongolian+ hypothesis:  Hunni/Khuni are mentioned as early as Dionysius Periegetes and Ptolemy two centuries before the Ancient Sogdian Letters;  this nation could have been the Pontic Huns, or they could have been the Hsiung-nu.  Henning’s article also adds confusion on the subject of Sanskrit Hûna which seems so close to the name of the Attilanic Huns, a misleading impression.

Historians of the Huns see the Sanskrit word Hûna and jump to the conclusion that this means Attila’s Huns.  However Hûna does not correspond to Hounnoi but to Chyon because the letter romanised as H in Sanskrit editions corresponds not to the soft /h/ but to the fricative /x, kh/ (Basham 506-508).  While Sanskrit preserved the initial fricative /x/ of this name, it interpreted the vowel /ô/ as /û/;  Sogdian had both an /u/ and an /o/ in its vocalic system (see Sims-Williams for a chart).  There must be a reason why Sanskrit used /û/ for /ô/, and I will generously abandon the elucidation to scholars with a good grounding in ancient Iranian and Sanskrit.

I will however insist on this:  Sanskrit Hûna is a later development, and has nothing to do with the Attilanic Huns.  To the best of my knowledge, it first occurs in the early fifth century.  The Hsiung-nu were driven out of China in the 310’s of the Christian era, and found a new address in the region of the Hindu Kush as allies, vassals or mercenaries of the Persian king Shapur II.  However they soon ran into conflicts with their Sassanid sponsors and eventually gained control of Iran’s Eastern borders.  By AD 455, greatly enriched with the colossal mineral wealth of the Hindu Kush, they had conquered a large part of India.

The earliest mention of the Hûna in Sanskrit is found in an undatable epic poem titled the Raghuvamça by a major Indian poet, Kalidasa.  While engaged in this research, I ran into a group of Indian medical doctors in the university library;  they were preparing themselves for qualifying examinations.  I brought up the historical questions I was engaged in and they illustrated for me the massive importance of Kalidasa in their culture by mentioning that he is the author of their national anthem.

Therefore dating the Hûna on the basis of Kalidasa is like dating an ancient Mediterranean nation on the basis of Homer.  In fact, the Raghuvamça itself is dated on the basis of this mention of the Hûna, to ca AD 400.  Here is the relevant passage, in an English translation:

There he [Raghu] first demonstrated his power against the Huna kings;  then, in their harems, Raghu’s attitude was by itself a command to the women’s cheeks to grow pale.+  (Tr: Antoine, Canto 4, 65-69, page 53).

Because of Kalidasa’s significance, there is a considerable literature on the question, and anyone interested may pursue it.  Here are a few references:  Bhat 1982:1-10;  Narang, Kalidasa Bibliography, for the Hûna, see index.  As stated pithily by one of these authorities:  *The description of the Hunas in [the Raghuvamça] is too vague to be useful for exact chronological calculation+ (Mirashi 1960/61:315).  The most solid linguistic argument shows *that Kalidasa composed the verses quoted above when the Hûnas were still in the Oxus valley and shortly before they invaded the Gupta empire in AD 455+ (Pathak 1912:267).

Unlike the poetic evidence, the Hûna conflicts of AD 455 and beyond are secured by datable royal inscriptions:  Banerjee 1989, ’13-16.  For the text of the inscriptions, with translations, see Fleet, ’13, 33, 34, 35.  Those inscriptions are connected with the Hûna’s conquest of India’s North Western provinces.  Note the date:  AD 455.  At that same time, Attila’s Huns were in Pannonia, terrorising the Roman Empire.  They were not in Pakistan, conquering the Punjab.

The Hûna managed to conquer North Western India, but they failed to expand further.  There is no possibility of establishing any congruence whatsoever between these Indian documents, and the sources on Attila who was a contemporary of the earliest invasions into India.  It is however possible to establish a correspondence between the people known in Sanskrit as Hûna and the Hunnoi whom Cosma Indicopleustes describes as the rich lords of the lands between China and Persia (for a study, see Biswas).  He writes *from Tzinitza to the borders of Persia, between which are included all Iounia [alternate spelling Hounnia, found in a Vatican manuscript]+ (Kordosis 1999:103).

The early linguistic evidence from the Pontic steppe is Finno-Ugrian.  From the sixth century of the Christian era, that is at the time of the Avar migration from Central Asia, we begin to encounter traces of Altaic languages;  in particular titles such as Khagan for the ruler of the Avars. It is not absolutely impossible that the Attilanic Huns were originally Altaic Turks;  but before we can consider this hypothesis, we need evidence, such as Bazin adduced for the Hsiung-nu, with a suitable argument.  Until then, the Finno-Ugrian evidence as we have it supports the thesis first propounded by Klaproth, that these two were quite separate people speaking unrelated languages (barring the Nostratic theory);  this stands to this day as the most economical hypothesis, and the only one which respects all the evidence.

To round out these etymological issues, I will conclude with a philological note on the name Türki which is the source of the name Turk which we use nowadays for the members of this Altaic family of languages.  Not only the words Hounnoi vs Khyôn present awkward similarities;  Torks and Turks have confused scholars even more:  specifically the Tauri/Torki after whom the Tauric Chersonese is named, and the Türki whom we call Turks today, as in the Ottoman Turks.

A closer analysis of the linguistics of Uralian and Altaic remains may help sort out the differences.  The Tauri/Toretai/Torki show for the stem some variant of a back vowel or diphthong /au/ or /o/ or /u/;  the Altaic people are normally recorded with a fronted vowel:  Türki.  In fact, for the purpose of clarity, I use Türki in my articles when referring to the Altaic people, and reserve Torki for the nations of the Tauric peninsula.  The difference is important, especially from the Turkish angle because vocalic systems in that linguistic family are dominated by a front/back alternation, and problems of vocalic harmony.  The homophony between these two ethnic names reflects our own linguistic systems, not the source languages.

How important is the fronting of this vowel?  Even the Chinese sources, equipped with a writing system which is very poorly designed for transcription of foreign vocabulary, strive to show the fronting of Türki vowels:  as a noted sinologist informs us *il n’y avait pas en chinois ancien de forme mouillée correspondant à *dwith non mouillé;  mais la mouillure du second caractère de transcription fait foi pour l’ensemble.  Les Chinois ont donc rendu de leur mieux ce qu’ils croyaient entendre *Dürküt, pour un original *Türküt+ (Pelliot 1915:687).  For the problems of adapting foreign scripts to Türki phonemes, in particular /ü/, see Maue 1997 mentioned above.

To conclude my argument:  the Huns of the Pontic steppe and the Hsiung-nu of Inner Asia were quite separate people;  the first probably spoke a Finno-Ugrian language and the second spoke a demonstrably Altaic language.  The fourth century AD historian, Ammianus Marcellinus, a staff officer in the Roman army with considerable expertise in Oriental affairs, reports on both these nations, and shows no sign of confusing one with the other.  The *Mongolian hypothesis+ formulated in the eighteenth century is unsupported by any evidence, and indeed can be proven wrong on the basis of the existing evidence.  Much more work needs to be done on the early history of these two nations but this research needs a solid foundation, including expertise in the awesome difficulties of ancient geography, as well as the usual philological competence.

The Huns and the Hsiung-nu

February 16, 2010

Hunni and Khunnu: Phonetic Confusion

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Clover, Frank M., ed., tr.  Flavius Merobaudes:  A Translation and Historical Commentary.  Transactions of the American Philosophical Association, NS 61,1.  1971.  PA 6514 M18 C6.

Clover, Frank M.  The Late Roman West and the Vandals.  Aldershot:  Variorum, 1993.  DG 312 C54.

Clover, Frank M., and R. S. Humphreys, eds.  Tradition and Innovation in Late Antiquity.  Madison:  U of Wisconsin Press, 1989.  PIMS DE 59 T7.  Too general.

Collectio Avellana.  See Guenther.

Constantius of Lyons, fl 480.  Vita sancti Germani.  See Hoare, Levison (MGH SRM, 7), Thompson.

Constantine Porphyrogenitus.  Excerpta Historia.  Contains De legationibus,  De insidiis.  Ed:  Boissevain et al.

Conway, Robert Seymour, and Charles Flamstead Walters, eds.  Titi Livi ab urbe condita.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1960-1965.  PA 6452 A2.

Corippus.  Laus Iustini.  Ed:  Cameron.  Avars, Turks?

Cosmas Indicopleustes.  Christian Topography.  Montfaucon, reprinted in PG 88.  Transl. McCrindle, Winstedt, Wolska.  See also Anastos.  White Huns, see Authors file.

Courcelle, Pierre.  Opuscula selecta.  Paris:  Etudes augustiniennes, 1984.  BR 165 C72.  Biblio.

Croke, Brian.  «Anatolius and Nomus, envoys to Attila.»  ByzSl 42 (1981) 159-170.  Have summary.

Croke, Brian.  «A. D. 476:  The Manufacture of a Turning Point.»  Chiron 13 (1983) 81-119.  CN 1 C5.  Important ref, Marcellinus Comes, Jordanes.  Odoacer assumed power after 476 (deposition of Romulus Augustulus), but he supported Illus in his 486 revolt from Zeno.  So Zeno sent Theoderic in Italy.  «Essentially both Odoacer and Theoderic ruled Italy as kings and viceroys of the emperor.»  (86).

Croke, Brian.  «The Context and Date of Priscus Fragment 6.»  Cl Phil.  78 (1983) 297-308.

Croke, Brian.  Christian Chronicles and Byzantine History:  5th-6th Centuries.  Aldershot:  Variorum, 1992.  DF 505 C7.

Croke, Brian, ed., tr.  The Chronicle of Marcellinus.  Sidney: Australian Association for Byzantine studies, 1995.  Pims DF 550 M37.  Marcellinus Comes.

Croke, Brian.  Count Marcellinus and his Chronicle.  Oxford:  UP, 2001.  DF 556 C76.  Marcellinus Comes.

Cumberland, Richard [1732-1811], ed.  Pharsalia.  With notes by Hugo Grotius and Richard Bentley.  Strawberry Hill, 1760.  RBSC E-10/834.  Lucan.

Dagron, Gilbert.  «’Ceux d’en face':  Les peuples étrangers dans les traités militaires byzantins.»  Travaux et Mémoires.  10 (1987) 207-232.

Dalton, Ormonde Maddock, tr.  The Letters of Sidonius.  3 vols.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1915.  PA 6694 S794.

Darrouzès, Jean.  «Les listes épiscopales du concile de Nicée (787).»  REB 33 (1975) 5-76.

Darrouzès, Jean, ed.  Notitiae Episcopatuum Ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae.  Paris:  Institut français des études byzantines, 1981.

Datema, Cornelis, and Pauline Allen, eds.  Leontii Presbyter Constantinopolitani homiliae.  CCSG, 17.  1987.

Datema, Cornelis, and Pauline Allen, trs.  Leontii Presbyter Constantinopolitani homiliae.  Translation at PIMS BR 65 L473 H6512.

David of Thessalonica, St.  AASS June 26, vol 7.  Should be dated to Justin II.  Check BHG  Roba Z7844 B5;  Pims Z7844 H35.  See John of Ephesus, Evagrius Sch, Kazhdan, Vasiliev.

Davis, Raymond, tr.  The Book of Pontiffs (Liber Pontificalis).  Liverpool University Press, 1989.  BX 950 E6 L6.

Davis, Raymond, tr.  The Lives of the Eighth Century Popes (Liber Pontificalis).  Liverpool University Press, 1992.  BX 950 E6 L6.

Dawes, E., and Norman H. Baynes, tr.  Three Byzantine Saints:  Daniel the Stylite, Theodore of Sykeon and John the Almsgiver.  Oxford:  Mowbrays, 1977.  BX 393 D372.  Review:  AB 69 (1951) 163-164.

Delatte, Armand.  «Chorographie ecclésiastique.»  In his Anecdota Athenensia I:  Textes grecs inédits relatifs à l’histoire des religions.  Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et de littérature de Liège, 36.  Liège and Paris: 1927.  322-323.  HT 863 J3.  The five patriarchal sees, Rome’s territory runs from Illyricum to the Pillars of Hercules, including Slavs, Avars and the Scyths east of the Danube.

Delatte, Armand.  «Geographica.»  BZ 30 (1929) 511-518.  Theory of Geography.

Delehaye, Hippolyte.  «Passio S. Sabae Gothi.»  AB 31 (1912) 216-221.  PIMS.  Section of «Saints de Thrace et de Mésie.»  161-300.  Goths but not Huns.

Delehaye, Hippolyte.  «Une vie inédite de saint Jean l’Aumonier.»  AB 45 (1927) 5-74.  PIMS.  See Pancrace.bib.

Depoin, J.  «Chronologie des rois mérovingiens.»  Bull Phil Hist.  1905:205-214.  DC 2 F85.

Dewing, Henry Bronson, ed., tr.  Procopius:  Complete Works.  Loeb Classical Library.  7 vols.  London:  Heinemann, 1914-1940.

Didier [St. Desiderius].  Epistulae.  MGH.  191-214.

Didier, Life of.  See Poupardin.

Diehl, Charles.  «Rescrit des empereurs Justin et Justinien en date du 1er juin 527.»  BCH 17 (1893) 501-520.  Living conditions in Anatolia.

Dieten, Jan Louis van.  Geschichte der griechischen Patriarchen von Konstantinopel.  Amsterdam:  A. M. Hakkert, 1972.  BX 410 D54 v 4.

Dieten, Jan Louis van.  Geschichte der Patriarchen von Sergios I bis Johannes VI (610-715).  Amsterdam:  Hakkert, 1972.  1-56, Siege of CPL.  Avars.

Dindorf, Ludwig, ed.  Chronicon paschale ad exemplar Vaticanum.  CSHB, 4 and 5.  2 vols.  Bonn:  Weber, 1832.  Heraclius and the Sava 4:730 and 5:493.  Incident dated to 17th regnal year of Heraclius by Theophanes and Symeon Logothete.

Dindorf, Ludwig.  «Ein Fragment des Priskos.»  Jahrbücher für classische Philologie.  99 (1869) 43-48;  120-126.  PA 3 N65, 12th Apex.  Re:  Illyricum.  Notes on C. Wescher, Poliorkêtikon, 304-306.

Dindorf, Ludwig.  «Bemerkungen zu Agathias.»  Jahrbücher für classische Philologie.  99 (1869) 457-465.  PA 3 N65, 12th Apex.  Franks.

Domaszewski, Alfred von.  Die Personennamen bei den Scriptores historiae augustae.  Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos-Hist Klasse.  1918.  Heft 13.  AS 182 H44.

Donini, Guido, and Gordon B. Ford, Jr., trs.  Isidore of Seville’s History of the Goths, Vandals and Suevi.  Leiden;  Brill, 1966/1970.  D 135 I813.  See also MGH AA 11.

Droysen, Hans, ed.  Pauli Historia Romana.  MGH: Auctorum antiquissimorum.  2 (1879) 185-224;  reprint  Munich:  MGH, 1978.  DG 208 P3.  Up to the days of Belisarius, Vitigis and Narses.

Droysen, Hans, ed.  Landulf’s Continuation.  MGH: Auctorum antiquissimorum.  2 (1879) 227-376.  Up to the days of Anastasius and the beginning of Avar raids.

Droysen, Hans, ed.  Evtropi Breviarivm ab vrbe condita cvm versionibvs graecis et Pavli Landolfiqve additamentis.  MGH: Auctorum antiquissimorum.  2 (1879) 8-182.  With parallel Greek translation.

Dubois, Ch.  «Observations sur l’état et le nombre des populations germaniques dans la seconde moitié du IV siècle d’après Ammien Marcellin.»  In Mélanges Cagnat.  Paris:  Leroux, 1912.  247-262.  DG 77 M45.

Du Cange.  Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis conditum a Carolo Dufresne domino Du Cange.  Enlarged edition by C. P. Carpenter and G. A. L. Henschel.  7 vols.  Paris:  Didot, 1840-1848.  CRRS PA 2888 D8.  «Caganus» 2 (1842) 18, HX.  Ref.bib.

Duchesne, Louis.  Le Liber Pontificalis:  Texte, Introduction et commentaire.  BEFAR, Second series.  2 vols.  Paris:  Thorin, 1886-1892.  PIMS folio BQX 101 D8.  Also ema.bib, correction.

Duchesne, Louis.  «Les évêchés d’Italie et l’invasion lombarde.»  Ecole française de Rome.  Mélanges d’archéologie et d’histoire.  23 (1903) 83-116.  «A l’approche des envahisseurs [lombards d'Alboin], les deux évêques métropolitains de Milan et d’Aquilée se retirèrent en terre impériale, l’un à Gênes, l’autre à Grado.» (87).  L’Istrie demeure byzantine, 87.  Cf Paul Deacon, HL IV:23;  Gregory the Great, Epistolae.  «la terre d’Otrante, depuis Tarente et Brundisi, resta aux Grecs jusqu’au temps de Constant II (663)» (10).  «saint Grégoire [...] n’écrit jamais qu’à des évêques habitant le pays byzantin.»  (111).

Duchesne, Louis.  «L’empereur Anastase et sa politique religieuse.»  MEFRA 32 (1912) 305-336.

Dujcev, Ivan, ed.  «La chronique byzantine de l’an 811.»  Travaux et Mémoires.  1 (1965) 205-254.  Nicephorus to Sofia, 212f.

Duket, Timothy Alan.  A Study in Byzantine Historiography:  An Analysis of Theophanes’ Chronographia and its Relationship to Theophylact’s History, the Reign of Maurice and the Seventh Century to 711.  PhD Boston College.  Boston, 1980.  PIMS DF 573.5 D8.

Dumoulin, Maurice.  «Le gouvernement de Théoderic et la domination des Ostrogoths en Italie d’après les oeuvres d’Ennodius.»  RH 78 (1902) 1-7;  241-265;  79 (1902) 1-22.

Dumoulin, Maurice.  «The Kingdom of Italy under Odovacar and Theoderic.»  In The Christian Roman Empire and the Foundation of the Teutonic Kingdoms.  Vol 1 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  New York:  Macmillan, 1911.  433-456.  D 117 C3.  See ema.bib.

Duval, Yves-Marie.  «Aquilée sur la route des invasions entre 351 et 452.»  In Aquileia e l’arco alpino orientale.  Antichità altoadriatiche, 9.  1976.  237-298.  DG 70 A6 S47.  See Ammianus 31,16,7.

Duval, Yves-Marie.  «Aquilée et la Palestine entre 370 et 420.»  In Aquileia e l’Oriente mediterraneo.  1977.  263-322.  DG 70 A6547.

Duval, Yves-Marie.  «Nicéta d’Aquilée.»  Antichità altoadriatiche, 17.  Udine, 1980.  192.

Eberhard, Alfred, tr.  Arrian:  Ectaxis.  1885.  See Hercher.

Eckstein, Arthur M.  Review of Appian and Cassius Dio by Gowing.  American Journal of Philology.  116 (1995) 331-335.

Eigilis.  Vita Sturmii.  PL 105:423-444.  Also MGH:  SS 2:265.  «Tunc quadam die, dum pergeret, pervenit ad viam quae ad Turingorum regionem mercandi causa ad Magontiam pergentes ducit, ubi platea illa, super flumen Fuldam vadit:  ibi magnam Sclavorum multitudinem reperit, ejusdem fluminis alveo… lavandis corporibus se immersisse.»  (430, ch. 8).

Eligius, St.  Vita Eligii.  MGH.  SRM.  4:677.  The author lived at the court of Dagobert.  St. Eloi by Audoenus.  See Dubois.

Ennodius.  Panégyrique de Théoderic.  CSEL 6, PL 63.  See ema.bib.

Ennodius.  Vogel, MGH AA, 7.  Hartel, CSEL, 6.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  «Maximinus und sein Begleiter, der Historiker Priskos.»  Byzantinische und Neugriechische Jahrbücher.  5 (1926) 1-9.  DF 501 B83.  Date of embassy to the Huns:  AD 448.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  «Die Ostgoten in Pannonien.»  Byzantinische und Neugriechische Jahrbücher.  6 (1927/28) 146-159.  DF 501 B83.  Post Attila, answer to Alföldi, Untergang.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  «Ostrogothenreich.»  Klio 29 (1936) 243-249.  D 51 K62.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  Theoderic der Grosse.  Munich, 1947.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  Des Symmachus Historia Romana als Quelle für Jordanes.  Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte.  Munich, 1948.  AS 182 M823.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  Theoderic.  I Goti in Occidente:  Problemi.  Settimane, 3.  Spoleto, 1956.  11-33.  CB 351 C46.

Erdélyi, István.  «Les anciens Hongrois ont-ils été dans la région du Kouban?»  In Les anciens Hongrois et les ethnies voisines à l’Est.  Budapest:  Akadémiai Kiadó, 1977.  249-252.  DB 919 A67.  Describes burial dated to the VIIIth century in the Kuban nearly identical to those of the Magyars at the time of the Landnahme.

Ericsson, K.  «Revising a Date in the Chronicon Paschale.»  Jahrbuch des österreichischen byzantinischen Gesellschaft.  17 (1968) 17-28.  # per.bib.

Eugippius.  Vita sancti Severini.  MGH AA 1.2, Berlin 1961;  also in usum scholarem.  Also:  CSEL, IX,2.  Vienna, 1886.  BR 1720 S4 E8.  Eds?

Evagrius Scholasticus.  Historia ecclesiastica.  See Allen, Bidez-Parmentier, Frankenberg, Krivouchine, Whitby.  See PG 86 (1867) for reproduction of Reading’s edition of 1844, deemed «careless» by Bidez-P.  Wrote about the period ???31-594.

Fabricius, B., ed, tr.  Der Periplus des Erythräischen Meeres.  Leipzig: Veit, 1883.  HF 386 P4.

Fanning, Steven C.  «Lombard Arianism Reconsidered.»  Speculum 56 (1981) 241-258.

Favrod, Justin, ed., tr.  La Chronique de Marius d’Avenches (455-581).  Lausanne:  UP, 1991.  D 17 F38.  Rev:  CEV Nixon Gnomon 68 (1996) 138-142.  Huns, Avars.

Ferluga, Jadran.  Untersuchungen zur byzantinischen Provinzverwaltung:  VI-XIII Jahrhundert.  Amsterdam:  Hakkert, 1992.  DF 553 F53.

Ferluga, Jadran.  «Mercati e mercanti fra Mar Nero e Adriatico.»  Mercati et Mercanti nell’alto medioevo:  l’area euroasiatica et l’area mediterranea.  Settimane 40 (1993) 443-490.

Fettich, Nándor.  «Tombe princière hunnique.»  Acta Arch Hung.  32 (1953).

Firmin-Didot, Ambroise.  Alde Manuce et l’hellénisme à Venise.  Paris, 1875;  reprint Brussels:  Culture et civilisation, 1966.  VUCR Z 232 M3 D5.  RBSC Duff 02913.  Check for Strabo, Josephus, Hegesippus.

Fontaine, Jacques.  «Isidore de Séville et la mutation de l’encyclopédisme antique.»  Cahiers d’histoire mondiale.  9 (1965/66) 519-538.  Gerstein D 1 C25.

Fontaine, Jacques.  Tradition et actualité chez Isidore de Séville.  London:  Variorum Reprints, 1988.  BX 4700 I78 F65.

Fredegarius.  MGH:  SRM, 2.  Ed:  Krusch, Wallace-Hadrill.  See Anglade.

Frendo, .  «Heraclius.»  DOP 42 (1988) 146-147.

Fridh, Åke J., ed.  Cassiodorus:  Variae.  CCSL, 96.  Turnhout, 1973.

Friedrich, Johann.  «Die ecclesia Augustana in dem Schreiben der istrischen Bischöfe an Kaiser Mauritius vom Jahre 591 und die Synode von Gradus zwischen 572 und 577.»  Sitzungsbericht der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.  (1906) 327-356.  HX.

Frisk, Hjalmar.  Le Périple de la Mer Erythrée.  Göteborgs Högskolas Arsskrift, 33,1.  1927.

Galletier, Edouard, ed, tr.  Panégyriques latins.  3 vols.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1949-1955.  PA 6138 P3.  For Pliny and Trajan, see Durry.

Gaudenzi, A.  Sui rapporti tra l’Italia e l’impero d’Oriente fra gli anni 476 e 554.  Bologna, 1888.

Gelzer, Heinrich.  «Kosma der Indienfahrer.»  Jahrbücher für protestantische Theologie.  9 (1883) 105-141.  Check VUEM.  See Anastos for refutation.

Gelzer, Heinrich.  Georgii Cyprii Descriptio Orbis Romani.  Leipzig, 1890.  DF 503 G36.  Notitia Basilii, 1-27.

Gelzer, Heinrich.  «Ungedrückte und wenig bekannte Bistümerverzeichnisse der orientalischen Kirche.»  Byzantinische Zeitschrift.  1 (1892) 245-282;  2 (1893) 22-72.

Gelzer, Heinrich.  Leontios’ von Neapolis Leben des heiligen Johannes des Barmherzigen Erzbischof von Alexandrien.  Sammlung ausgewählter kirchen- und dogmengeschichtlicher Quellenschriften, Heft 5.  Freiburg and Leipzig:  Mohr, 1893.  Reprinted in his Ausgewählte kleine Schriften.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1907.  1-56.

Gelzer, Heinrich.  Ausgewählte kleine schriften.  Leipzig: Teubner, 1907.  John the Almoner, 1-56.

Genevieve, Life of.  Merchants travelling between Gaul and Syria.

Genesius.  Bonn Corpus.

George of Pisidia.  De expeditione persica.  CSHB 17.  Bonn, ??.  See also BMED PA 5317 G4 A17.

George of Pisidia.  Hexameron e kosmourgia.  In Claudii Aeliani Varia historia epistola fragmenta.  Ed: Rudolf Hercher.  2 vols???  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1866.  2:601-662.  PA 3821 A2.

Gerhard.  Vita Sancti Oudalrici episcopi Augustani.  MGH SS 4:377-425.  Source on Noricum?

Gerland, Ernst.  Rev:  Pernice.  BZ 15 (1906) 301-307.

Germanus, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre, 378-448.  Life by Constantius.  See Thompson.

Gesta Dagoberti.  Ed:  Krusch MGH:  SRM.  2:399.  HX.  See also DC 69 B68.  In Merovingian times, Frankish trade was in the hands of the Syrians and the Jews;  we have plenty of evidence, including the mention of Solomon in the GD, p 413.

Giunta, Francesco, and A. Grillone, eds.  Iordanis de Origine Actibusque Getarum.  Fonti per la storia d’Italia, 117.  Rome, 1991.  Pims, Roba DG 403 F7.

Giuffrida, C.  «Per una datazione dell’Epitoma rei militaris di Vegezio.  Politica e propaganda nell’età di Onorio.»  Siculorum Gymnasium.  34 (1981) 25-56.  AS 222 C3.  Have summary.

Glaser, Frank.  Teurnia:  Metropolis Norici.  Vienna, 1987.

Glaser, Frank.  Frühes Christentum im Alpenraum.  1997.  NA 950 G553.

Glorie, Franciscus, ed.  Itineraria et alia geographica.  CCSL, 175.  1965.

Glück, Christian Wilhelm von.  Die Bistümer Noricums.  Sb d. Wiener Ak d. Wiss. Ph-H, 17.  Vienna, 1853.  Also PIMS BX 1516 G5.

Goar, St. Miracles.  Wandalberti Miracula S. Goaris.  MGH.  SS.  15:361-373.  Page 370 for Frisian trade.  HAVE XEROX  See also Marcellinus.

Goar, St. Miracles.  Wandalberti Miracula S. Goaris.  MGH where?  SS.  15:361-373.  HX.  Page 370 for Frisian trade.  See also Marcellinus.

Görres, F.  «Justinian II und das römische Papsttum.»  BZ 17 (1908) 440-450.

Goffart, Walter André.  «Byzantine Policy in the West under Tiberius II and Maurice:  the Pretenders Hermenegild and Gundovald.»  Traditio 13 (1957) 73-118.  D 111 T7.

Goffart, Walter André.  «The Fredegar problem reconsidered.»  Speculum 38 (1963) 206-241.  Reprinted 1989.

Goffart, Walter André.  «The Date and Purpose of Vegetius’ De re militari.»  Traditio 33 (1977) 65-100.  Reprinted 1989.  Have summary.

Goffart, Walter André.  Barbarians and Romans, A.D. 418-584:  The Techniques of Accommodation.  Princeton, NJ:  Princeton University Press, 1980.  Roba, Smc, Ims, DG 319 G63.

Goffart, Walter André.  «Foreigners in the Histories of Gregory of Tours.»  Florilegium 4 (1982) 80-99.  #per.bib.

Goffart, Walter André.  The Narrators of Barbarian History (AD 550-800):  Jordanes, Gregory of Tours, Bede, Paul Deacon.  Princeton UP, 1988.  DS 56 G615.

Goffart, Walter André.  Jordanes.

Gorbunova, K. S.  «Archaeological Investigations on the Northern shore of the Black Sea in the Territory of the Soviet Union, 1965-1970.»  JHS 18 (1972) 48-59.  Biblio.

Gorce, Denys, ed.  Gerontius:  Vie de sainte Mélanie.  Paris:  BL, 1962.  PIMS BR 1720 M37 G4413;  ROBA BR 1720 M3794.  Greek, with French translation.

Gordon, Colin Douglas.  The Age of Attila:  Fifth-century Byzantium and the Barbarians.  Ann Arbor:  U of Michigan P, 1966.  D 141…  Extensive fragments of historians.

Goyau, Georges.  Sainte Mélanie (383-439).  Paris:  Lecoffre, 1908/1925.  Numerous editions, on sale on Internet, WCat.  Check Pims card catalogue.  Check Serena.

Greatrex, Geoffrey, and Jonathan Bardill.  «Antiochus the praepositus:  A Persian Eunuch at the Court of Theodosius II.»  DOP 50 (1996) 171-197.

Gregory the Great, Pope.  Registrum epistularum.  Ed:  MGH?  Norberg in CCSL, NPNF?  MGH Ep.  1-2.  Berlin, 1887.  NPNF, 2nd series, 12, 13.  1895-1898.  Letters to archbishop of Illyricum 11:22, 23 ca 591-592.  Colonate?  David of Thess?

Gregory of Tours.  Historia Francorum.  See Arndt (MGH), Bonnet, Jacobs, Krusch (MGH), Kurth, Latouche, Monod, Ruinart (PL 71).  DC 64 G714.  Have file with citations.  Sigebert and Huns.  Chilperic «Judaeus quidam Priscus nomine, qui ei ad species coemendas familiares erat.»  VI,5.

Grekov, Boris Dmitrievich.  Izbrannye trudy.  4 vols.  Moscow:  Akademiia, 1957-1960.  Roba D 377 G72;  Pims DJK 27 G74.

Grekov, Boris Dmitrievich.  «.»  In Drevnerusskoe gosudarstvo i ego mezhdunarodnoe znachenie.  Moscow:  Nauka, 1965.  Roba, Pims DK 71 N6.

Grenier, Albert.  Manuel d’archéologie gallo-romaine.  4 vols.  Paris:  Picard, 1931-1960.  DC 63 G7.  «Les milliaires s’arrêtent en Gaule vers 350» (Courtois 253, citing 2:51 and 2:346).

Grierson, Philip.  «Lombards.»  Archivio storico lombardo.  (1957).  DG 651 A7.

Grierson, Philip.  Dark Age Numismatics.  London:  Variorum, 1979.  Pims CJ 1607 G78.  29 articles, 1951-1974.

Groh, Kurt.  Geschichte des oströmischen Kaisers Justin II nebst den Quellen.  1889;  reprint 1985.  DF 576 G76.  Avars.

Guilland, Rodolphe.  Biblio.  Byzantion 31 (1961).

Guillou, André.  Régionalisme et indépendance dans l’empire byzantin au VIIe siècle:  l’exemple de l’exarchat et de la Pentapole d’Italie.  Rome:  ISI, 1964.  DG 504 G8.  Biblio.

Gundlach, W, ed.  Columbanus.  MGH Epistolae.  Vol. 3.  BX 4700 B7 A43.

Gutschmid, Alfred von.  «Zur Frage über das Original der Ravennatischen Kosmographie.»  Rheinisches Museum.  12 (1857) 438-441.  See also Asia.bib for Armenian historiography.

Haag, O.  «Ueber die Latinität Fredegars.»  Romanische Forschungen.  10 (1899).  PC 3 R5.

Häusler, Alexander.  «Zu den sozialökonomischen Verhältnissen in der Cernjachov-Kultur.»  Zeitschrift für Archäologie.  13 (1979) 23-65.  CC 5 Z45.  Biblio.

Hahn, A.  «Einige Bemerkungen über Fredegar.»  Archiv für deutsche Geschichtskunde.  9 (1858).  #per.bib.

Hald, Kristian.  «Angles and Vandals.»  Cl & Med.  4 (1941) 62-78.  Varini, Tacitus.

Haldon, John F.  Byzantium in the Seventh Century:  The Transformation of a Culture.  Rev ed Cambridge UP, 1990/1997.  DF 571 H35 1997X.  Biblio.

Halkin, F.  «L’hagiographie byzantine au service de l’histoire.»  In Proceedings of the XIIIth International Congress of Byzantine Studies.  Oxford:  5-10 Sept. 1966.  Ed:  J. M. Hussey, D. Obolensky and S. Runciman.  London:  Oxford University Press, 1967.  345-354.  DF 501 C6

Halm, Carolus, ed.  Sulpicii Severi chronica.  In Sulpicii Severi Libri qui supersunt.  CSEL, 1.  Vienna, 1866.  1-105.  BR 60 C6.

Halphen, Louis.  «Une théorie récente sur la Chronique du Pseudo-Frédégaire.»  Revue historique.  79 (1902).

Halphen, Louis.  «Grégoire de Tours, historien de Clovis.»  In Mélanges d’histoire du moyen âge offerts à M. Ferdinand Lot par ses amis et ses élèves.  Paris:  Champion, 1925.  235-244.  D 113.5 M45.

Harmatta, János.  «The Last Century of Pannonia.»  Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.  18 (1970) 361-369.  CC 1 A19.

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Loyen, André.  Recherches historiques sur les panégyriques de Sidoine Apollinaire.  1942.  Reprint or new edition in Studia historica, 43.  Rome:  L’Erma di Bretschneider, 1967.  PA 6694 S8 L48 1942A.

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Macler, Frédéric, ed.  Histoire d’Héraclius par l’évêque Sebeos.  Paris:  Leroux, 1904;  Microform, 1996.  MICR DF 574 S4.

Macler, Frédéric.  «Pseudo-Sebeos, texte arménien traduit et annoté.»  Journal asiatique.  10th series 6 (1905) 121-155.  Continues Agathangelos.  Starts with Sassanids, includes concordance of Persian and Roman rulers.  Kushans, 131.

Mahé, Jean-Pierre.  «Critical Remarks on the Newly Edited Excerpts from Sebeos.»  In Medieval Armenian Culture.  Ed: . . .  University of Pennsylvania Armenian Texts and Studies, 6.  Chico, CA: 1983.  218-239.  DS 171 D7.

Maksimovic, Ljubomir.  «Chronological Notes about Slavonic Raids into Byzantine Territories at the End of the Seventies and the Beginning of the Eighties of the 6th Century.»  Zbornik Radova Vizantoloskog Instituta.  Mélanges Georges Ostrogorsky.  8,2 (1964) 263-271.  In Serbian with English summary.

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Mango, Cyril.  Nikephoros Patriarch of Constantinople:  Short History.  Washington, DC:  Dumbarton Oaks, 1990.  DF 571 N513.  Mid-eighth century, ethnography.

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Marius d’Avenches.  Ed. Mommsen.  MGH.  AA.  1894.  9:234.

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Menander Protector.  History.  Bonn the original edition?  See Blockley.  The Ouar and the Khoun, known collectively as the Ouarkhônitai, IV, p. 246 (original edition).  Routes and travel, 125ff.  Avars, 93ff;  111ff.  Embassy from the Turks on behalf of Sogdian traders (Maniakh), 111.  Turxanthus, the Turkish leader, refers to the Uarkhonitae as his runaway slaves, 173f.  Ephthalites live in cities, 115.  Baian & Sigisbert, 127.  Alboin and Baian, 129.  Antae plundered by Avars, 51.  Avars and Slavs, 193f, 219ff.  Avars and Kutrigur Huns, 137;  Baian master of Kutrigurs and Utigurs, 139.  Baian against Sirmium, passim.  Suania, frag 6,1, lines 240ff;  310ff;  450ff.  Caucasian people, occupying a territory bordering on Lazica, disputed between Maurice and Khosrow;  occasionally subject to the Lazians.  Treaty to deny the Huns and the Alans access through the Caspian Gates.  Cf Ann St Bertin.

Mercati, G.  «A Study of the Paschal Chronicle.»  Journal of Theological Studies.  7 (1905/06) 397.  VUEM.

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Metcalf, David M.  «Avar and Slav Invasions into the Balkans peninsula (c. 575-625):  The Nature of the Numismatic Evidence.»  Journal of Roman Archaeology.  4 (1991) 140-148.  DG 11 J68.

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Minorsky, Vladimir Fëdorovich.  Studies in Caucasian History.  London:  Taylor, 1953.  DS 186 M5.  Babak.

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Mirkovic, Miroslava.  «Fall of Sirmium under the Avars.»  Sirmium — Its History from the I century A. D. to 582 A. D.  In:  Archaeological Investigations in Syrmian Pannonia.  Belgrade, 1971.  DR 396 M57 S57.

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Mommsen, Theodor.  Gesammelte Schriften.  7 vols.  Berlin, 1905-1909.  Roba DG 15 M64.  HX contents.  Vol 7 for Ammianus, Ennodius, Eutropius, Vegetius, etc.  II:281ff, 293 for Diocletian and the reconquest of Rhaetica and Pannonia.  Cited Seston.

Mommsen, Theodor, ed.  Commemorationum vitae sancti Severini.  Heidelberg, 1948.

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Nicephorus of Constantinople [ca 758-828].  History.  See Alexander, Mango.  Citation in text of Boris article.  He wrote barely a century or two after the events but his ethnography of the region cannot be reconciled with Menander, Ammianus, etc, nor is it acceptable when one factors in more recent forms of scholarship, such as toponyms.

Nicholas Mysticus.

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Paris, Gaston.  «L’Appendix Probi.»  In his Mélanges linguistiques.  3 vols.  Paris:  Campion, 1906.  Old Class, HX.

Paris, Gaston.  «L’Appendix Probi.»  In Mélanges Léon Renier.  BEHE, 73.  Paris, 1887.  AS L62 B6, HX.

Patsch, Carl L.  «Arrians Periplus Ponti Euxeni.»  Klio 4 (1904) 68-75.  Crimea, Tauroscyths.

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Paul Deacon.  Pauli Historia lombarda.  MGH:  SRL Bethmann-Waitz, Peters-Foulke.  See also DG 511 P38.  HL 2.26, the Lombards included also Gepids, Bulgars, Sarmatians, Pannonians, Suevi, Noricans.

Payne Smith, Robert, tr.  The Third Part of the Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus.  Oxford UP, 1860.  PIMS BQ 3969 O34A;  Roba BR 160 J6 P39.  Avars, Slavs, Lombards.

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Pelletier, André, ed, tr.  Flavius Josèphe:  Autobiographie.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1983.  PA 4222 V5 1983.  Chronology of his works, intro.

Pertz, G. H., ed.  Edictum Theoderici.  Vol 5 of MGH LL.

Peter, Hermann Wilhelm Gottlieb.  Historicorum Romanorum Fragmenta.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1883.  VUPT PA 6139 H5 H49.

Peter, Hermann.  Historicorum Romanorum Reliquiae.  Vol 2.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1906.  PA 6139 H5.  Important intros.

Peter, Hermann.  Historicorum Romanorum Reliquiae.  Vol 1.  2nd ed Leipzig:  Teubner, 1914.  Important introductions.

Pétrin, Nicole.  «Philological Notes on the Crossbow and Related Missile Weapons.»  Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies.  33 (1992) 265-291.

Pétrin, Nicole.  «Caranthani Marahenses:  Philological Notes on the Early History of the Hungarians and the Slavs.»  Eurasian Studies Yearbook.  Formerly Ural-altaische Jahrbücher.  70 (1998) 39-63.

Pétrin, Nicole.  «Further Philological Notes on the Early History of the Hungarians and the Slavs.»  Eurasian Studies Yearbook.  72 (2000) 29-111.

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Poncelet, Alb.  «Review Krusch Vitae Amandi.  SRM 5.  An. Boll. 29 (1910) 448-450.

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Priscus.  Fragmenta.  Ed.  Bonn Corpus, 158;  CPorph.;  Müller, FHG.  Tr:  Blockley, Dieterich, Thompson.  Pims DG 205 B48;  Roba DG 205 B58.

Priscus, fl AD 461.  De Leg in CPorph 141, p. 12ss  «où il question de deux rois des Huns, Basikh et Koursikh, qui avaient tenté une incursion contre l’Iran occidental» (Hambis 251n3).  Hunnoi Kidaritai, AD 456-468, see Cribb.

Procopius of Caesarea.  Bella Persica.  Ed:  Dewing.  «The Romans and their Hunnish allies were nearly all hippotoxotai» (i,I,15).  Mentions the White Huns of Central Asia.

Procopius of Caesarea.  Historia anecdota.  Slavs, §18.

Procopius of Caesaria.  De Aedificiis.  IV,4:  Illyrin in Epirus Nova.  Building, volume 7.  See Dewing.

Procopius of Gaza.  Panégyriques de l’empereur Anastase Ier.  Bonn:  Habelt, 1986.  PA 4403 PG P3.  Editor???

Procopius of Gaza.  Encomium of Anastasius.  Garzya, Matranga.  PG 87.  CCSG.

Prosper of Aquitaine.  Chronica minora.  PL 51.  Ed:  Mommsen in vol 9 of MGH AA.  Berlin, 1892.

Prostko-Prostynski, J.  The Emperor Anastasius I’s Gothic Policy (491-518).  Poznan, 1994.  Rev:  Rochette.

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Reuss, Friedrich.  «Zu Arrians Periplus Ponti Euxeni.»  RhM 56 (1901) 367-391.

Reverdy, Georges.  «Les relations de Childebert II et de Byzance.»  RH 114 (1913) 61-85.  HX.  Alliance contre les Lombards.  Epistulae Austrasicae.

Richmond, J.  «The Sarmatae Veteranorum.»  JRS 35 (1945) 15-29.

Riese, Alexander, ed.  Geographici Latini Minores. 1878;  reprint  Hildesheim:  G. Olms, 1964.  G87 A1R5.  HXp V. Sequester, Divisio Orbis Terrarum.

Robson, C. A.  «L’Appendix Probi et la philologie latine.»  Le Moyen Age.  69 (1963) 37-54.

Sachau, Eduard.  Die Chronik von Arbela:  Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis des ältesten Christentums in Orient.  Abhandlungen der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil-hist Kl.  Berlin, 1915, fasc 6.  AS 182 B34.  Maps, covers AD 100-551, with intro and translation.  «In diesem Jahre (484) starb der Perserkönig Pêrôz im Monat Ab (August) auf dem Pfade des Kriegs mit den Hunnen.»  (87).  «… die Perser wurden gezwungen umzukehren, um ihre Länder gegen die wilde Wut der Hunnen, welche angefangen hatten sich auf sie zu stürzen, zu beschützen.» (88).

Salmon, R.  «Fredegar.»  BZ 30 (1929-30) 102-110.

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Salvian [400-480].  De gubernatione Dei.  VI,8 et 15.  BR 65 S35.  Bitter critique of economy.

Sathas, Konstantin N., ed.  Khronikon anekdoton Galakseidiou.  Athens, 1865.  191-221.  Compiled in 1703 by the monk Euthymius who had first class early sources.

Sathas, Konstantin N., ed.  Mesaionike Bibliotheke  [Bibliotheca graeca medii aevi].  7 vols.  Venice and Paris:  Maisonneuve, 1872-94.  Old Class LGr. .C S.

Sathas, Konstantin N., ed.  «Anonyme de Sathas.»  In his Bibliotheca Graeca M A.  7 vols.  Volume 7, 1-610.  Artavasdus, p. 124.

Schneider, A. M.  «Die Symbolik des Theoderichgrabes.»  BZ 41 (1941) 404-405.

Schnetz, Joseph.  Untersuchungen zum Geographen von Ravenna.  Programm-Gymnasium.  Munich, 1919.

Schnetz, Joseph.  «Jordanes beim Geographen von Ravenna.»  Philologus 36 (1925) 86-100.

Schnetz, Joseph.  «Onogoria.»  Archiv für slavische Philologie.  40 (1926) 157-160.  See ESY for discussion.

Schnetz, Joseph, ed.  Ravennatis anonymi Cosmographia et Guidonis Geographica.  Vol 2 of Itineraria Romana.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1940.  DG 28 C86.  Rev:  Peter Thomsen PhW 61 (1941) 543-5 with corrections.

ARav, p. 94, line 34 for Butaroton;  Guido, p. 137, line 19 for Butarutan.  Also ARav p. 60, line 33:  «ingreditur vero ipse Renus in mare Oceanum sub Dorostate Frigonium patrie.»
Agrees with my date (my 1998:50n29).  He is reluctant to allow Onogoria to extend to the Black Sea because the cities on the Crimean coast were not part of Onogoria:  they were Iranian or Greek (159).  Yet in all of their colonial endeavours, the Greeks built cities on coasts.  Korsun was a Greek city but the Greeks themselves never claimed that the «Tauric» peninsula was Greek.  Greek and Roman influences ended in third century AD.

Schnetz, Joseph.  Untersuchungen über die Quellen der Kosmographie des anonymen Geographen von Ravenna.  Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, 6.  Munich, 1942.  AS 182 M823.

Schnetz, Joseph, transl.  Cosmographia:  Eine Erdbeschreibung um das Jahr 700.  Nomina Germanica:  Arkiv för germansk Namnforskning, 10.  Uppsala, 1951.  Check PE 262 F67, if bound with.

Schnetz, Joseph.  Untersuchungen über die Quellen der Kosmographie des anonymen Geographen von Ravenna.  Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, 6.  Munich, 1942.  AS 182 M823.

Schnürer, G.  Die Verfasser der sogenannten Fredegar-Chronik.  Collectanea Friburgensia, 9.  1900.  DC 64 S34 HX.  «Die Fortsetzungen bis 642 bzw. 658.»  89-143.  Samo 110ff.

Schoell, Rudolf, and Wilhelm Kroll.  Justiniani Imperatoris Novellae.  Vol 3 of Corpus Iuris Civilis.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1963.  3:94 and 654-664.  KJA 1062.1.  HXp Novellae 11 and 131 re Justiniana Prima.  Check exact editions and call numbers.

Schönfeld, M.  «Langobardi.»  Pauly-Wissowa, 1924. 12:682.

Schönfelder, J. M., tr.  Die Kirchengeschichte des Johannes von Ephesus.  Munich, 1862.

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Schwartz, Eduard.  «Die sog. Sammlung der Kirche von Thessalonich.»  In FS R. Reitzenstein.  Ed . . .  Leipzig, 1931.  137-159.  PA 3003 F4.

Schweder, E.  «Ueber eine Weltkarte des achten Jahrhunderts.»  Hermes 24 (1889) 587-604.  Re Beatus and the TP

Scriptor Incertus.  Leonis grammatici chronographia.  Ed:  Immanuel Bekker.  Bonn, 1842.  335-362.  See Grégoire.

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Silva-Tarouca, C.  Epistularum Romanorum pontificum ad vicarios per Illyricum aliosque episcopos.  Collectio Thessalonicensis.  Textus et documenta, series Theologica.  Rome, 1937.  PIMS BR 1050 I4C3

Solinus.  Ed: Mommsen.  PA 6696 S5 A123.

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Stein, Ernst.  «Der Verzicht der Galla Placidia auf Illyricum.»  Wiener Studien.  36 (1915) 343-347.

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Stephanus of Byzantium.  Ethnika.  Holstenius.

Sternbach, Leo, ed.  «Analecta Avarica.»  Rozprawy Akademii Umiejetnosci, Wydzial filologiczny.  NS 15  (1900) 297-365.  PLa P, Row 6.  Homily by Theodore Syncellus, reprinted in Makk 1975.  See Nevsky for Sternbach on George of Pisidia.

Stevens, C. E.  Sidonius Apollinarius and his age.  Oxford, 1933.  Chronology.  DG 312.5 S 5 S8.

Tamassia, N.  «Sulla seconda parte dell’ Anonimo Valesiano.»  Archivio storico italiano.  71,2 (1913) 3-22.  VUCR PER, Roba DG 401 A and A72, per.bib.  Theoderic.

Teall, J.  «The Barbarians in Justinian’s armies.»  Speculum 40 (1965) 294-322.

Theodore Syncellus.  Homily on the Siege of Constantinople.  BHG 1060.  Homily delivered on Aug. 7, 627. See Sternbach, Makk.

Theophanes.  Chronographia.  Bonn Corpus 46-48.  See Mango-Scott.  Also new edition in Pims.  Ca AD 625 The Huns or the Avars who are called Bulgarians, and the Slavs and the Gepids.

Theophylakt Simocatta.  See Wirth, Whitby.  Ouarkhônitai, p. 286, Bonn.  Turkish digression in Book 7, see Bury.  Members of Avar tribes found their way to the middle Danube towards the end of the VIth century:  the Tarniakh, the Kotsager and the Zabender (Bonn, 286, lines 13-17).

Thomas Presbyter.  See Brooks.  Slavs in Crete, AD 623.

Thouvenot, R.  «Salvien et la ruine de l’empire romain.»  MEFRA 38 (1920) 145.

Tjäder, Jan-Olof, ed.  Die nichtliterarischen lateinischen papyri Italiens aus der Zeit 445-700.  3 vols.  Stockholm:  Lund, 1955-1982.  PIMS Z 114 T62;  ROBA PA 3335 T5.

Tout, T. F.  «The Study of Medieval Chronicles.»  Bulletin of the John Rylands Library.  6 (1921/22) 414-438.  per.bib.

Traina, Giusto.  «Faustus of Byzantium, Procopius, and the Armenian History (Jacoby, FGrHist 679, 3-4).»  In Novum Millennium:  Studies on Byzantine History and Culture Dedicated to Paul Speck.  Ed:  Claudia Sode and Sarolta Takácz.  Ashgate:  Variorum 2001.  405-414.  DF 521 N69 2001.

Turlej, Stanislaw.  «The so-called Chronicle of Monemvasia:  A Historical Analysis.»  Byzantion 68 (1998) 446-468.

Turtledove, Harry, tr.  The Chronicle of Theophanes.  An English translation of anni mundi 6095-6305 (AD 602-813), with introduction and notes.  Philadelphia:  U of Penn P, 1982.  D 17 T513.

Udal’cova, Zinaida Vladimirovna.  «Sel’skoe zavisimoe naselenie Italii vi veka.»  VDI  3 (1955) 85-115.  D 51 A424, incomplete.

Udaltsova, Zinaida Vladimirovna.  Italiia i Vizantiia v shestom veke.  Moscow:  Nauka, 1959.  DG 506 U3.

Väänänen, Veikko.  Introduction au latin vulgaire.  3rd ed Paris:  Klincksieck, 1981.  PA 2619 V3.  Appendix Probi, 200-203, HX.

Valk, M. van der.  «Manuscripts and scholia:  some textual problems.»  GRBS 25 (198) 39-49.  Stephanus Byz, Apol Rh.

Van de Vyver, André.  «Cassiodore et son oeuvre.»  Speculum 6 (1931)  244-292.  Acc Momigliano, very important.

Van de Vyver, André.  «La victoire contre les Alamans et la conversion de Clovis.»  RB 15 (1936) 859-914;  16 (1937) 35-94.  PIMS.

Vasiliev, Alexandre A., ed, tr.  Histoire universelle écrite par Agapius (Mahboob) de Menbidj.  Patrologia Orientalis, 8,3.  Paris:  Firmin-Didot, 1912.  399-550.  Edition spread over several volumes of PO 5, 7, and beyond 8;  covers late antiquity and early middle ages.  Vol 7 stops at the death of Valens in battle with the Goths (see Asia.bib, ema.bib).  Mention of «Saqalibah» under Justinian (vol 8).

Vasiliev, Alexander Alexandrovich.  HBE.  Ostrogothic campaign, AD 535-554;  conquest of Dalmatia, which formed part of the Ostrogothic kingdom, 1:136.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  The Goths in the Crimea.  Cambridge, Mass., Mediaeval Academy of America, 1936.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «An Edict of the Emperor Justinian, September 688.»  Speculum 18 (1943) 1-13.  Re Slavs.

Vasiliev, Alexander A.  «Life of David of Thessalonica.»  Traditio 4 (1946) 115-147.  D 111 T7.  David died in AD 540, but the story is connected with the proposed move of the prefecture from Thessaloniki to Justiniana Prima, in 535 (§13, §20, page 122, 127).  Reception by Theodora, §16, she died in AD 548.  The text was compiled in Thess in AD 718-720 (128).  Reference to Avar aggression which caused the prefecture to be removed from Sirmium to Thess.  Avars are named Scythians (131, 135f).  Vasiliev misses the point entirely:  «it mentions… barbarian invasions in the Balkan peninsula in the sixth century, naming the Avars, who, as we know from other evidence, invaded the peninsula in that century along with the Slavs» (146).  Notes in Ammian.art.  Cf Procopius.

Veselovskii, Aleksandr N.  «Iz istorii romana i povesti.  Vypusk pervyi (Greko-Vizantiiskii period).»  Sbornik otdelenie russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  40/2 (St. Petersburg, 1886) 1-511 and 1-80.  For excerpts from the Acts of St. Pancratius, see 73-110.  For index, see PIMS PG 2013 A65.

Victor of Tunnuna.  Chronicon.  Ed:  Mommsen, AA 11,2.  Up to AD 567, continued by John of Biclar for 567-590.

Vogel, F., ed.  Ennodius:  Opera.  MGH AA, 7.

Vogel, F., ed.  Ennodius.  CSEL, 6.  Vienna, 1882.

Vulic, Nikola.  «Constantius II.»  Glasnik Novi Sad.  (1929) 16-23.  DR 301 I8.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  «Die Ravennatischen Annalen als Hauptquelle für die Geschichte des Odovakar.»  Nachrichten der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft und der Georg-August Universität zu Göttingen.  1865:81.  AS 182 G834 per.bib.

Waitz, Georg.  «Chron. Grad.»  Neues Archiv für ältere deutsche Geschichte.  2 (…) 375.  per.bib.

Waitz, Georg.  Paul Deacon.  DG 511 P38.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  Vita Barbati Episcopi Beneventani.  MGH SRL 1878.  557-563.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  Origo gentis Langobard.  In MGH:SRL.  1878.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  Andreae Bergomatis Historia.  In MGH:SRL, 1878, 220-230.  Heraclius’ victory over Persia, §25.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  Chronica patriacharum Gradensium.  In MGH:SRL 1878.  392-397.

Waitz, Georg, ed.  Gesta Episcoporum Neapolitanorum.  In MGH:SRL 1878.  398-424.  See Achelis.  [AD 750??]  Ratchis, qui apud Foroiuli dux fuerat effectus, in Carniolam, Sclavorum patriam, cum suis ingressus, magnam multitudinem Sclavorum interficiens, eorum devastavit §38.

Walde, Alois.  Lateinisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch.  3rd edition by J. B. Hofmann and Elsbeth Berger.  Heidelberg:  Winter, 1930-1956.  Register GenR PA 2342 W34.

Wallace-Hadrill, J M.  «Fredegar and the History of France.»  Bulletin, John Ryland Library.  40 (1957/58).  Z 921 M3 J7.

Wallace-Hadrill, J. M., ed, tr.  The Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar with its Continuations.  London:  Nelson, 1960.  DC 60 F77.  Excerpts in c:\sorabia.

Walser, Gerold.  Rom, das Reich und die Fremden Völker in die Geschichtsschreibung der frühen Kaiserzeit.  Baden-Baden:  Verlag für Kunst und Wissenschaft, 1951.  PA 6716 W35.

Walton, Francis K.  «A Neglected Historical Text.»  Historia 14 (1965) 236-251.  John of Antioch.

Weiss, Jakob.  «Zum Geographen von Ravenna.»  Wiener Studien.  26 (1904) 309-317.

Whitby, Michael, and Mary Whitby, trs.  Theophylakt.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1986.  DF 573.5 S513.  The Avars «are Huns, who dwell beside the Ister» (I,3,1).  One reference to Bulgars, 183f (VII,4).

Whitby, Michael.  Evagrius.  Liverpool, 2000.  BR 160 E6 W45.

White, Jr., Lynn.  «The Byzantinization of Sicily.»  American Historical Review.  42 (1936) 1-21.  HX.

White Jr., Lynn.  «Technology in the Middle Ages.»  Technology in Western Civilization.  Eds:  Melvin Kranzberg and Carroll W. Pursell Jr.  2 vols.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1967.  1:66-79.

Wirth, Peter, ed.  Theophylactus:  Historiae.  Stuttgart, 1972.  PA 4410 S66 H5.

Wölfflin, Eduard.  «Das Breviarum des Festus.»  ALL 13 (1904) 69- . . . ;173- . . . per.bib.

Wölfflin, Eduard.  «Quadrigarius.»  ALL 15 (1908) 10.

Wölfflin, Eduard.  Ausgwählte Schriften.  Hildesheim:  Olms, 1977.  PA 27 W6.

Wozniak, Frank E.  «East Rome, Ravenna and Western Illyricum: 454-536.»  Historia 30 (1981) 351-382.  D 51 H5 HX.

Wozniak, Frank E.  «The Continuity of Roman Traditions and the Ostrogothic Administration of Dalmatia in the Sixth Century.»  In Papers for the V Congress of Southeast European Studies.  Congress at Belgrade, September 1984.  Ed:  . . .  Slavica, 1984.  Pims DR 1.5 A87, HX.

Wright, William S., ed.  The Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite Composed in Syriac AD 507.  Cambridge, 1882;  reprint Amsterdam:  Philo, 1968.  DS 96 J6.

Zachary, Patriarch.  Letters.  PG 86:3228-3233.

Zachary, Patriarch.  De Persica captivitate.  PG 86:3236ff.

Zacharias Rhetor, of Gaza.  History of the Church, 450-491.  Ed: Brooks.  Tr:  Hamilton and Brooks (London:  Methuen, 1899);  Ahrens and Krüger.  A Syriac translation has survived in a chronicle which continues until 569/10.  Mentions the Hrôs in the mid-sixth century.

Zangemeister, Karl.  «Zum Anonymus Valesianus.»  RhM 30 (1875) 309-316.  Text history.  Emendations.  Theoderic.

Zeiller, Jacques.  «Etudes sur l’arianisme en Italie à l’époque ostrogothique et à l’époque lombarde.»  MEFRA 25 (1905) 127-146.  See Fanning 241.

Zotenberg, Hermann.  «Mémoire sur la chronique byzantine de Jean, évêque de Nikiou.»  Journal asiatique.  7th series 10 (1877) 451-571;  12 (1878) 245-347;  13 (1879) 291-386.  Extracts.

Composée en Egypte au 7e siècle, traduite en grec, mais connue selon une traduction éthiopienne basée sur une version arabe (1877:451).  L’auteur a suivi la même chronique que Malalas, Jean d’Antioche, la Chronique pascale (1878:245).  Third installment is the most important;  it begins with Maurice, mentions Anuchirwan, 303ff, and has important data on Heraclius, 1879:326ff.  Justin and the Huns, 1878:326f.  In Alexandria of Egypt, Theophilus the Confessor and Stylite had predicted that Heraclius would be raised to the throne (1879:342).  Heraclius crowned at the church of St. Thomas the Apostle (1879:347).

Zotenberg, Hermann.  «Chronique de Johannes évêque de Nikiu, texte éthiopien publié et traduit.»  Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale.  24,1 (1883) 125-608 with index.  Z 6620 F8 N78.  Complete text.  A major lacuna occurred in the transmission of the story of Heraclius.

Zuckerman, Constantine.  «The Early Byzantine Strongholds in Eastern Pontus.»  Travaux et mémoires. 11 (1991) 527-553.

The Huns: Bibliography

February 16, 2010

The Huns before Attila:  Biblio

Abel, Félix-Marie.  *Le commentaire de Jérôme sur Isaïe.+  Revue biblique.  NS 13 (1916) 200-225.  BS 410 R3.  Ignores dependence on Eusebius and therefore misleading for Jerome’s *science+.  *son commentaire le range également parmi les apologistes+ (202).  Interprétation de la prise de Jérusalem, 208ff.  Apologie contre les Juifs qui lancent *contre Rome et l’Empire les oracles menaçants [...] contenus dans le livre d’Isaïe+ (212).  *Jérôme voit passer devant ses yeux le spectre des Barbares.  “Une grande partie du monde romain est devenue semblable à la Judée de jadis, ce qui n’est pas arrivé sans la colère de Dieu qui venge le mépris dont il est l’objet non plus par les Assyriens et les Chaldéens mais par des nations sauvages et naguère inconnues de nous, dont le visage et la langue sont terribles, offrent des faces féminines et balafrées”+ (213).  Huns.

Acta conciliorum oecumenicorum.  Ed:  Eduard Schwartz.  Berlin:  de Gruyter, 1914-1984.  BX 825 C38.  What is this collection?  Compare with Mansi.

Acta:  Council of Constantinople, 381.  Signatures of participants, including Aetherius II Tersonitanus [of Chersonese].  Sources:  Priscus PL 56:810-815;  Dionysius Mansi 3:568-572;  Michael Syrus.  Text and studies:  Braun 1906, Gelzer 1903, Honigmann 1936, King, Schulthess 1908, Turner 1914.

Acta:  Council of ???, 448.  Longin of Chersonese signs, page 493, note 1 (taken from Minns).  Check Hefele.

Acta:  Council of Chalcedon, 451.  Text:  Festugière.  Bishop of Cherson suffragans of Constantinople, now transferred from Jerusalem.

Acta Sanctorum.  Martyrs in Chersonese.  March, I:639 (Mar 7).  See under Basileus, Capito et socii.

Acta Sanctorum.  St. Saba Gothicus, April, vol 2.

Acta Synodi Constantinopolitanaea.  Ed:  Bernard de Montfaucon.  Paris, 1715.

Adriaen, Marcus, ed.  S. Hieronymi presbyteri commentariorum in Esaiam libri I-XI:  In Esaia Parvula adbrevatio.  CCSL, 73.  Turnhout:  Brepols, 1963.  PIMS;  9th Apex.  *loin d’être irréprochable+ Haelewycr 1988:391.  *reproduit à peu de choses près le texte des éditions du XVIIIe siècle [qui] reposent sur une base manuscrite assez étroite+ Gryson 1988:403.

Adriaen, Marcus, ed.  S. Hieronymi presbyteri commentariorum in Esaiam libri XI-XVIII:  In Esaia Parvula adbrevatio.  CCSL, 73A.  Turnhout:  Brepols, 1963.  9th Apex.

Adriaen, Marcus, ed.  S. Hieronymi presbyteri commentarii in prophetas minoras.  CCSL, 76A.  Turnhout:  Brepols, 1970.  PIMS;  9th Apex.  Habakuk, anexikakon, (2.3.14).  Sophonias.

Agapius of Menbidg.  Histoire universelle.  Vasiliev in PO 5, 7, 8.  PIMS BQ 310 M37.  Studies:  Vasiliev in VV;  check other Russian per.  Authors file.  Solar eclipses, but not the one reported by Ammianus.  Diamerismos:  *Le partage de la terre+ 5:596-625 (Cosmography).  Cf Hippolytus of Rome.

Agathangelos.  History.  Text:  Lagarde, Lafontaine, Langlois, Müller, Thomson.  Studies:  Garitte, Gutschmidt 1877, Marquart, Meillet, Peeters, Teza, van Esbroek.  Trdat recruited Huns for Constantius II.  Greek edition by Lagarde has the word *Hounnoi+.  ‘1-3 for Julian’s Persian war.

Agathias.  History.  Text:  Cameron, Niebuhr (Bonn).  Studies:  mostly on later period.  Two references to Persian wars, including Julian’s.

Ahl, Frederick M.  Lucan:  An Introduction.  Cornell Studies in Classical Philology, 39.  Ithaca, NY:  Cornell UP, 1976.  PA 6480 A4.  Biblio.  Nero.

Akiner, Shirin, and Nicholas Sims-Williams, eds.  Languages and Scripts of Central Asia.  London UP, 1997.  P 381 A753 L35.  Pashto.

Albert, Gerhard.  Goten in Konstantinopel:  Untersuchungen zur oströmischen Geschichte um das Jahr 400 n. Chr.  Paderborn:  Schöningh, 1984.  DG 332 A33.

Alemany, Augustí.  Sources on the Alans:  A Critical Compilation.  Leiden:  Brill, 2000.  D 90 A4 A44.  Translated from Catalan.  Review by Décsy 73 (2001) 209-212.  Covers 107 BC to AD 1400.

Allard, Paul.  Julien l’Apostat.  3 vols.  Paris:  Belles-Lettres, 1903;  1906-1910.  DG 317 A44.  Rev:  Asmus, others listed in Vizantiiskii vremennik.  Very detailed, almost a general history of the period.

Allchin, Frank Raymond, and Norman Hammond, eds.  The Archaeology of Afghanistan from Earliest Times to the Timurid Period.  London:  Academic Press, 1978.  DS 353 A72.

Allen, Pauline.  Evagrius Scholasticus:  The Church Historian.  Louvain:  SSL, 1981.  BR 160 E7544.  Post Attila.

Altaner, Berthold.  *Avitus von Braga+.  Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte.  60 (1941) 458-468.  Reprinted in his 1967.  Orosius.

Altaner, Berthold.  Kleine patristische Schriften.  Texte und U, 83.  Berlin:  Akademie-Verlag, 1967.  Pims BQ 25 T3.  Avitus, 450-466.

Altheim, Franz.  Refute for ESY.

Altheim, Franz, and R. Stiehl.  *Neue Bruchstücke aus Porphyrios’ Kata Khristianos.+  In Gedenkschrift für Georg Rohde.  Ed:  Gerhard Radke.  Tübingen:  Niemeyer, 1961.  23-38.  PA 26 R67.  Arabic fragments.  Barnes sceptical of this article.

Aly, Wolfgang, and … Sbordone.  *Zum neuen Strabon-Texte.+  La Parola del Passato.  5 (1950) 228-263.  PA 9 P3.  Not for Book 7 or 11.

Aly, Wolfgang.  Strabon von Amaseia:  Untersuchungen über Text, Aufbau und Quellen der Geographika.  Bonn:  Habelt, 1957.  G 87 S92 A4.  Other works in Attila.bib.  *Der Kimmerische Bosporus (XI,2,3ff).  … So ist es auch an der Maiotis, deren linkes, europäisches Ufer im 7. Buch steht, während das rechte, asiatische Ufer sich im 11. Buche findet+ (101).

Amand, David.  *Essai d’une histoire critique des éditions générales grecques et gréco-latines de saint Basile de Césarée.+  Revue bénédictine.  52 (1940) 141-161.

Amand, David.  *Essai d’une histoire critique des éditions générales grecques et gréco-latines de saint Basile de Césarée.+  Revue bénédictine.  53 (1941) 119-151.  Re Greek-Latin edition in Paris, 1618.

Amand, David.  *Essai d’une histoire critique des éditions générales grecques et gréco-latines de saint Basile de Césarée.+  Revue bénédictine.  54 (1942) 124-144.  Re Greek-Latin edition in Paris, 1638;  and Garnier’s edition Paris 1721, 1722, 1730.

Amand, David.  *Essai d’une histoire critique des éditions générales grecques et gréco-latines de saint Basile de Césarée.+  Revue bénédictine.  56 (1944/45) 126-173.  Chart of individual works 153-173 (for Izbornik).  More on Garnier’s edition Paris 1721, 1722, 1730.

Amand de Mendieta, Emmanuel [David Amand].  L’ascèse monastique de saint Basile.  Maredsous:  Abbaye de Maredsous, 1949.  Pims BQ 1170 A8 A4.

Amann, Emile.  *Orose.+  In Dictionnaire de théologie catholique.  Ed:  Alfred Vacant, Eugène Mangenot, and Emile Amann.  15 vols in 30.  Paris:  Letouzey et Ané, 1930-1950.  11,2 (1931) 1602-1611.  GenR Z 7016 E58;  Roba BX 841 D682.  *Article… très partial+ (Fink).  For evaluation of sources:  *Ce n’est pas dans un texte original qu’Orose a lu Tite-Live, mais dans un Epitome, qui ne s’est pas conservé.+  Chronique d’Eusèbe, 1607.  *le musée tératologique constitué, il va le classer suivant les méthodes des annalistes, reproduites d’ailleurs par la Chronique hiéronymienne:  telle année, tel fait.  Ici le cadre chronologique est tout trouvé, c’est celui d’Eusèbe, complété par Jérôme;  Orose s’y est très strictement tenu+ (1607).

Amato, Eugenio.  *Note esegetiche e testuali alla Descriptio orbis di Dionisio d’Alessandria, I.+  Arctos:  Acta philologica fennica.  36 (2002) 7-17.  PA 25 A74, per.bib.  Re verses 702-712, Caucasus, Caspian.

Amato, Eugenio.  *Note esegetiche e testuali alla Descriptio orbis di Dionisio d’Alessandria, II.+  Arctos 37 (2003) 9-26.  PA 25 A74.  Verses 362-367 (Sicily), 368-374 (Sybaris), etc.

Amato, Eugenio.  *Per la cronologia di Dionisio d’Alessandria.+  RPhil 3rd series 77 (2003) 7-16.  Title?  Dates to Domitian and war against Nasamones.  Contemporary with Josephus?

Amidon, Philip R., tr.  The History of the Church by Rufinus of Aquileia, books 10 and 11.  New York:  Oxford UP, 1997.  BR 160 R8 E54.

Ammianus Marcellinus.  Res gestae.  PA 6203 A2.  Text:  Clark, Galletier and Fontaine, Gardthausen, Gronovius, Lindenbrogius, Rolfe, Selem, Seyfarth, Valois, Wagner and Erfurdt.  Studies:  Groningen Commentators;  Austin, Baehrens, Barnes, Blockley, Blomgren, Bonfante, Brakman, Brok, Büdinger, Cameron, Crump, Damsté, Mirmont, Dillemann, Drijvers, Elliott, Ensslin, Fletcher, Frassinetti, Gardthausen, Gibbon, Hagendahl, Harmon, Heather, Jeep, Klein, Klotz, Lehmann, Levy (date), Liebeschuetz, Maenchen-Helfen (date), Martroye, Matthews, Michael, Miller, Mommsen, Naudé, Novák, Paschoud, Petscheng, Pighi, Richter, Rosen, Schuster, Seeck, Seyfarth, Stertz, Sundwall, Syme, Teitler, Thomas, Thompson, Traube, Walter, Wiedemann, Woods, Zuckerman.  Date:  events, see 22,16,12:  Serapeum (burnt in 391);  21,10,6 = mentions Aurelius Victor, Prefect of Rome in 388-389.  20,3 for solar eclipse.  Kushans:  16.9.4 in author file;  check out also 17.5.1 and 19.2.3, and double check M-Helfen 1945:75.  Constantius II against the Sarmatians, 19,11,8.  Check out 17,12,18 and 19,11,8 for war in Sarmatia and compare with Helm who thinks this is the same war as in Jerome;  cf Valesianus on the Sarmatians.  Julian and the Huns:  Olympias, 20,11,3:  Arsaces, the king of Armenia *being bound to Constantius by many ties of gratitude, among which this was very strong — that the emperor had given him to wife Olympias, daughter of Ablabius, a former praetorian prefet, and the betrothed of his brother Constans+.  gentes with Julian, 23,2,1.  Scythian auxiliaries with Julian (23,2,7).  Excursus on Scythia, 31,2ff.  Aquileia, 31,16,7;  Huns attack Goths in 376, 31,12.  *Beyond these regions of the two Scythias, toward the east, a circling and continuous barrier of lofty mountains fences round the Seres, who dwell thus secure in their rich and spacious plains+ (23,6).  *Hunnorum gens … ultra paludes Maeoticas glacialem oceanum accolens+ Contra Heather, see Lewis and Short for accolens:  dwelling by.  Partition of Armenia:  Count Terentius 27,12;  31.

Anastos, Milton.  *Porphyry’s Attack on the Bible.+  In Studies in Honor of Harry Caplan.  Ed:  Luitprand Wallach.  Ithaca:  Cornell UP, 1966.  421-450.  PA 26 C26.  Book of Daniel, 433f.

Anderson, W. B.  *Housman’s Lucan.+  CR 41 (1927) 26-33.  *in the great tradition…+ 26f.  Ms study.  Considers Housman superior to Hosius.

André, Jacques, and Jean Filliozat, eds, trs.  Pline l’ancien:  Histoire naturelle, livre VI, 2e partie (L’Asie centrale et orientale, l’Inde).  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1980.  PA 6611 A2.  Choamani, 6,47.  *Au-dessous du Caucase … des Choamans+  Apparatus reads:  || choamani Mayh : comani A commani cett.  *Le nom des Choamani, inconnu par ailleurs, est corrigé d’après Méla+ (62n4).  Mayhoff:  ed of Pliny;  A = Codex Leidensis Vossianus.

Annianus of Celeda.  Translator of Chrysostom.  See Honigmann.  Text transmission for full citation.

Anonymus Valesianus I.  Origo Constantini.  Text:  Gardthausen, König, Moreau with Velkov;  Rolfe (w/Ammianus in Loeb);  Mommsen (MGH);  Valesius, Wagner and Erfurdt.  *Deinde adversum Gothos bellum suscepit et inplorantibus Sarmatis auxilium tulit+ (VI,31).  *sed servi Sarmatarum omnes adversum dominos rebellarunt+ (VI,32).  *Mox Gothorum fortissimas et copiosissimas gentes in ipso barbarico soli sinu hoc est in Sarmatarum regione delevit+ (VI,34).

Antin, Paul.  *Mots vulgaires dans saint Jérôme.+  Latomus 30 (1971) 708-709.  Ep 106.

Antoine, Robert, tr.  Kalidasa:  The Dynasty of Raghu.  Calcutta:  Writers Workshop, 1972.  PK 3796 R3.  Text in authors file.

Arce, J. J.  *On Festus’ Sources for Julian’s Persian Expedition.+  Athenaeum 52 (1974) 340-343.  DE 1 A45.

Aristotle.  Meteorologica.  Text:  Lee (Loeb).  Studies:  Hayduck, Lee, Stüve.  Ancient commentaries on the Meteo, see Judith.clt.  Thurot for archaeology.  Pyrene.  *From Pyrenê (this is a mountain range towards the equinoctial sunset in Celtice) there flow the Istrus and the Tartessus.  The latter flows into the sea outside the pillars of Heracles, the Istrus flows right across Europe into the Euxine+ (I,xiii, page 97).

Armayor, O. Kimball.  *Did Herodotus Ever Go to the Black Sea?+  HSCP 82 (1978) 45-62.  Involves himself in controversies concerning Hdt’s credibility.

Arnaud, Pascal.  *Pouvoir des mots et limites de la cartographie dans la géographie grecque et romaine.+  Dialogues d’histoire ancienne.  15 (1989) 9-29.  D 60 D53.  Biblio.  *La cartographie ancienne était donc un espace tragiquement borné, si on le comparait à l’expansion infinie du texte géographique+ (14).

Arnaud-Lindet, Marie-Pierre, ed, tr.  Orose:  Histoire (Contre les Païens).  3 vols.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1990-1991.  D 17 O6514.  Attila.bib.  Latin needed.  (I:2,52-53).  (VII:33,10).  (VII:37,3). (VII:38).  Confusion of Caucasus and Hindu Kush, 1,2,45.  Rhipaean Mountains 1,2,52.

Arnold, Duane W. H.  *Sir Harold Idris Bell and Athanasius:  A Reconsideration of London Papyrus 1914.+  Studia Patristica.  21 (1989) 377-383.  ROBA BR 41 S8.

Arnold, Franklin.  *Untersuchungen über Theophanes von Mytilene und Posidonios von Apamea.+  Neue Jahrbücher für classische Philologie und Pädagogik.  Suppl, 13.  1882.  PA 3 N65, 12th Apex.  79ff.

Arrian of Nicomedia [Lucius Flavius Arrianus, ca AD 90-145].  Tactica.  See Blankaart, Chantraine, Dübner, Hudson (RBSC B-10 2953, incuna.bib), Roos, Silberman, Stadter.

Arrian.  Acies contra Alanos.  Ektaxis kat’Alanôn.  Ed:  Dübner, Eberhard, Jacoby, Roos.  See Bosworth for discussion.

Arrian.  Periplus.  See Silberman, Stadter.  Eusene, ‘15,2, see Galletier who confuses these people with the Kushans;  Eusene is a locality on the south coast of the Black Sea, a little east of the mouth of the Halys.  19,3 for Crimea and North Shore.

Artemii, Passio S.  By John of Rhodes (otherwise unknown).  Text:  AASS Oct 8 (1853) 856-883;  Mai 4 or 5:340;  Michel Lequien PG 96:1252-1320.  BHG 3 pages, many mss unedited.  Artemius was a supporter of Constantius II, see Batiffol 1889.  Historical material re Gallus, Julian, Persian wars.  Barbarians at Sirmium ’16.  Constantius II, Julian and the war against Persia, ’19.  *beatus et pius Artemius, dux et augustalis totius Aegypti+ (’35).  Babylas ’53ff.

Asmus, Johann Rudolf.  *Die Invective des Gregorius von Nazianzus im Lichte der Werke des Kaisers Julian.+  Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte.  21 (1910) 325-367.  VUEM, KNOX.  *Während dieses vom Jahre 363 bis 364 bestehenden Schismas weilte er aber bei Basilius in Pontus und hielt keine öffentlichen Reden (s. Or VI,3)+ (326).

Astruc, Ch.  *Autour de l’édition princeps de l’Histoire ecclésiastique de Nicéphore Calliste Xanthopoulos.+  Scriptorium 16 (1952) 252-259.  Incuna.bib.

Athanasius of Alexandria.  Opera.  PG …..  See Arnold, Bell, Diekamp, Meijering, Opitz, Robertson, Vaillant… Slavonic.bib.  Studies:  Barnes, Kannengiesser.

Athanasius of Alexandria.  Orationes contra Arianos IV.  Meijering, Robertson NPNF, 4:303-447.

Athanasius of Alexandria.  Apologia ad Constantium.  Szymusiak, Robertson NPNF, 4.

Athanasius of Alexandria.  Historia Arianorum ad monachos.  Written in AD 358.  NPNF, 4.  PG … 1,775.  Marriage of Olympias with Armenian king Arsaces.  *So likewise [Constantius] treated his brother in an unholy manner;  and now he pretends to build his sepulchre, although he delivered up to the barbarians his betrothed wife Olympias, whom his brother had protected till his death, and had brought up as his intended consort+ (’70, Tr:  Robertson NPNF).

Aubert, Jean.  Cyrilli Alexandriae Archiepiscopi opera.  7 vols.  Paris:  Regiis typis, 1638.  WCat 5.  Reprinted with additions in PG.

Auboyer, Jeannine.  L’Afghanistan et son art.  Paris:  Cercle d’art, 1968.  Biblio.

Auboyer, Jeannine.  The Art of Afghanistan.  Feltham:  Hamlyn, 1968.  N 7292 A813.

Augustine of Hippo, St.  Epistulae.  CSEL, 54-57.  For correspondence over Pelagianism, involving Orosius.  See Daur, Divjak, Goldbacher.  See Letter 28 (PL 33:111) for letter to Jerome, re:  Orosius.

Augustine of Hippo.  Epistulae.  See Divjak.

Augustine of Hippo.  Epistula 19*.  Text:  Divjak.  Studies:  Berrouard.  Orosius in AD 416, returning from Palestine.

Augustine of Hippo.  de civitate Dei.  Text:  Dombart and Kalb (CCSL), Dyson, Hoffmann (CSEL), McCracken (Loeb).  Book 20, chap 23:  *What Daniel prophesied…+, Loeb, vol 6.  *Some have interpreted these four kingdoms as those of the Assyrians, Persians, Macedonians, and Romans;  and if anyone wishes to know whether or not this is a proper interpretation, let him read the Presbyter Jerome’s book on Daniel, written with great learning and diligence+ (Tr:  Dyson).  Augustine himself clearly believes that the Antichrist will rule just before the Final Judgement, and he can’t see how this fits with the four kingdoms.

Aujac, Germaine.  Strabon et la science de son temps.  Vol 1.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1966.  Gerstein Q 125 A8.  Posidonius.

Aujac, Germaine, ed, tr.  Strabon:  Géographie (Introduction générale – Livre I).  With François Lasserre.  Vol I,1.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1969.  Worked mostly from Posidonius and even preserved his ethnographic arrangement over Augustus’ administrative divisions (page? see xxxviii).

Aujac, Germaine, ed, tr.  Strabon:  Géographie (Livre II).  Vol I,2.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1969.  G 84 A93.

Aujac, Germaine.  *Les traités Sur l’océan et les zones terrestres.+  REA 74 (1972) 74-85.  Posidonius, Pytheas and Athenodorus all wrote a Peri okeanou.  Géographie = monde habité;  Sur l’océan = le globe, sa division en climats, en continents, aspects physiques, mathématiques (84).

Aujac, Germaine.  *Poseidonios et les zones terrestres:  Les raisons d’un échec.+  Bulletin de l’Association Guillaume Budé.  1976:74-78.  Posidonius proposed better system, but was not accepted.

Aurelius Victor, Pseudo.  Abrégé des César.  Festy (notes), PA 6169 A1 V42.

Aurelius Victor, Sextus.  Liber de Caesaribus.  Text:  Bird, Dufraigne (Budé), Pichlmayr with Gruendel (Teubner).  PA 6966 F4.  Source for Jerome, see Helm.  Roman war against the Goths in Sarmatia.  *Et interea Gothorum Sarmatarumque stratae gentes, filiusque cunctorum minor, Constans nomine, Caesar fit+ (41,13).  Constantius *genti Sarmatarum magno decore considens apud eos regem dedit+ (Dufraigne 42,21).  Pagan author, friend of Ammianus and Julian.

Ausonius, Decimus Magnus.  Opera.  Text:  Green (Oxford), Peiper, Prete, Schenkl, White (Loeb).  Studies:  Prete.  On history of text, see Owen:  important.  Imitator of Catullus.  Authors file for Suebi, Huns.

Ausonius.  Epistolae.  Letter to Probus on the subject of Sirmium (see Avienus).  16.2.1-3 Schenkl = 12 p. 239 Peiper.

Ausonius.  Epigrams.  Ed:  White.  ’26 (Huns), ’28 (Danube) Authors file.  ‘ 29:  Black Sea = Scythian waters.

Ausonius.  Precationes.  Ed:  Prete, 80:29ff, Authors file.  For Goths, Alans and Huns.  ‘5 Huns.

Austin, N. J. E.  *Julian at Ctesiphon:  A Fresh Look at Ammianus’ Account.+  Athenaeum 50 (1972) 301-309.  DE 1 A45.

Austin, N. J. E.  *In Support of Ammianus’ Veracity.+  Historia 22 (1973) 331-335.  Re Rosen 1968.

Austin, N. J. E.  Ammianus on Warfare:  An Investigation into Ammianus’ Military Knowledge.  Collection Latomus, 165.  Brussels:  Latomus, 1979.  PA 6205 A88.  Biblio.  *It is one of my contention that Ammianus is largely honest …+ (11).  Julian’s poor preparation of the Persian campaign, 93ff.

Avalichvili, Zurab.  *Géographie et légende dans un récit apocryphe de saint Basile.+  Revue de l’orient chrétien.  Third series 26 (1927/28) 279-304.  BR 140 R48.

Avalichvili, Zurab.  *Epître de Basile…+  Revue de l’orient chrétien.  Third series 28 (1929) 2-5.

Avitus von Braga.  See Altaner.

Avitus, Alcimus Ecdicius, of Vienne.  Opera.  Text:  Hecquet-Noti (SC), Peiper (MGH AA, 6,2).  Epistles, homilies and poems;  also epitaphs.  See authors file:  *De mundi initio+ 203-212.  MGH includes his Vita.  Letter 32 to Hormisdas re: Illyricum.  Ethnic names, Tanais, Riphaean mts.

Baebler, Balbina.  Die Welt des Sokrates von Konstantinopel.  FS Ch Schäublin.  Munich:  KG Saur, 2001.  BR 1720 S7 W45.

Baehrens, Emil.  *Kritische Bemerkungen zu den lateinischen Panegyristen.+  RhM  NS 27 (1872) 215-225.  Emendations.  Mamertinus to Julian, 222.  Pacatus to Theodosius, 222.  Corippus, 224.

Baehrens, Aemilius [Emil], ed.  XII Panegyrici Latini.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1874.  VUPX PA 70/B144d.

Baehrens, Emil.  *Zur Handschriftenkunde der lateinischen Panegyrici.+  RhM NS 30 (1875) 463-465.

Baehrens, Aemilius [Emil], ed.  Poetae Latini Minores.  6 vols.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1879-1883.  UTL sets incomplete:  Roba PA 6121 A4;  Pims PA 6104 P65 (vols 1-5).  See Morel for new edition.

Baehrens, Wilhelm A., ed.  XII Panegyrici Latini.  Revision of Aemilius Baherens.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1911.  ROBA 6138 P3.

Baehrens, Wilhelm A.  *Zur Quaestio Eumeniana.+  RhM NS 67 (1912) 312-316.  Mamertinus.

Baehrens, Wilhelm A.  *Beiträge zur lateinischen Syntax.+  Philologus, Supplementband.  12 (1912) 233-556.  Ammianus, index, 542.  Also:  Descriptio, Justinus, Livy, Pliny.

Baehrens, Wilhelm A.  *Ammianus.+  Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft.  203 (1925) 46-90.  PA 3 J3 now GersteinR.  Review of Clark’s edition, with emendations.  Comments on Novák:  *19,2,3:  cuius meridiano lateri sunt destinati ist die Einführung der Gelani (17,5,2) genial und wohl richtig;  nur genügt es, cuius in Gelani zu ändern, während N.:  qua funestis nobis ceciderunt adulescens cuius <manibus urbis excidio parentari debebat, Gelani> vermutet+ (58).

Bagrow, Leo S.  [Lev Semenovich Bagrov].  History of Cartography.  Berlin, 1944.  Tr:  D. L. Paisey, 1966.  2nd edition, revised by Raleigh Ashlin Skelton.  Chicago:  Precedent, 1985.  GA 201 B313.  More in incuna.bib.

Bailey, Harold Walter.  *Iranian Studies.+  BSOS 6 (1930/32) 945-955.  PJ 3 L6.  Chionites, Hephthalites, document dated 554 A.Y.  Translation:  *Kingdom and sovereignty will pass to slaves who are not Iranians, such as the Khyôn, Turk, Heftal, and Tibetans, who are among the mountain-dwellers, and the Chinese and Kabulis and Sogdians and Byzantines and Red Khyôn and White Khyôn.+  (945f).  Comment:  *Xyôn.  This name is familiar in Pahlavi and Avestan texts.  It would appear to be a name of an enemy of the Iranian people in Avestan times, transferred later to the Huns owning to similarity of sound [...] to the Romans they were known as Chionitae+ (946).

Baladié, Raoul, ed, tr.  Strabon:  Géographie (Livre VII).  Vol 4.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1989.  Notes under Strabo.

Baldini, Antonio.  Ricerche di tarda storiografia (de Olimpiodoro di Tebe).  Bologna:  Pàtron, 2004.  DG 311 B34.  Olympiodorus of Thebes.  Biblio.

Baldwin, Barry.  *Notes on Eunapius.+  Mnemosyne 30 (1977) 426-428.  Lexicographic.

Baldwin, Barry.  *Olympiodorus of Thebes.+  L’antiquité classique.  49 (1980) 212-231.  DE 1 A43.  Olympiodorus was specialist of foreign affairs.

Baldwin, Barry.  *The Language and Style of Eunapius.+  Byzantinoslavica 51 (1990) 1-19.  Suda fragments.

Banchich, Thomas M.  *Eunapius and Jerome.+  GRBS 27 (1986) 319-324.  Biblio.  Echos of Eunapius in Jerome’s Chronicon.

Banchich, Thomas M.  *On Goulet’s Chronology of Eunapius’ Life and Works.+  JHS 107 (1987) 164-167.  Unconvincing.

Banchich, Thomas M.  *An Identification in the Suda:  Eunapius on the Huns.+  CPh 83 (1988) 53.  Suda A 1018 from C Porph’s Excerpta Historica.

Banerjee, Manabendu.  Historical and Social Interpretations of the Gupta Inscriptions.  Calcutta:  Sanskrit Pastak Bhanda, 1989.  DS 451 B318.  #13-16:  Indian victory over the Hunas in 455 AD  By the time the Chyonitai conquered India, they had been settled in the region of Peshawar for about 100 years.  Note on the Sanskrit evidence, including pronunciation.

Bang, Martin.  *Expansion of the Teutons (to AD 378).+  Chapter 7 of The Christian Roman Empire and the Foundation of the Teutonic Kingdoms.  Vol 1 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  New York:  Macmillan, 1911.  183-217.  D 117 C3.  Citation in text.

Bardy, Gustave.  *Sur un synode de l’Illyricum (375).+  Bulletin d’ancienne littérature et d’archéologie chrétienne.  2 (1912) 259-274.  Old Class P Archaeol Phil B.

Bareille, Jean, tr.  Jean Chrysostome:  Oeuvres complètes.  11 vols.  Paris:  Louis Vivès, 1865-78.  BR 65 C 43 F7.  Vol 2:  *Table générale analytique.+

Barker, Ernest.  *Italy and the West, 410-476.+  Chapter 14 of The Christian Roman Empire and the Foundation of the Teutonic Kingdoms.  Vol 1 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  New York:  Macmillan, 1911.  392-431.  D 117 C3.  *There may have been movements in Central Asia which explain the final breach of the Roman barriers;  but even without invoking the Huns to our aid, we can see that at the beginning of the fifth century the Germans would have passed the limes, and the Romans at last failed to stem their advance, owing to the simple operation of causes which had long been at work on both sides+ (392f).  *The real significance of Attila lies in the fact, that the pressure of his Huns forced the Romans and the Teutons to recognize that the common interest of civilisation was at stake, and thus drove them to make the great alliance, on which the future progress of the world depended+ (398).  *Orosius and Olympiodorus, who are excellent contemporary authorities, both remark on the prosperity of Rome in the years that followed the sack of 410 (399).  The marriage of Athaulf and Placidia in 414 reported to St. Jerome in the hearing of Orosius (399).

Barnes, Timothy David.  *Porphyry’s Against the Christians:  Date and Attribution of the Fragments.+  JTS 24 (1973) 424-442.  VUEM, KNOX.  Biblio.  Jerome and Daniel, 434.

Barnes, Timothy David.  *The Historical Setting of Prudentius’ Contra Symmachum.+  AJP 97 (1976) 373-386.

Barnes, Timothy David.  *The Epitome de Caesaribus and its Sources.+  Classical Philology.  71 (1976) 258-268.  Review article, biblio.

Barnes, Timothy David.  *The Fragments of Tacitus’ Histories.+  Classical Philology.  72 (1977) 224-231.  Orosius 7,34,5, page 234:  Scythia.

Barnes, Timothy David.  The Sources of the Historia Augusta.  Collection Latomus, 155.  Brussels, 1978.  PA 6139 H7 B3.  Biblio by Vita.  Valerian, 164ff.  Latin epitomators, 90ff.  Huns, 116ff.  Eunapius, 114ff.  Dates Eunapius’ Fragment 41 to Adrianople, not the raids of 395:  *Now the Huns first came to the attention of the inhabitants of the Roman Empire in 376, and the Gothic migration which they set in motion occasioned the death of the emperor Valens at Adrianople and widespread devastation in the Danubian lands (117).

Barnes, Timothy David.  Constantine and Eusebius.  Harvard University Press, 1981.  DG 315 B35.  Check out value of editions of VC.  Life of Constantine 265-271.  More in c:\slavonic.

Barnes, Timothy David.  *The Composition of Cassius Dio’s Roman History.+  Phoenix 38 (1984) 240-255.  Dates publication to AD 220.

Barnes, Timothy David.  *Synesius in Constantinople.+  GRBS  27 (1986) 93-112.

Barnes, Timothy David.  Rev of Martin and Albert, Histoire acéphale.  JTS NS 37 (1986) 576-589.  VUEM, KNOX.

Barnes, Timothy David.  *When did Synesius Become Bishop of Ptolemais?+  GRBS 27 (1986) 325-329.

Barnes, Timothy David.  *Christians and Pagans in the Reign of Constantius.+  In L’église et l’empire au IVième siècle.  Ed:  Albrecht Dihle.  Entretiens de la Fondation Hardt, 34.  Vandoeuvres-Genève, 1989.  301-337.  DE 3 E45 ROBA.

Barnes, Timothy David.  *Jerome and the Origo Constantini Imperatoris.+  Phoenix 43 (1989) 158-161.  PA 1 P58.  Supports early date.

Barnes, Timothy David.  *Panegyric, history and hagiography in Eusebius’ Life of Constantine.+  In The Making of Orthodoxy:  Essays in honour of Henry Chadwick.  Ed:  R. William.  Cambridge University Press, 1989.  94‑123.  Reprinted in his From Eusebius to Augustine:  Selected Papers 1982-1993.  London:  Variorum, 1994.  BR 205 B38.  See Pasquali, Winckelmann.

Barnes, Timothy David.  Athanasius and Constantius:  Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire.  Harvard UP, 1993.  ROBA, VUEM BR 1720 A7 B37.  Princess Olympias, 127 and note.  *Julian realized too late that his subversion of homoean predominance in the East was not weakening the Christian church as he hoped, but strengthening those parts of it which had shown themselves most capable of resisting imperial power+ (158).

Barnes, Timothy David.  *Scholarship or Propaganda?  Porphyry Against the Christians and its Historical Setting.+  Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies.  39 (1994) 53-65.  PA 11 L62.  Date:  if 270, sch, if 300, prop.  Based on Eusebius, would choose 300.  Book 12 dealt with Daniel, 67.

Barnes, Timothy David.  Ammianus Marcellinus and the Representation of Historical Reality.  Ithaca:  Cornell University Press, 1998.  DG 316 B37 Roba;  PIMS.  Rev:  Paschoud.  Biblio, incl eds, trs and commentaries, ix-x.  Ammianus *has also pervasively influenced all modern interpretations of the period+ (2).  *without enquiring whether personal animus, concealed in apparently judicious language rather than openly avowed+ (7).  *the excursus on the Huns appears to be almost entirely a tissue of ethnographic commonplaces that owes nothing to close observation and hence possesses little historical value+ (95f).

Barr, William.  *Claudian’s In Rufinum:  an Invective?+  Papers of the Liverpool Latin Seminar.  2 (1979) 179-190.  TRIN PA 3019 P36, per.bib.

Barr, William, ed.  Claudian’s Panegyric on the Fourth Consulate of Honorius.  Liverpool:  Cairns, 1981.  PA 6373 E5 P28.

Barratt, Pamela.  M. Annaei Lucani Belli civilis liber V:  A Commentary.  Amsterdam:  Hakkert, 1979.  PA 6480 B37.

Bartelink, Gerhard Johannes Marinus.  *L’empereur Julien et le vocabulaire chrétien.+  VCh 11 (1957) 37-48.

Bartelink, Gerhard Johannes Marinus.  *Quelques observations sur la lettre LVII de saint Jérôme.+  Revue bénédictine.  86 (1976) 296-306.  PIMS PER.

Bartelink, Gerhard Johannes Marinus.  *Brevitas epistolaris bij Hieronymus.+  Lampas:  Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse classici.  10 (1977) 61-65.  WCat 44;  W of Western Ont.

Bartelink, Gerhard Johannes Marinus.  *Adoption et rejet des topiques profanes chez les panégyristes et biographes chrétiens de langue grecque.+  Siculorum Gymnasium.  NS 39 (1986) 25-40.  AS 222 C3.

Bartelink, Gerhard Johannes Marinus.  Het vroege christendom.  1986.  BR 170 B374.

Bartelink, Gerhard Johannes Marinus.  De geboorte van Europa.  1989.  CB 351 B468.

Baschmakoff, Alexandre Alexandrovitch.  La synthèse des périples pontiques.  Paris:  Geuthner, 1948.  DS 155 B3.

Basham, Arthur Llewellyn.  *The Alphabet and its Pronunciation.+  Appendix 10 of The Wonder that Was India.  1954;  3rd edition New York:  Taplinger, 1968.  VUPT DS 425 B33.  Transliteration of Sanskrit.

Basileus, Ephraim, Eugene, Agathodorus, Elpidius, Aetherius, Capito, Martyrs in Chersonese.  BHG ‘265z, 266, 267.  Text:  Acta Sanctorum.  March, I:639 (Mar 7);  Latyshev, Lavrov.  Studies:  Shestakov.  Mention of *Turkey+ under Basil and Ephraim, contemporaries of Diocletian.

Basil of Caesaria, St.  Epistulae.  Text:  Clarke, Courtonne (Budé), Deferrari (Loeb), Garnier (PG 29-32), Hauschild, Jackson (NPNF 8), Lèbe.  Studies:  Amand, Rudberg.

Basil of Caesaria, St.  PG 32:611-614;  633-640.  ‘ 64 (ca 371) *our old friendship with the admirable Terentius…+.  ‘214 (ca 375) to Count Terentius;  re Paulinian schism at Antioch, see also ‘216).  ‘ 99 (ca 372) to Count Terentius:  Basil travels to Armenia to restore peace in the Church and confer with their bishop Cyril.

Basil of Caesaria, St.  Epistulae.  ‘154, 164 [AD 374], 165:  Mention of persecution in Scythia, several martyrs, but no name;  martyrs of Cappadocian origin.  For the Martyrdom of St. Sabas, see Coman, Zuckerman.  *un martyr nous est arrivé de hez le barbares qui habitent au dela de l’Ister, pour proclamer par lui-même l’intégrité de la foi qui règne là-bas+ (164,1).  Basil seems more concerned with heretics than with pagans.

Bataille, Georges.  *Notes sur la numismatique des Kouchans.+  Aréthuse 5/18 (1928) 19-36.  Gerstein CJ 47 A67.  *Seules les monnaies nous fournissent des renseignements nombreux sur les noms et la nationalité des souverains, sur la langue, l’art, les traditions ou la religion des peuples maîtres du pays+ (19).  This just before the Chionitai.

Bately, Janet M.  *King Alfred and the Latin Manuscripts of Orosius’ History.+  Classica et medievalia.  22 (1961) 69-105.  PA 9 C5.  HXp.

Bately, Janet M., and David John Athole Ross.  *A Check List of Manuscripts of Orosius’ Historiarum Adversum paganos libri septem.+  Scriptorium 15 (1961) 329-334.  Z 108 S35.

Batiffol, Pierre.  *Fragmente der Kirchengeschichte des Philostorgius.+  Römische Quartalschrift.  3 (1889) 252-289.  f Vita Artemii.

Batiffol, Pierre.  *Die Textüberlieferung der Kirchengeschichte des Philostorgius.+  Römische Quartalschrift.  4 (1890) 134-148.  BX 940 R6.

Batiffol, Pierre.  *Etudes d’hagiographie arienne:  Parthénius de Lampsaque.+  Römische Quartalschrift.  6 (1892) 35-51.

Batiffol, Pierre.  *Un historiographe anonyme arien du IVe siècle.+  Römische Quartalschrift.  9 (1895) 57-97.  Pro-Constantius source for Chronicon paschale.

Batiffol, Pierre.  *Sozomène et Sabinos.+  BZ 7 (1898) 265-284.

Batiffol, Pierre.  *De quelques homélies de saint Jean Chrysostome et de la version gothique des Ecritures.+  Revue biblique.  8 (1899) 566-572.

Batiffol, Pierre.  *Les présents de saint Cyrille à la Cour de Constantinople.+  Bulletin d’ancienne littérature et d’archéologie chrétienne.  1 (1911) 247-264.  Old Class P Archaeol Phil B.

Baumgartner, W.  *Zu den vier Reichen von Daniel 2.+  Theologische Zeitschrift.  1 (1945) 17-22.  Regis;  Knox A7.

Baur, Chrysostom.  *L’entrée littéraire de saint Jean Chrysostome dans le monde latin.+  RHEccl.  8 (1907) 249-265.  Anianus of Celeda and Pelagian controversy.

Baur, Chrysostomus.  Der heilige Johannes Chrysostomus und seine Zeit.  2 vols.  Munich:  Hueber, 1929-30.  PIMS BQ 1547 B35.

Baur, Chrysostomus.  John Chrysostom and his Times.  Tr:  Sr M. Gonzaga.  2 vols.  London:  Sands, 1959-60.  PIMS BQ 1547 B35.  Vol 1:  Antioch;  vol 2:  Constantinople.

Baxter, J. H.  *The Homilies of St. Peter Chrysologus.+  JTS 22 (1921) 250-258.  VUEM, KNOX.  Stylistics.

Bayle, Pierre.  Dictionnaire historique et critique.  London, 1773.  B 1825 A3 1773.

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  *Rome and Armenia in the Fourth Century.+  English Historical Review.  25 (1910) 625-643.  Incorporating Faustus into Graeco-Roman sources.  Addaeus.  Olympias, 632, with impossible chronology.

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  *Julian the Apostate and Alexander the Great.+  English Historical Review.  27 (1912) 755-760.

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  *Constantine’s Successors to Jovian and the Struggle with Persia.+  Chapter 3 of The Christian Roman Empire and the Foundation of the Teutonic Kingdoms.  Vol 1 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  New York:  Macmillan, 1911.  55-80.  *Throughout his reign the policy of Constantius was marked by an anxious desire to husband the military forces of the Empire+ (61).  *the mailed cavalry (cataphracti) which [Constantius] had himself raised after the Persian model+ (61).  *at Mursa [in 351] 54,000 are reported to have been slain.  [...] the defence of the Empire in the East was crippled by this blow [...] this was the first victory of the newly formed heavy cavalry+ (62).  *Sapor himself had at length effected an alliance with the Chionitai and Gelani and now (spring 358) in a letter to the Emperor demanded the restoration of Mesopotamia+ (71f).

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  *The Dynasty of Valentinian and Theodosius the Great.+  Chapter 8 of The Christian Roman Empire and the Foundation of the Teutonic Kingdoms.  Vol 1 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  New York:  Macmillan, 1911.  218-249.  D 117 C3.  Includes battle of Hadrianople.  *for Bauto had occupied the Alpine passes and thus secured Italy from invasion+ (239).  In 386 *Bauto desired that domestic pillage should recall the tribesmen to their homes.  And at his instigation the Huns and the Alans who were approaching Gaul were diverted and fell upon the territory of the Alemanni+ (241).

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  *A Note on Professor Bury’s History of the Later Roman Empire.+  JRS 12 (1922) 207-228.  Avitus, Claudian, Alaric, Stilicho and the Barbarian Invasions of 402/403.

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  *A Note of Interrogation.+  Byzantion 2 (1925) 149-151.  Re battle of Mursa, AD 351, Zosimus 2:45-53, source unknown and may be garbled.

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  Review of Julien by Bidez.  Journal of Roman Studies.  21 (1931) 134-135.  Bidez relies excessively on Philostorgius, and insufficiently on Faustus of Byzantium.  Overall admiration.

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  *The Death of Julian the Apostate.+  JRS 27 (1937) 22-29.  Legends, nothing military.

Baynes, Norman Hepburn.  Bibliography of his works by Joan M. Hussey.  JRS 37 (1947) 7.

Bazin, Louis.  *Un texte proto-turc du ive siècle:  Le distique hiong-nou du Tsin-chou.+  Oriens:  Journal of the International Society for Oriental Research.  1 (1948) 208-219.  DS 1 O623.  Reviews by Demiéville and Gabain.  Oracle by a Buddhist monk, Fo-tu-teng, delivered in AD 329 to a Hsiung-nu king in NE China.  The text is recognizably proto-Turcic, even though it is only known from a Chinese transcription, and the exact value of the original has been debated for the better part of the last century.

Bazin, Louis.  *Un texte proto-turc du ive siècle:  Le distique hiong-nou du Tsin-chou.+  Der Islam.  29 (1949) 244-246.  DS 36 I7.

Bazin, Louis.  *Appartenances linguistiques des envahisseurs altaïques de la Chine du Nord aux ive et ve siècle AD+  Cahiers d’histoire mondiale.  1 (1953/54) 129-138.  D 1 C25.  *Auparavant, un groupe dissident de tribus hiong-nou s’était détaché et avait commencé, en 44 avant Jésus Christ, une longue migration vers l’ouest.  Ces Hiong-nou occidentaux parviendront jusqu’en Europe plus de quatre siècles après;  ils y seront connus sous le nom (voisin) de Huns+ (134).  *D’autre part, quand les Hiong-nou occidentaux, ou Huns, séparés dès 44 avant Jésus Christ du gros de leur peuple, arriveront en Europe à partir du IVe siècle, on pourra constater, d’après les vestiges de leur onomastique transmis par les historiens européens, que leurs dirigeants ont en grande partie des noms typiquement turcs de consonnance…+ (134).  *l’élément proto-turc était prédominant dans la langue des Hiong-nou+ (135).

Beal, Samuel, tr.  Travels of Fah-hian and Sung-yun, Buddhist Pilgrims from China to India (400 AD and 581 AD).  London: …, 1869/1964.  DS 6 F33 1964.  Fa-hien.

Beaucamp, Joëlle, ed.  Recherches sur la Chronique de Jean Malalas.  Vols?  Paris:  Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance, 2004.  D 17 C657 2003.

Beaujeu, Jean, and Alfred Ernout, eds, trs.  Pline l’Ancien:  Histoire naturelle.  Livre 1 et 2.  Theory of Geography.

Beck, E., ed, tr.  Ephraem of Nisibis:  Oratio contra Julianum.  CSCO, 174-175;  Scriptores Syri, 78-79.  Louvain, 1957.  BR 60.

Beckers, W. J.  *Das rätselhafte Hochgebirge des Altertums, die sogenannten Rhipäen.+  Geographische Zeitschrift.  20 (1914) 534-557.  G 1 G42.  Fragile, s/xerox.  Amber trade from the Baltic coast to the Black Sea coast, 541ff.  *Was man aber in Wirklichkeit vom Don wusste, beschränkt sich einzig und allein auf das Mündungsgebiet des Tanais;  sein Mittel- und Oberlauf waren gänzlich unbekannt+ (539).

Bedrosian, Robert, tr.  P’awstos Buzand’s *History of the Armenians+.  New York:  Sources of the Armenian Tradition, 1985.  DS 181 P3813.  Faustus of Byzantium.  Author file for Honk (Huns) and the Kushans of Balkh.

Bedrosian, Robert, tr.  Ghazar P’arpec’i’s *History of the Armenians+.  New York:  Sources of the Armenian Tradition, 1985.  DS 181 G513.  Lazar of Pharbi.

Behrmann, Georg.  Das Buch Daniel, übersetzt und erklärt.  Vol III,3,2 of Handkommentar zum Alten Testament.  General editor:  Wilhelm Nowack.  Göttingen, Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1894.  VUEM and Roba, B2?

Bekker, Immanuel, ed.  Dexippus.  Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae. 14.  Bonn:  Weber, 1829.

Bekker, Immanuel, ed.  Zosimi comitis et exadvocatii fisci historiae interprete Leunclavio.  Revised edition of JF Reitemeier by Johannes Leunclavius.  With his preface and commentary, and notes by Christian Gottlob Heyn[e].  Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, 50.  Bonn:  Weber, 1837.  Roba DF 503 C6 vol 50.  Superseded by Mendelssohn, see Bury.

Belin de Ballu, Eugène.  L’Histoire des colonies grecques du littoral nord de la Mer Noire.  Bibliographie annotée des ouvrages et articles publiés en URSS de 1940 à 1962.  Leyden:  Brill, 1965.  Z 2301 C7 B4.  *Olbia+ 171-291.  All scholars date Protogenes to third and second century BC.

Belin de Ballu, Eugène.  Olbia:  cité antique du littoral nord de la Mer Noire.  Leyden:  Brill, 1972.  Biblio.  Olbia under Roman rule, 167 to the end.  *une voie militaire longeant le littoral ouest de la Mer Noire, reliant non seulement les villes grecques du littoral entre elles, mais encore, avec les cités situées au Nord du Bas-Danube, Tyra et Olbia+ 170).  Gothic destruction, dated to 2nd century, 182.  *Les bourgades scythes et gréco-scythes aux environs d’Olbia+ 189-192 with map of Lower Bug.

Bell, Albert Atwood, Jr.  An Historiographical Analysis of the *De excidio hierosolymitano+ of Pseudo-Hegesippus.  PhD diss.  University of North Carolina, 1977.  PIMS PA 3998 H181 E9 mfc.

Bengston, Hermann.  Griechische Geschichte von den Anfängen bis in die römische Kaiserzeit.  Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 3,4.  Munich:  C. H. Beck, 1950.  Roba DF 215 B45.

Benoît, André.  *Le Contra Christianos de Porphyre:  où en est la collecte des fragments.+ In Mélanges offerts à Marcel Simon:  Paganisme, Judaisme, Christianisme, influences et affrontements dans le monde antique.  Paris:  Boccard, 1978.  261-275.  BM 177 P33.  Article includes table of chapter and verses.  Critique of Harnack.

Benveniste, Emile.  *Un témoignage classique sur la langue des Sarmates.+  JA 221 (1932) 135-138.  Re:  Amm XIX,11,10.  *Les Sarmates venaient du Nord-Est de l’Iran.+ (138).  The phrase Marha marha was spoken by one of the Limigantes.

Berchman, Robert M.  Porphyry Against the Christians.  Leiden:  Brill, 2005.  BR 160.3 P6733.

Berger, Ernst Hugo.  *Expositio totius mundi.+  PW 1909.  6:1693-1694.  History of early editions.

Bernardi, Jean.  *Un réquisitoire:  les Invectives contre Julien de Grégoire de Nazianze.  In L’Empereur Julien:  de l’histoire à la légende (331-1715).  Ed:  René Braun and Jean Richer.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1978.  89-98.  DG 317 E46.

Bernardi, Jean, ed, tr.  Grégoire de Nazianze:  Discours 4-5 contre Julien.  SC, 309.  Paris:  Le Cerf, 1983.  BR 65 G83 O714 vol 2.  *Il avait vu Julien à Athènes en 355+ (16).  *Julien avait été en quelque sorte le premier des empereurs chrétiens, puisqu’il fut le premier à recevoir le baptême autrement qu’à l’article de la mort+ (18).  Date et circonstances inconnues,  Asmus 1910 (21).

Bernhardy, Gottfried, ed.  Dionysius Periegetes graece et latine cum vetustis commentariis et interpretationibus.  Vol 1 of Geographi graeci minores.  Leipzig:  Weidmann, 1828.  G 87 D59 1828.  Avienus’s translation does not include the Huns.  *Sed momentum praebet unum stabilissimum Hunnorum mentio, qua plerique defungebantur opera leviore, quod populum ad mare Caspium Vitiorum in sede v. 730. viderant repositum.  At unde, quaeso, compererat Noster de ea gente, quam primus a rumore quodam acceptam Zonaras exhibuit Caro regnante provenisse, bellis cognitam quarti demum saeculi scriptores describant, neque vulgaris geographiae magister potuit nisi usu longinquiore notam libello consignare?  nam Ptolemaus quidem quos Chunos novit, eos ad regionem transtulit longe diversissimam+ 514f.

Berrouard, Marie-François.  *Les Lettres 6* et 19* de saint Augustin:  Leur date et les renseignements qu’elles apportent sur l’évolution de la crise “pélagienne”.+  REAug.  27 (1981) 264-277.  PIMS.  Orosius in 416, Divjak letters.

Berthelot, André.  *Les données numériques fondamentales de la géographie antique d’Eratosthène à Ptolémée.+  RA 36 (1932) 1-34.  See incuna.bib.  Ptolemy knew Volga basin and had reliable measurements for it.

Bertrand, Alexandre, and Salomon Reinach.  Les Celtes dans les vallées du Pô et du Danube.  Volume 3 of Nos origines.  Paris:  Ernest Leroux, 1894.  DC 62 B42.  Pyrene.

Bhat, Govind Keshav.  Appointment with Kalidasa.  Ahmedabad:  Institute of Indology, 1982.  PK 3797 B3877.  *Death is the law of nature;  life is a borrowed experience+ (24).  Date of Kalidasa uncertain and reference to the Huns is used for dating (1-10).

Bhitari Inscription.  *Bhitari Stone Pillar Inscription of Skandagupta.+  Text:  Fleet, ‘ 13, part II, pages 52-56.  Studies:  Majumdar.  Dated AD 455.  Found by General Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1834.  *Bhitari is a village [...] of the Ghazipur district of the North West Provinces+ (52).  Donation to the god Vishnu by the early Gupta king Skandagupta, the undated text is in Sanscrit, a mixture of prose and verse.  The stone is weathered by mostly legible and *nothing of a historical nature seems to be lost+ (53).  The relevant passage is line 15:  *By whose two arms the earth was shaken, when he, the Creator [of a disturbance like that] of a terrible whirlpool, joined in close conflicts with the Hûnas+.

Bibliotheca hagiographica graeca.  Ed:  François Halkin.  3 vols.  Brussels:  Société des Bollandistes, 1957.  Roba Z 7844 B5, Pims Z 7844 H35.  Check St Saba, Artemius.

Bibliotheca orientalis.  Z 3001 B57.  Dutch periodial for Inner Asian studies, mostly book reviews.

Bidez, Joseph, and Léon Parmentier, eds.  The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius Scholasticus with scholia.  London, 1898;  reprint Amsterdam:  Hakkert, 1964.  BR 160 E6 B5.  *plêthos Ounnôn tôn palai Massagetôn+ 100,10.

Bidez, Joseph, and Franz Cumont, eds.  Recherches sur la tradition manuscrite des lettres de l’empereur Julien.  Mémoires de la Classe des Lettres:  Académie royale de Belgique, 57.  Brussels:  Hayez, 1898.  AS 242 B325, starts 1912.  WCat 18.

Bidez, Joseph.  *Notes sur les lettres de l’empereur Julien.+  Bulletin de l’Académie royale de Belgique:  Classe des Lettres.  8 (1904) 493-506.  AS 22 B312.  Re Ep 27 to Libanius concerning Sopater and other prosopography (493).  Ep 38, and more.

Bidez, Joseph.  La tradition manuscrite de Sozomène et la Tripartite de Théodore le Lecteur.  Texte und Untersuchungen, 32,2.  Berlin, 1906.  Pims BQ 25 T3, vol;  Roba BX 300 N52 G4.

Bidez, Joseph, ed.  Sozomen:  Kirchengeschichte.  GCS, NS 14.  2nd edition by Günther Christian Hansen.  Berlin, 1960/1995.  ROBA BR 65 S6.  Re-edited by Grillet and Sabbah for BL, starting 1983.

Bidez, Joseph.  Vie de Porphyre.  1913;  reprint Hildesheim:  Olms, 1964.  B 697 Z7 B5.

Bidez, Joseph.  *L’évolution de la politique de l’empereur Julien en matière religieuse.+  Bulletin de l’Académie royale de Belgique:  Classe des Lettres.  7 (1914) 406.  AS 22 B312.

Bidez, Joseph, ed.  Philostorgius:  Kirchengeschichte.  CGS, 21.  1913;  2nd edition by Friedhelm Winkelmann.  Berlin, 1972.  Roba BR 65 P4.

Bidez, Joseph, and Franz Cumont, eds.  Imp. Caesaris Flavii Claudii Juliani epistulae, leges, poematia, fragmenta varia.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1922.  PA 4225 J4 A2 1922.  Biblio of earlier emendations.

Bidez, Joseph, ed, tr.  Lettres et fragments.  Vol 1,2 of L’empereur Julien:  oeuvres complètes.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1924;  second ed 1960;  third ed 1972.  PA 4225 J4 A2.

Bidez, Joseph.  *L’historien Philostorge.+  In Mélanges Henri Pirenne.  2 vols.  Brussels:  Vromant, 1926.  1:23-30.  D 6 M44.  *Sans doute, son ouvrage a été composé pour défendre une thèse, mais, en la défendant, l’auteur a eu les ambitions d’un véritable historien+ (30).

Bidez, Joseph.  La tradition manuscrite et les éditions des discours de l’empereur Julien.  Université de Gand, Recueil, 61.  Gand, 1929.  PA 4226 J6 B5.

Bidez, Joseph.  La vie de l’empereur Julien.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1930;  reprint 1965.  DG 317 B5.  Rev:  Baynes 1931.  Sources on expedition.  Terreur qui suit la mort de Julien, 335 sq.  Endnotes contain most of biblio.

Bidez, Joseph.  *Notes sur quelques passages des écrits de l’empereur Julien.+  In Mélanges Paul Thomas.  Bruges:  Imprimerie Sainte-Catherine, 1930.  54-65.  PA 26 T5 1930.

Bidez, Joseph.  *Aréthas de Césarée, éditeur et scholiaste.+  Byzantion 9 (1932) 391-408.

Bidez, Joseph, and A. B. Drachmann.  Emploi des signes critiques, disposition de l’apparat dans les éditions savantes de textes grecs et latins:  Conseils et recommendations.  Paris:  Champion, 1932.  PIMS PA 40 U5.  For second edition, see Delatte and Severyns.

Bidez, Joseph, ed, tr.  Discours de Julien César.  Vol 1,1 of L’empereur Julien:  oeuvres complètes.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1932.  PA 4225 J4 A2.  Includes research by Cumont.

Bidez, Joseph.  *Fragments nouveaux de Philostorge sur la vie de Constantin.+  Byzantion 10 (1935) 403-437.

Bidez, Joseph, bibliography.  Hommage à Joseph Bidez et Franz Cumont.  Latomus, 2.  Brussels, 1949.  DE 3.5 H6.

Bihain, Ernest.  *La source d’un texte de Socrate (HE 2,38,2) relatif à Cyrille de Jérusalem.+  Byzantion 32 (1962) 81-92.  Rufin grec.

Binder, G.  *Eine Polemik des Porphyrios gegen die allegorische Auslegung des alten Testaments durch die Christen.+  Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigrafik.  3 (1968) 81-95.  CN 1 Z3.  Re:  Didymus the Blind.

Bird, Harold Wesley.  Sextus Aurelius Victor:  A Historical Study.  Liverpool:  Cairns, 1984.  Roba DG 270 B48;  PIMS PA 6966 Z5 B57.

Bird, Harold Wesley, tr.  The Breviarium ab urbe condita of Eutropius.  Liverpool UP, 1993.  PA 6384 A23.  Bird has considerable biblio on Julian, whom Eutropius accompanied in Persia.  Julian *was eager for glory and in this regard was generally disposed to be excessive+ (10,16).  Galerius *conducted various wars both in conjunction [with Diocletian] and by himself, subdued the Carpi and Bastarnae, defeated the Sarmatians and settled vast numbers of prisoners from these nations in Roman territories+ (incident dated 294-296, page 62, Bk 9, ch 25).  Latin needed.

Bird, Harold Wesley.  Liber de Caesaribus of Sextus Aurelius Victor.  Liverpool:  Cairns, 1994.  Roba DG 274 V5313.  Constantius *appointed a king to the Sarmatian people while he was with great honour seated as a judge among them+ ‘ 42.

Birt, Theodor, ed.  Claudii Claudiani carmina.  MGH AA, 10 (1882).  Rev:  Postgate CR 9:86, 167.

Birt, Theodor.  *Sprach man avrum oder aurum?+  Third part of Beiträge zur lateinische Grammatik.  Printed with its own pagination with RhM NS 52 (1897).

Birt, Theodor.  *Ueber den Lautwerth des Spiritus H.+  Fourth part of Beiträge zur lateinische Grammatik.  RhM NS 54 (1899) 40-92;  201-247.  Pronunciation of Hun.

Birt, Theodor.  Kritik und Hermeneutik nebst Abriss des antiken Buchwesens.  Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, I, 3.  Munich:  C. H. Beck, 1913.  Roba PA 39 B5 and VUPT PA 25 H24.  Two books in one.  History of paper, papyrus, parchment.  Tacitus, not Orosius.  *Die Philologie ist von den alten Griechen begründet worden.  Jedoch hiess sie damals nicht Philologie, sondern Grammatik+ (3).

Bivar, Adrian David H.  *Cavalry Equipment and Tactics on the Euphrates Frontier.+  DOP 26 (1972) 271-292.

Bivar, Adrian David H.  *The Political History of Iran under the Arsacids.+  Chapter 2 of The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods.  Ed:  Ehsan Yarshater.  Vol 3, part 1 of The Cambridge History of Iran.  Cambridge, 1983.  21-99.  VUPT, ROBA DS 272 C34.

Bivar, Adrian David H.  *The History of Eastern Iran.+  Chapter 5 of The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods.  Ed:  Ehsan Yarshater.  Vol 3, part 1 of The Cambridge History of Iran.  Cambridge, 1983.  181-231.  VUPT, ROBA DS 272 C34.

Bleckmann, Bruno.  Die Reichskrise des III. Jahrhunderts.  Munich:  Tuduv, 1992.  DG 306 B54.  Rev:  Paschoud.  Zonaras.  Anything on Shahpur?

Bleichsteiner, Robert.  *Das Volk der Alanen.+  Berichte des Forschungs[-]institut[e]s für Osten und Oriens.  2 (1918) 4-16.  DR 1 F6.  Review of sources.

Blockley, Roger C.  *Dexippus of Athens and Eunapius of Sardis.+  Latomus 30 (1971) 710-715.  *Dexippus attempted to synchronize the histories of the Greeks and Romans+ (711).  *encomiastic treatment+ of Julian, 715.

Blockley, Roger C.  *The Panegyric of Claudius Mamertinus on the Emperor Julian.+  AJP 93 (1972) 437-450.  *affection for Constantius seems to have outlasted the reign of Julian+ (438, cf Amm 26,7,10).

Blockley, Roger C.  *Constantius Gallus and Julian as Caesars of Constantius II.+  Latomus 31 (1972) 433-468.  Biblio.  Re AM *rhetoric … can be used to shore up a weak case+ (434).

Blockley, Roger C.  *Festus’ Source on Julian’s Persian Expedition.+  CPh 68 (1973) 54-55.  Ctesiphon.

Blockley, Roger C.  *Tacitean Influences upon Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Latomus 32 (1973) 63-78.

Blockley, Roger C.  Ammianus Marcellinus.  Collection Latomus, 141.  Brussels, 1975.  DG 206 A4 B7.

Blockley, Roger C.  *Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Phoenix 31 (1977) 218-231.  PA 1 P58 O2.

Blockley, Roger C.  *Was the First Book of Zosimus Based on more than two Sources?+  Byzantion 50 (1980) 393-402.

Blockley, Roger C.  *The Ending of Eunapius’ History.+  Antichthon 14 (1980) 170-176.  PA 1 A6.  Confirms AD 404 as end of History.

Blockley, Roger C.  *Constantius II and his Generals.+  Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History, 2.  Collection Latomus, 168.  Brussels, 1980.  467-486.  PA 6011 S78.  Ursicinus.

Blockley, Roger C.  *Eunapius, Fr XIV,7:  Julian as Homeric hero?+  Liverpool Classical Monthly.  6 (1981) 213-214.  Roba PA 1 L57;  Pims PA 3019 L58.

Blockley, Roger C.  The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire:  Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus.  ARCA, classical and medieval texts, papers, and monographs 6.  Vol 1.  Liverpool:  F. Cairns, 1981.  DG 205 B58 Roba;  Pims DG 205 B48.

Blockley, Roger C., tr.  The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire:  Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus.  Text, translation, and historiographical notes.  ARCA, classical and medieval texts, papers, and monographs 10.  Vol 2.  Liverpool:  F. Cairns, 1983.  DG 205 B58;  Pims DG 205 B48.

Blockley, Roger C.  Rome and Persia.  Ottawa:  Carleton UP, 1985.  Pamphlet.  TRINSTOR DE 89 B56.

Blockley, Roger C.  *The Division of Armenia between the Romans and the Persians at the End of the Fourth Century AD.+  Historia 36 (1987) 222-234.  Biblio.  *The embassy of Stilicho [...] can be assigned to no particular date nor associated with any particular event+ (230).  *minor ceremonial mission+ (230n35).  Suggests that *the final partition of Armenia was the result of a process that was initiated by the treaty of 363 and was not completed until the 420s or 430s+ (234).  Sources on embassy, 230n32.

Blockley, Roger C.  East Roman Foreign Policy.  Leeds:  Cairns, 1992.  Roba, Pims DG 214.5 B57.  Up to Anastasius.

Blockley, Roger C.  *The Dynasty of Theodosius.+  Chapter 4 of The Late Empire, AD 337-425.  Vol 13 of The Cambridge Ancient History.  Cambridge UP, 1998.  111-137.  Roba D 57 C25 1970.

Blockley, Roger C.  *Warfare and Diplomacy.+  Chapter 13 of The Late Empire, AD 337-425.  Vol 13 of The Cambridge Ancient History.  Cambridge UP, 1998.  411-460.  Roba D 57 C25 1970.

Blomgren, Sven Aeke.  De sermone Ammiani Marcellini quaestiones variae.  UUA, 6.  Uppsala:  Lundeqvist, 1937.  AS 284 U7.  Re:  Scythia 23,6,64, mostly identical with Ptolemy Geog 6,16,2 (cited from Nobbe).

Boeft, Jan den.  See Groningen Commentary.

Böhme, W T [G].  Dexippi fragmenti ex Iulio Capitolino Trebellio Pollioni Georgio Syncello collecti.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1883.  PhD 1882.  WCat 10, mfm.

Boer, W. den.  *A Pagan Historian and his Enemies:  Porphyry Against the Christians.+  Classical Philology.  69 (1974) 206-207.  Daniel, Four Monarchies.

Bohlin, Torgny.  Die Theologie des Pelagius und ihre Genesis.  Aerskrift, 1957,9.  Uppsala:  Lundeqvist, 1957.  Roba AS 284 U7;  PIMS BQ 6172 P8 B6;  VUPT AS 284 U7.

Boissevain, Philippe, ed.  Cassii Dionis Cocceiani Historiarum Romanarum.  5 vols.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1885-1931.  PA 3947 A2.  See Nawijn.  Vol 4:  Index for Alans.

Bonamente, Giorgio.  Giuliano l’Apostata e il *Breviario+ di Eutropio.  Rome:  Bretschneider, 1986.  DG 317 B65 1986.

Bonfante, L. Warren.  *Emperor, God and Man in the Fourth Century:  Julian the Apostate and Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Parola del Passato.  19 (1964) 401.  PA 9 P3.

Bonner, G.  *The Extinction of Paganism and the Church Historian.+  Journal of Ecclesiastical History.  35 (1984) 339-357.  BR 140 J6.

Boodberg, Peter Alexis.  *Marginalia to the Histories of the Northern Dynasties.+  Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies.  4 (1939) 230-283.  On -gur or -ogur compounds.  Blunder on page 239, footnote 46:  *cf. also the habit of the Russian chronicles of referring to the Turks as Agariane *sons of Hagar+, *Ishmaelites+, the Biblical allusion being possibly suggested by the homonym AGAR.+

Booth, Alan D.  *The Date of Jerome’s birth.+  Phoenix 33 (1979) 346-353.

Booth, Alan D.  *The Chronology of Jerome’s Early Years.+  Phoenix 35 (1981) 237-259.  See my paper on Donatus, p. 3 and 11n34.

Born, Lester K.  *The Perfect Prince According to the Latin Panegyrists.+  AJPh 55 (1934) 20-35.  Also Nevsky.bib.

Borries, E. von.  *Die Quellen zu den Feldzügen des Abtrünnigen gegen die Germanen.+  Hermes 27 (1892) 170-209.  Good methodology, integrates various sources into continuous narrative.

Bosworth, Albert Brian.  *Arrian’s Literary Development.+  Cl Q.  22 (1972) 163-185.

Bosworth, Albert Brian.  *Vespasian’s Reorganisation of the North East Frontier.+  Antichthon 10 (1976) 63-78.  PA 1 A6.  Cappadocia, Armenia.  Alani in AD 72 (source?  sounds like Albani).

Bosworth, Albert Brian.  *Arrian and the Alani.+  Harvard Studies in Classical Philology.  81 (1977) 217-255.  PA 25 H28.  Re:  Ectaxis, with biblio.  Bachrach *riddled with errors and useless for historical interpretation+ (217n2).  *It is clear that the Alani did not move spontaneously but at the instigation of Pharasmanes II, king of Iberia+ (219).

Bosworth, Albert Brian.  *Arrian and Rome:  The Minor Works.+  Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt.  2:34,1 (1993) 226-275.  PIMS DG 209 T36.

Bouchery, Herman F., ed.  Themistius in Libanius’ Brieven:  critische uitgave van 52 brieven, voorzien van een historisch commentaar een tekstverklarende Nota’s.  Antwerp:  De Sikkel, 1936.  PIMS PA 4226 Z8.  Letters ranging from AD 355 to 364, lots on Constantius II.

Boulnois, Marie-Odile.  Le Paradoxe trinitaire chez Cyrille d’Alexandrie.  Paris:  Institut d’Etudes augustiniennes, 1994.  BR 65 C95 B76.  Anything which explains Julian?

Bourgery, Abel, and Max Ponchont, eds.  Lucain:  La guerre civile (La Pharsale).  Vol 1 (Bks 1-5) by Bourgery Paris, 1926;  vol 2 (Bks 6-10) by Bourgery and Ponchont, Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1929.  PA 6478 A2 1926.  Sixth edition revised by Paul Jal, qv.  Description of mss, with sketchy history of earlier editions.  Bourgery edited his own version.

Bowersock, Glen Warren.  Rev:  Millar Cassius Dio 1964.  Gnomon 37 (1965) 469-474.

Bowersock, Glen Warren.  *A New Inscription of Arrian.+  GRBS 8 (1967) 279-280.

Bowersock, Glen Warren.  Julian the Apostate.  London:  Duckworth, 1978.  DG 317 B68.  With plates of coins;  review of sources.

Bradbury, Scott.  *The date of Julian’s Letter to Themistius.+  GRBS 28 (1987) 235-251.  Dates it to late 355 or early 356.

Brakmann, Cornelius.  *Ammianea.+  Mnemosyne 47 (1919) 100-110.  Emendations.

Brandis, Carl Georg.  *Arrians Periplus Ponti Euxini.+  RhM NS 51 (1896) 109-126.

Braun, Oskar.  *Syrische Texte über die erste allgemeine Synode von Konstantinopel.+  In Orientalische Studien:  Theodor Nöldeke zum siebzigsten Geburtstag gewidmet.  Ed:  Carl Bezold.  2 vols.  Giessen:  A. Töpelmann, 1906.  ?…:463-478.  PJ 26 N64.  CPL 381.

Braun, René.  *Julien et le christianisme.+  In L’Empereur Julien:  de l’histoire à la légende (331-1715).  Ed:  René Braun and Jean Richer.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1978.  159-188.  DG 317 E46.

Braund, Susanna H., tr.  Lucan:  Civil War.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1992.  PA 6479 E5 B73 1992.  Based on Housman and Shackleton Bailey.

Braune, Wilhelm.  Gotische Grammatik.  Halle:  Niemeyer, 1887.  B2 LaGoth B825g, Karl;  PD 1123 B7313.

Breebaart, A. B.  *Eunapius of Sardes and the Writing of History.+  Mnemosyne 32 (1979) 360-375.  Contre Paschoud.  Apology of Julian.

Broche, Gaston E.  Pythéas le Massaliote.  Ph.D.  Paris, 1935.  WCat 26.  Check reviews and AnPhil.

Brock, Sebastian.  *Syriac Culture.+  Chapter 23a of The Late Empire, AD 337-425.  Vol 13 of The Cambridge Ancient History.  Cambridge UP, 1998.  708-719.  Roba D 57 C25 1970.

Brok, Martinus Franciscus Ardena.  De perzische Expeditie van Keizer Julianus volgens Ammianus Marcellinus.  PhD Leiden, 1959.  Groningen:  Wolters, 1959.  DG 317 D76.  Biblio.  Sources, 9ff.  Commentary on books 23-25.

Brok, Martinus Franciscus Ardena.  *Die Quellen von Ammians Exkurs über Persien.+  Mnemosyne 28 (1975) 47-56.  Kushans, 53f.  Re Amm XXIII,6.  Cf Gardthausen and Mommsen.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  See also Igor.bib.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed, tr.  Chronicon Iacobi Edesseni.  In Chronica Minora.  CSCO, 1-6;  Scriptores Syri, Series 3, vol 4.  Louvain, 1903.  197-257.  Huns in Syria in 395, see AUTHORS.  Rev:  BZ 16 (1907) 322.  Includes Michael of Syria, anything on Julian’s Persian war?

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  *The Eastern Provinces from Arcadius to Anastasius.+  Chapter 16 of The Christian Roman Empire and the Foundation of the Teutonic Kingdoms.  Vol 1 of The Cambridge Medieval History.  New York:  Macmillan, 1911.  456-486.  D 117 C3.

Brooks, Ernest Walter.  Review of Euphemia and the Goth by F. Burkitt.  EHR 28 (1913) 760-761.  Regrets that this is a diplomatic edition;  points out frequent misprints.

Brooks, Ernest Walter, ed., and Jean-Baptiste Chabot, tr.  Chronicon Miscellaneum ad Annum Domini 724 pertinens.  In Chronica Minora.  1903.  61-119.  In the year of Theodosius’ death *Et hoc ipso anno, venit populus maledictus Hunnorum in regiones Romanorum et peragrarunt Sophenen, Armeniam, Mesopotamiam, Syriam, Cappadociam ad Gallatiam usque;  captivos plurimos abduxerunt, et regressi sunt ut reverterent in regionem suam+ (106).  Plus invasion of Persia under Yezdegerd.

Brosset, Marie-Félicité.  *Relation du pays Ta ouan;  traduite du chinois.+  [Nouveau] Journal asiatique.  2 (1828) 418-450.  Early history of Hyon and Uigur.  *Cette relation est le 123o livre du Ssé-ki de Ssématsien+ (421).  Date:  140-97 B.C.

Brottier, Laurence.  *L’image d’Antioche dans les homélies Sur les statues de Jean Chrysostome.+  REG 106 (1993) 619-635.

Brottier, Laurence.  *Un jeu de mots intraduisible:  le combat entre thymos et athymia dans les homélies de Jean Chrysostome.+  RPhil 72 (1998) 189-204.  Statues.

Brown, Peter.  *The Later Roman Empire.+  Economic History Review.  NS 20 (1967) 327-343.  HC 10 E4 O2.  Rev of Jones, LRE, with Bibliography.

Brown, Peter.  *Pelagius and his Supporters:  Aims and Environment.+  JTS NS 19 (1968) 93-114.  VUEM, KNOX.  *The Sack of Rome immediately depleted the Roman Christian community by provoking a diaspora of influential laymen and ascetics+ (100).

Brown, Peter.  *The Patrons of Pelagius:  The Roman Aristocracy Between East and West.+  JTS NS 21 (1970) 56-72.  VUEM.

Browning, Robert.  *The Riot of AD 387 in Antioch:  The Role of the Theatrical Claque in the Later Empire.+  JRS 42 (1952) 13-20.  Chronology of events.  Suggests that the claque fanned popular discontent but does not investigate for whom the claque worked.  Did they work for Maximinus’ factio?

Bruère, Richard Treat.  *Note on Lucan Bellum civilis i.15.+  CPh 44 (199) 244-250.  Points of the compass, see Getty.  1949?

Bruère, Richard Treat.  *Lucan and Claudian:  The Invectives.+  Classical Philology.  59 (1964) 223-256.  Description of the Huns, 229.  Massagetae, 229.  Important for name change Massagetae to Alans.

Brunt, P. A.  *On Historical Fragments and Epitomes.+  CQ NS 30 (1980) 477-494.  Stylistics.  Xiphilinus.

Buchanan, John J., and Harold T. Davis, trs.  Zosimus:  Historia Nova.  The Decline of Rome.  San Antonio:  Trinity UP, 1967.  DG 207 Z89 B8.

Buck, David F.  *A Reconsideration of Dexippus’ Chronica.+  Latomus 43 (1984) 596-597.  A history rather than a chronicle.

Buck, David F.  *Dexippus, Eunapius, Olympiodorus:  Continuation and Imitation.+  Ancient History Bulletin.  1 (1987) 48-50.  TRIN PER.

Buck, David F.  *Eunapius of Sardis and Theodosius the Great.+  Byzantion 58 (1988) 36-53.  For chronology, see Zuckerman.  *In Eunapius’ opnion, Constantine began the destruction of the Roman Empire and Theodosius completed it+ (41).  Riot of the statues, 45.  Serena, 51.

Buck, David F.  *Some Distortions in Eunapius’ Account of Julian the Apostate.+  Ancient History Bulletin.  4 (1990) 113-115.  TRIN PER.  Pagan propaganda at 3,6,1-3;  9;  16,1-17,3;  8,3;  12,2.

Bücheler, Franz.  *Collectanea.+  RhM NS 27 (1872) 474-478.  Expositio, 476.

Büdinger, Max.  *Ueber Darstellung der allgemeinen Geschichte des Mittelalters.+  Historische Zeitschrift.  7 (1862) 108-132.  D 1 H74.

Büdinger, Max.  Ammianus Marcellinus und die Eigenart seines Geschichtswerkes, eine universal-historische Studie.  Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historische Classe, Denkschriften, 44,5.  Vienna, 1896.  AS 142 A5.  Material on eclipse in text.  Imitation of Tacitus.  Libanius and AM.  Julian?

Büttner-Wobst, Theodor, ed.  Ioannis Zonarae epitomae historiarum libri XIII-XVIII.  CSHB, 31.  Bonn:  Weber, 1847.  Frail condition.  With history of early editions.  Book 13 for Julian.

Büttner-Wobst, Theodor.  *Der Tod des Kaisers Julian:  Eine Quellenstudie.+  Philologus 51 (1892) 561-580.  Biblio.

Bunbury, Edward Herbert [Sir].  A History of Ancient Geography among the Greeks and the Romans.  2 vols.  London:  Murray, 1883;  reprint New York:  Dover, 1959.  G 84 B95.  Mela, 2:352-368.  Citations in text.  Writing of Dionysius Periegetes:  *Among [the Scythian tribes] the Alani deserve special notice, as being the first definite mention of a people destined before long to play so important a part among those that contributed to the downfall of the Roman Empire+ (2:486).  Check if Cassius Dio is close in date to DP.

Burdeau, François.  *L’empereur d’après les Panégyriques latins.+  In Aspects de l’Empire romain.  Paris:  PUF, 1964.  1‑60.  DG 81 B87.

Burgess, Richard William, tr.  The Chronicle of Hydatius and the Consularia Constantinopolitana:  Two Contemporary Accounts of the Final Years of the Roman Empire.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1993.  DG 319 I313.  Text under Hydatius.

Burgess, Richard William.  *Jerome and the Kaisergeschichte.+  Historia 44 (1995) 349-369.  Develops Helm 1927.

Burgess, Richard William.  *On the Date of the Kaisergeschichte.+  Classical Philology.  90 (1995) 111-128.  Biblio.  Jerome and the KG, 112, and note 8.

Burguière, Paul, and Pierre Evieux, eds.  Cyrille d’Alexandrie:  Contre Julien.  Paris:  Le Cerf, 1985.  BR 65 C953 C6614.  Bk 1 and 2.  Julian wrote in AD 362, but Cyril wrote in AD 430, maybe later.

Burkitt, Francis Crawford.  Euphemia and the Goth with the Acts of the Martyrdom of the Confessors of Edessa.  1913;  Amsterdam:  APA – Philo Press, 1981.  Pims PJ 5631 A3 1981.  Reprint with additions.  Biblio.  Hephthalites under 384 AD.  Hun raids of 395, see author file.

Burnouf, Jean Louis, tr.  Pline le Jeune:  Panégyrique de Trajan.  3rd edition Paris:  J. Delalain, 1845.  PA 6639 F6 B87.

Burns, Thomas Samuel.  *The Battle of Adrianople:  A Reconsideration.+  Historia 22 (1973) 336-345.

Burrell, Emma.  *Claudian’s In Eutropium liber alter:  Fiction and History.+  Latomus 62 (2003) 110-138.  Stilicho’s politics.

Bursian, Conrad.  *Zur Kritik des Pomponius Mela.+  Jahrbücher für classische Philologie.  99 (1869) 629-655.  PA 3 N65, 12th Apex.  Re:  Parthey’s edition.

Bury, John Bagnell.  Rev of Zosimus by Mendelssohn.  CR 3 (1889) 37-38.  Of the CSHB, he writes *in fact if one possessed the Paris edition of the seventeenth century, there would be no occasion to consult the Bonn edition of the nineteenth century+ (37).  Kiessling demonstrated that Vat gr 156 is *the only really important ms+ (37).  Hiatus in Zosimus, 37f.  Stilicho’s victory over Radagaisus, 38.

Bury, John Bagnell.  *The Supremacy of Stilicho.+  In his History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene (395-800).  2 vols.  London, 1889/1930.  1:106-173.  DF 581 B8;  DG 311 B99.

Bury, John Bagnell, ed.  The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.  By Edward Gibbon.  6 vols.  London:  Methuen, 1897-1898.  DG 311 G5 1897.  Arrangement of chapters criticized by Barnes in his Amm Mar.

Bury, John Bagnell.  *The Notitia Dignitatum.+  JRS 10 (1910) 131-154.  Danube frontier, flotilla?

Bury, John Bagnell.  *Magistri scriniorum, antigraphês, and rhepherendarios.+  Harvard SCPh.  21 (1910) 23-29.

Bury, John Bagnell.  *The Provincial Lists of Verona.+  JRS 13 (1923) 127-151.

Bury, John Bagnell.  The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians.  1928;  reprint New York:  Russell & Russell, 1963.  D 135 B8.  Rev:  EHR 44 (1929) 460-462.  *a victory which the Huns [a new and formidable enemy from Asia] had gained over the Alans, a people who lived north of the Caucasus and south of the river Don.  This was in the year AD 372.  The Alans [...] fled westward…+ (55).  *some of [the Huns'] kings were called by German names.  [...] This fact clearly points to inter-marriages+ (141f).  Hunnic-Gothic bilingualism points to a much closer and longer relationship than Bury postulates at page 55.

Cabouret, Bernadette, tr.  Libanios:  Lettres aux hommes de son temps.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 2000.  PA 4226 Z8.  Some letters to Themistius.

Cairns, Francis.  Generic Composition in Greek and Roman Poetry.  Edinburg:  University Press, 1972.  PA 3537 C3.  Review Schenkeveld Mnemosyne 28 (1975) 425-426.  PA 9 M6.

Caley, Earle R., and John F. C. Richards.  Theophrastus on Stones.  Introduction, Greek Text, English translation and commentary.  Columbus, Ohio:  Ohio State University, 1956.  PA 4448 D3.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *An Alleged Fragment of Eunapius.+  Classical Quarterly.  NS 13 (1963) 232-236.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *A Disguised Ms of Rufinus’ Translation of Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History.+  Scriptorium 18 (1964) 270-271.  In Hunterian Museum, ‘ 104, in Glasgow.  Parchment, 14-15th century codex, attributed to Jerome.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *Christianity and Tradition in the Historiography of the Late Empire.+  With Averil Cameron.  Classical Quarterly.  NS 14 (1964) 316-328.  Ammianus.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *The Roman Friends of Ammianus.+  JRS 54 (1964) 15-28.  Re Letter IX,110 by Symmachus.  Letter addressed to a historian who is also a senator.  *Perhaps, like Dr Johnson, Ammianus did not win the favour and friendship of the aristocracy till his great work was finished or nearly so+ (28).

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *Palladas and Christian Polemic.+  JRS 55 (1965) 17-30.  More useful for Palladas than for Porphyry.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *St. Jerome and Claudian.+  Vigiliae Christianae.  19 (1965) 111-113.  PIMS PER.  Re:  In Eutropium.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *A Biographical Note on Claudian.+  Athenaeum 44 (1966) 32-40.  DE 1 A45.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *Date of Porphyry’s Kata Khristianos.+  Classical Quarterly.  17 (1967) 382-384.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *A New Fragment of Eunapius.+  Classical Review.  81/NS 17 (1967) 10-11.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *Notes on Claudian’s Invectives.+  Classical Quarterly.  NS 18 (1968) 387-411.  Biblio.  Important.  Discussing Claudian’s In Rufinum 1,323f *Claudian is describing the Huns+ (390).  Mention of the Don and the Arctic, clearly taken from Ammianus.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *The Date of Zosimus’ New History.+  Philologus 113 (1969) 106-110.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *Theodosius the Great and the Regency of Stilicho.+  Harvard Studies in Classical Philology.  73 (1969) 247-280.  PA 25 H28.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  Claudian:  Poetry and Propaganda at the Court of Honorius.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1970.  PA 6374 C3.  *Stilicho’s supreme goal was to unite both halves [of the Empire] under his regency+ (51);  also page 62.  Disappointing, does not correlate invasions of 395 with fall of Rufinus.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  Review of Syme, Amm and SHA, 1968.  JRS 61 (1971) 255-267.  Biblio.  *the SHA is more a literary than a historical puzzle+ (255).  *The Date of Ammianus’ Last Books+ (259-262).  Important note on the Huns.  *Throughout 389/90 Theodosius pursued a remarkably conciliating policy toward the pagan aristocracy of the West … in February, 391 came a dramatic change+ (261).  Dates Ammianus before Feb 391.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *Claudian and the Ages of Rome.+  Maia 27 (1975) 47.  PA 9 M3 Roba.  Re:  Gildo.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *Earthquake of 400.+  Chiron  17 (1987) 343-360.  CN 1 C5.  Biblio of quakes.  *Synesius is talking of the body and Chrysostom of the soul, but both compare barbarians in the state to alien elements in man+ (347).  *the Gallic Chronicle is a well-informed work compiled only half a century later (in 452) that preserves several useful scraps of information about the East .  [...]  It is also entirely independent of Marcellinus+ (354).

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *Textual Notes on Synesius, De Providentia.+  With J. Long and L. Sherry.  Byzantion 58 (1988) 54-64.

Cameron, Alan D. E.  *A Misdated Homily of Chrysostom.+  Nottingham Mediaeval Studies.  32 (1988) 34-48.  PN 661 N6.  Dates April 400, re revolt of Gainas.

Cameron, Alan, and Jacqueline Long.  Barbarians and Politics at the Court of Arcadius.  Berkeley:  University of California Press, 1993.  PA 4441 S9 C36.  Synesius.  *In 398 [Eutropius] led a successful expedition against the Huns+ (7).  *in the years following Theodosius’ death [Stilico's] military record had been lamentable.  He did not win a single decisive victory until Faesulae in 406+ (56).

Cameron, Averil.  1964.  See Alan Cameron.

Cameron, Averil, ed.  Agathias.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1970.  DF 505.7 A5 C3.  The special reverence of Zosimus for Athens suggests a relationship between him and the intransigent Neoplatonism taught in that city, 102.  Julian and Persian wars.  What does he say about Julian’s philosophy?

Capelle, Wilhelm.  *Der Physiker Arrian und Poseidonius.+  Hermes 40 (1905) 614-635.  Meteorological fragments in Stobaeus.

Capelle, Wilhelm.  *Die Schrift von der Welt:  Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der griechischen Popularphilosophie.+  Neue Jahrbücher für das klassische Altertum.  15 (1905) 529-568.  PA 3 N664.  Winds, Poseidonius, but not that useful.

Capelle, Wilhelm.  *Die griechische Erdkunde und Poseidonios.+  Neue Jahrbücher für das klassische Altertum.  45/46 (1920) 305-324.  PA 3 N664.  Important.

Carcopino, Jérôme.  *A propos du poème de Rutilius Namatianus.+  REL 6 (1928) 180-200.  Date of text.

Casey, Maurice.  *Porphyry and the Book of Daniel.+  JThS 27 (1976) 15-33.  VUEM, Knox.

Casey, Maurice.  *Porphyry and Syrian Exegesis.+  Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft.  81 (1990) 138-142.  VUEM, Knox.

Cassius Dio.  Illyrian Wars.  Wrote before AD 220, or perhaps as late as 222, unresolved debate.  Text:  Boissevain, Cary, Edmondson, Freyburger, Gros-Boissé, Reimar.  Studies:  Barnes, Gowing, Millar, Reinhold, Rich.  Book 50, ‘ 26ff, conquest of Lower Danube by Crassus, mention of Istria, Bastarnae.  Illyria, 49,34.  Campagne d’Octavien en Illyrie, 49:34, very inadequate geographical information in BL edition.  54,31:  Dalmatia and Pannonia.

Cassius Dio.  Roman History.  Pharasmanes king of Georgia stirred up a war between the Romans and the Alans (69,15,1).  DP also mentions the Alans, see Bunbury.  Arrian and the Alans.

Carnoy, Albert Joseph.  Dictionnaire étymologique du proto-indo-européen.  Louvain UP, 1955.  B2 La C2917dic, Karl.

Carrière, Auguste.  Nouvelles sources de Moïse de Khoren:  études critiques.  Vienna:  Sigel (Méchitharistes), 1893.  DS 181 M722 C37.

Carrière, Auguste.  Nouvelles sources de Moïse de Khoren:  études critiques.  Supplément.  Vienna:  Sigel (Méchitharistes), 1894.  DS 181 M722 C37 Suppl.

Cary, Ernest, tr.  Dio’s Roman History.  LCL.  9 vols.  Cambridge:  Harvard UP, 1914-1927.  PA 3947 A2.  Authors file for Arrian and the Alans.  Check for Xiphilinus.

Casaubon, Isaac, ed.  Strabonis geographica.  Paris, 1620.  Based on the Aldine edition.

Casaubon, Isaac, ed.  Strabo:  Rerum geographiarum libri XVII.  Amsterdam:  Wolters, 1707.  RBSC E10/1059;  VUPT PA 4438 A2 folio.

Casaubon, Isaac, ed.  Strabonis geographica.  2 vols.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1807.  RBSC G10/255;  PIMS PA 4438 A2 folio.

Cassiodorus.  See Barnish, Fridh, Hodgkin, Mommsen (MGH AA), Mynors.  Amber, see Variae v,2.

Cavallera, Ferdinand.  Saint Jérôme:  Sa vie et son oeuvre.  2 vols.  Louvain UP, 1922.  PIMS BQ 6049 C3.  Orosius, Pelasgians, nothing on the Histories, 323-332.  *Avant la prise de Rome (août 410), il faut placer la publication du Commentaire sur Daniel, postérieur à la fin des petits Prophètes (406) et antérieur à celui d’Isaïe, commencé en 408 et achevé avant le désastre romain.  Il est donc de 407 et celui d’Isaïe de 408-409+ (2:52).  *La lettre XLVII à Desiderius … est donc antérieure à l’Adversus Iovinianum.  Les lettres XLVIII, XLIX et L visent les critiques soulevées par l’Adversus Iovinianum+ (2:43).  Date 393 (2:157).  AI part of the Origenist controversy.

Cazelles, Henri.  *Sophonie, Jérémie et les Scythes en Palestine.+  Revue biblique.  74 (1967) 24-44.  BS 5410 R3.  Biblio.  Scythian auxiliaries of the Assyrians do some raiding on their own.

Chabot, Jean-Baptiste.  *Michel le Syrien.+  ROCh 4 (1899) 446.  Red Apex.  Anything on Julian?

Chabot, Jean-Baptiste, ed.  Chronique de Michel le Syrien.  In Chronica Minora.  CSCO, 4, 1905.  Review:  BZ 16 (1907) 322.

Chabot, Jean-Baptiste, ed.  Chronique de Josué le Stylite.  CSCO, 3.  1927.  See Igor.bib for more.

Chalmers, Walter R.  *Eunapius, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Zosimus on Julian’s Persian Expedition.+  Classical Quarterly.  NS 10 (1960) 152-160.  Cf Armenian sources.

Chalmers, Walter R.  *The nea ekdosis of Eunapius’ Histories.+  Classical Quarterly.  NS 3 (1953) 165-170.  Inconclusive.

Chambers, Talbot W., tr.  The Homilies of Saint John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople, on the Epistles of Paul to the Corinthians.  The Oxford Translation revised with additional notes.  NPNF, series I, 12.  New York, 1889.  BR 60 S46.  44 homilies on I Corinthians, 30 on II Corinthians.

Chambry, Emile, and Lucienne Thély-Chambry, trs.  Justin:  Abrégé des *Histoires Philippiques+ de Trogue Pompée, et Prologues de Trogue Pompée.  2 vols.  Paris:  Classiques Garnier, 1936.  PA 6445 J6 1936.

Chapot, Victor.  La Frontière de l’Euphrate, de Pompée à la conquête arabe.  BEFAR 99.  Paris:  Fontemoing, 1907;  reprint Rome:  L’Erma di Bretschneider, 1967.  DS 75 C53.  Alans, Huns 35ff.

Chapot, Victor.  *Arrien et le Periplus Ponti Euxeni.+  REG 34 (1921) 129-154.

Charles, Robert Henry, ed.  Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha.  2 vols.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1913.  BS 1692 1913.

Charles, Robert Henry, tr.  The Chronicle of John of Nikiu.  London:  William and Norgate, 1916;  reprint Amsterdam:  APA Philo Press, 1981.  DT 93 A2 J6 PIMS.  Translation based on Zotenberg’s edition.  Has fourth century material.

Charles, Robert Henry.  A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Daniel.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1929.  BS 1555 C53 1929.  *According to the older and true interpretation the four kingdoms were (1) the Babylonian, (2) the Median, (3) the Persian, (4) the Greek or Macedonian+ 167).  Here reference to Sibylline Oracles, iii,388-400, cf Olmstead.  *Next in 4 Ezra 12, 10-12 (AD 80-120), we … This work interprets the fourth kingdom of the Roman empire+ which is not that of Daniel (169).  This interpretation was … recognized by Porphyry (AD 233-304) and … by Ephrem Syrus (AD 300-350), 169.

Charlet, Jean-Louis, ed, tr.  Claudien:  Oeuvres ‑‑ Le Rapt de Proserpine.  Volume 1.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1991.  PA 6373 F7.  Biblio.  Contains Claudian’s biography.  *Claudien pratique en outre l’insinuation et la déformation politique+ (viii).  *Stilicon et la Cour très chrétienne de Milan pouvaient fort bien s’accommoder d’un poète discrètement païen, dont les qualités littéraires, uniques en leur temps, leur rendaient de si éminents services+ (xix).

Charlet, Jean-Louis, ed, tr.  Claudien:  Oeuvres ‑‑ Poèmes politiques (395-398).  Volume 2, part 1.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 2000.  PA 6373 F7.  *Il est significatif qu’Eutrope ait choisi pour Arcadius une jeune fille élevée dans la maison du général Promotus, ami de Stilicon et ennemie de Rufin [...] L’échec de Rufin sur un point aussi important prove qu’il se heurtait à une forte opposition à Constantinople, donnée politique que masque Claudien+ (xii).  Contre Rufin 2,2:49-122, plus end notes.  Huns 2271 (page 105).  *Ave le hardi Massagète qui blesse son coursier pour s’abreuver // L’Alain qui boit au Palus-Méotide de ses pères // Et le Gélon qui aime à tatouer son corps avec le fer+ (with notes, for Latin, see under Claudian).

Charlet, Jean-Louis, ed, tr.  Claudien:  Oeuvres ‑‑ Poèmes politiques (395-398).  Volume 2, part 2.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 2000.  PA 6373 F7.

Chastagnol, André.  *Le poète Claudien et l’Histoire auguste.+  Historia 19 (1970) 444-463.

Chatelain, Emile.  *Scholies sur Claudien.+  With C-A Pret.  Revue de philologie.  8 (1884) 81-99.

Chatelain, Emile.  *Fragments dispersés de vieux manuscrits carolingiens d’Orose.+  Journal des savants.  1902:275-276.  More in incuna.bib.

Chaumont, Marie-Louise.  *L’Inscription de Kartir à la Ka’bah de Zoroastre.+  JA 248 (1960) 339-380.

Chaumont, Marie-Louise.  *Conquêtes sassanides et propagande mazdéenne (IIIème siècle).+  Historia 22 (1973) 664-710.  Biblio.  Re:  Res gestae divi Saporis.

Chaumont, Marie-Louise.  *L’Arménie entre Rome et l’Iran.+  Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt.  2,9,2 (1976) 71-194.  PIMS DG 209 T36.

Chavannes, Edouard.  *L’itinéraire d’Ou-k’ong.+  1895.  See Lévi.  8th cent, Igor.bib.

Chavannes, Edouard, ed.  Les Mémoires historiques de Se-ma Ts’ien.  5 vols.  Paris:  E. Leroux, 1895-1905;  reprinted Paris:  Maisonneuve, 1967.  DS 735 A2 S624.  Also vol 6 has index, reprinted 1969, with updated biblio 123-126.  *Puis [Ts'in] envoya Mong T’ien construire au nord la Grande Muraille et défendre la barrière:  il repoussa les Hiong-nou à une distance de plus de sept cents li+ (2:228f).

Chavannes, Edouard.  *La chronologie chinoise de l’an 238 à l’an 87 avant J.-C.+  T’oung Pao.  7 (1896) 1-38;  509-525.  DS 500 T45.  With tables.  Re Se-ma Ts’ien, calendars used.

Chavannes, Edouard.  *Les pays d’Occident d’après le Wei Lio.+  T’oung Pao.  NS 6 (1905) 519-571.  Wei lio = Tien lio.  Author:  Yu Houan, qv.

Chavannes, Edouard.  *Les pays d’Occident d’après le Heou Han chou.+  T’oung Pao.  NS 8 (1907) 149-234.  Biblio.  Excerpts dated AD 150-170;  material reflects history AD 25-125;  contemporary of Ptolemy, Marinus of Tyre (150).  Important for the Kushans (151).  Hsiung-nu serious rivals for China’s authority over Inner Asia.  See Authors file.

Chestnut, G.  *The Date of Composition of Theodoret’s Church History.+  Vigiliae Christianae.  35 (1981) 245-252.

Childe, Vere Gordon.  The Dawn of European Civilisation.  London:  Kegan Paul, 1925;  many reprints.  D 65 C5.  *The bell-beakers and the flat rivetless daggers and buttons with V perforations associated with them at Anghelu Ruju [in Sardinia] and in the sepulchral caves are not Minoan forms.  They constitute the manifestations of a single culture and occur similarly collocated in Upper Italy, South France, Britanny, Central Europe, and above all in Central Spain.  The authors of this culture were everywhere short-headed and everywhere sought out precious metals and copper ore+ (105f).  *Indeed at Outeiro da Assenta [in Portugal] a layer containing Late Iron Age remains — La Tène II fibula and the like — is immediately superimposed upon the chalcolithic stratum.  So at Chibannes no intermediate deposit separates the strata with beaker ware from those of Roman times+ (124).  *The bell-beaker folk … were not only warriors but … also prospectors and traders.  They opened up the Brenner route for the amber trade, so linking the Elbe valley to the Adriatic+ (187).

Childe, Vere Gordon.  *When did the Beaker-Folk Arrive?+  Archaeologia 74 (1925) 159-178.  DA 20 A64.  Maps, charts, ills.  Amber, passim.  *Archaeological and anthropologial data agree on deriving the Beaker-folk of Britain from a hybrid group that came immediately from the Rhineland+ (170).  *not much before 1900 BC+ (176).  Dates the beginning of Aunjetitz at 1750 BC, mature phase from 1600 B (176).

Childe, Vere Gordon.  The Danube in Prehistory.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1929;  1976.  GN 803 C55.  Lausitz, 321ff.  Ch 10 *The Bell Beakers+ 188-200, map.  *The people buried at Ciempozuelos [near Madrid] were markedly round-headed, and the same type appears, with others, in Catalonia, Sardinia, and Upper Italy.  The natural conclusion is that the bell beakers were diffused by a specific people+ (194).

Christensen, Arthur.  *L’Empire des Sassanides:  le peuple, l’Etat, la Cour.+  Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter, historisk og filosofisk afdeling // Mémoires de l’Académie des Sciences et des Lettres de Danemark.  7th series 1 (1907/1909) 1-120, plates with coins.  AS 281 D222.  *l’intolérance qui se fait remarquer aussitôt que, sous les Sassanides, le zarathoustrisme devient la religion d’Etat, est inconnue pendant la période parthe+ (17).

Christensen, Arthur.  *Sassanid Persia.+  Chapter 4 of The Imperial Crisis and Recovery, AD 193-324.  With Wilhelm Ensslin for 126-137.  Vol 12 of The Cambridge Ancient History.  Cambridge UP, 1939;  reprint 1965.  109-137;  note on the KZ 742.  Roba D 57 C25 1960.  *This powerful Church [of Zoroaster] was a very distinctive element in the civilisation of the Sassanian period+ (111).  In 283 *Hormizd, the Great King’s brother, who was then Governor of Khorassan, [...] gained the help of the Sacae, the Kushans and the Gelae+ (113).  Attributes the SKZ to Shahpur II, 742.

Christensen, Arthur.  L’Iran sous les Sassanides.  Copenhagen:  Munksgaard, 1944.  RomU DS 286 C554;  TRIN DS 275 C4.  Check for KZ.

Christiansen, Peder G.  *Claudian vs the Opposition.+  TAPA 97 (1966) 45-54.  Re:  De bello gothico.  Battle of Pollentia in AD 402, page 47.  Sources, 47n11.

Christiansen, Peder G.  *Claudian and the East.+  Historia 19 (1970) 113-120.  Interpretation of the division of the Empire.

Chronicle of Edessa.  Ed:  Guidi, Hallier.  See Authors file.  Article by Haase (date), review by Duval, and Praetorius (emendations).

Chronicle of Hydatius.  Under Hydatius.  Athaulf.

Chronica Gallica.  Ed:  Mommsen.  See Authors file.

Chronicon Paschale.  Text:  PG 92;  Batiffol, Conybeare, Dindorf, Gwatkin, Whitby.  Sensationalist bits on Julian.

Chrysologus, St. Peter.  Archbishop of Ravenna 400-450.  Collectio Sermonum.  Text:  PL 52:392;  NPNF 17;  Olivar (CCSL).  Studies:  Baxter, (Wilkins, Isaiah.bib).

Chrysostom, St. John.  Text:  Bareille, Baur, Festugière, Kelly, Liebeschutz, Montfaucon, Pargoire, Savile, Vanderspoel.  Studies:  Tiersch.

Chrysostom, St John.  Homilies on the Statues.  Date:  Easter season 387.  Stephens in NPNF.  Studies:  Brottier, Le Cour Grandmaison, Leroux, Paverd, Soffray.  Severe unrest, sedition, but cause unclear, taxes excessive, but why?  See Libanius.

Chrysostom, St. John.  Homily on Eutropius.  PG 52:392.  NPNF 9:245-265.  Compare with Claudian In Eutropium.

Chrysostom, St John.  Homilia in Juventinum et Maximinum martyres.  PG 50:571-578.  Martyrs under Julian, included in following.

Chrysostom, St John.  Liber in sanctum Babylam contra Julianum et contra Gentiles.  PG 50:533-578.

Chrysostom, St John.  Orationes ad Judaeos.  ‘5.  CPG 48:896-899.  Daniel’s vision, see Coleman-Norton.

Chrysostom, St John.  Homilies on Acts.  PG 60.  NPNF?  Delivered at CPL in 400/401.  See Cameron 1987 for date.  Mentions earthquake twice (pages 66 and 201).  Homily 37 (PG 60:267) refers to the massacre of the Goths in July 12, 400.

Ciancaglini, Claudia.  *Sciti, iranici, nomadi:  problemi di etnonimia in Strabone.+  In Studi sull’XI libro dei *Geographika+ di Strabone.  Ed:  Giusto Traina.  Università di Lecce, Studi di filologia e letteratura, 6.  2001.  11-83.  G 87 S95 S88.  Scyths.

Clark, Albert Curtis.  The Descent of Manuscripts.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1918;  reprint 1970.  PA 47 C45 Roba, Pims.  Anything to explain Alani vs Albani in Lucan?

Clark, Charles Upson.  The Text Tradition of Ammianus Marcellinus.  Ph.D. dissertation.  New Haven, CT:  1904.  WCat 25.

Clark, Charles Upson, ed.  Ammianus:  Res Gestae.  2 vols.  Berlin: …, 1910-1915.  Rev:  Baehrens 1925.  PA 6203 A2.

Clarke, Katherine.  Between Geography and History:  Hellenistic Constructions of the Roman World.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1999.  DG 77 C55.  Posidonius, Strabo, etc.

Claudian [Claudius Claudianus].  Text:  Barr, Birt (MGH AA 10), Cameron, Charlet, Crépin, Dewar, Fargues, Hall, Koch, Platnauer.  Nissard/Delatour PA 6169 A58.  Studies:  Haywood.  Invectives, studies:  Döpp, Opelt.

Claudian.  In Rufinum.  *Est genus extremos Scythiae vergentis in ortus // Trans gelidum Tanain, quo non animosus ullum // Arctos alit+ (In Rufinum liber primus verses 323-324).  1:323-331 for Huns, very important, mention of the Don and the Arctic, taken from Ammianus, see Cameron 1968 for emendations.  Written in the fall of 395, concerning crisis caused by Hun invasion of Eastern Provinces.  Mentions private soldiers, bodyguard, 2:76.  Rufinus and the Huns:  i,308, 309;  ii,9; 501;  ii,2701;  ii,28-36.  *… audax // Massagetes caesamque bibens Maeotin Alanus // membraque qui ferro gaudet pinxisse Gelonus+ (In Rufinum 1:311-313).

Claudian.  De consulatu Stil. I:51ff:  only mentions Stilico’s trip to Ctesiphon.

Claudian.  In Eutropium.  See Authors file for more.  Cameron says content nil but actually it does offer ethnographic data.  *Women of Cappadocia were driven into captivity across the river Phasis;  stolen from the stables of their homesteads, the captive herds drink the snowy streams of Caucasus, and the flocks exchange the pastures of Mount Argaeus for the woods of Scythia.  Beyond the Cimmerian marshes, defence of the Tauric tribes, the youth of Syria are slaves+ (1:242-250).  *extra Cimmerias, Taurorum claustra, paludes // flos Syria servit+ (1:249-250).  *Ce n’est pas sur le sommet du Riphée, qu’il faut chercher l’ennemi, ni des vallons du Caucase que doit partir l’orage… que les enfants de l’Ourse vengent les lois outragées+ (Budé 2:151ff).  *Seek not now thy foe on Riphaeus’ heights:  what boots it to rouse the storm of war amid Caucasia’s ravines?+ (Loeb 2:151-152).  *Que le Hun, que le Sarmate ébranle leurs remparts+ (2:338).  *Ce ne sont ni le Phase ni le Caucase qui, du sein de leurs frimas, vomissent contre moi des ennemis+ (2:574).

Codex Theodosianus.  Mommsen, Pharr.  From Levy:  Rufinus, as Praetorian Prefect *had charge of the conscription of recruits for the army+ (13/231), supported by Cod Theod 7,13,10).  The Emperors to *Addeus, Count and Master of Both Branches of the Military Services+ 1,7,2;  1,6,10, both dated AD 393.  Rufinus, Consul and Praetorian Prefect, 12,1,127;  8,6,2, AD 392.  *With the exception of the property of Our private domain and the Catholic churches and the household of Eusebius [...] and the household of Arsaces, King of Armenia, no person in accordance with our Order shall be assisted by especial advantages for his family property+ Jan 18, 360, 11,1,1.

Coedès, Georges.  Textes d’auteurs grecs et latins relatifs à l’Extrême-Orient.  Paris:  Leroux, 1910;  reprint Hildesheim:  Olms, 1977;  Zug:  Microform, 1983.  MICR DS C 645 mfc.

Coffin, Harrison C.  *Vergil and Orosius.+  Classical Journal.  31 (1935/36) 235-241.

Coleman-Norton, P. R.  *The Authorship of the Epistula De Gentibus Indiae et Bragmanibus.+  Classical Philology.  21 (1926) 154-160.  Report on a journey to India by Palladius of Helenopolis.

Coleman-Norton, P. R.  *St. Chrysostom’s Use of Josephus.+  Classical Philology.  26 (1931) 85-89.  Daniel’s vision, 87.

Coman, Joan.  *Saint Basile et l’Eglise de Gothie.+  Patristics and Byzantine Review.  3 (1984) 54-68.  # per.bib.  Check AnPhil, the print edition.

Coman, Ioan G [Jean?].  Patrologie.  2 vols.  Bucarest, 1984.  BR 67 C65.  All in Rumanian, some biblio, no reprints.

Conduché, Dominique.  *Ammien Marcellin et la mort de Julien.+  Latomus 24 (1965) 359-380.  *la paix [de Jovien] est bâclée tout au profit de l’ennemi, ce qui permet à l’empereur et à ses troupes de réintégrer le territoire romain d’où ils seront prêts à défendre les frontières du Rhin et du Danube si nécessaire+ (371).

Constantin, Gheorghe I.  *Were the Hiung-nu Türks or Mongols?+  Studia et acta orientalis.  1 (1958) 317-323.  DS 1 S784.  Vocabulary study:  Tumen, et.

Conybeare, Frederick Cornwallis.  *The Date of Moses of Khoren.+  ByzZ. 10 (1901) 489-504.  Contra Carrière, confirms AD 460 for his Histories.  Eg Moses has never heard of the Muslim conquest (502).

Conybeare, Frederick Cornwallis.  *The Relation of the Paschal Chronicle to Malalas.+  BZ 11 (1902) 395-405.  Re:  Moses of Khoren.  Bishop Magnus wrote the Chronology of 354 for Constantius II (403ff).

Cornelius, E.  *Tacitus and Orosius.+  Revue de philologie.  . . . (1891).  Contemporary debate on Tacitus.  Vol incomplete?  Check GenR.

Corpus inscriptionum graecorum.  Vol 2.  Pars XI *Inscriptiones Sarmatiae+ 80-170.  1828.  CN 360 C6.  S/xerox.  Studies:  Koeppen, Schmidt. Inscription of Protogenes, ‘2058, 192 lines.  For Galatae and Sciri at Olbia, see Reynolds and Lopez.

Corpus inscriptionum graecorum.  CN 360 C6.  *Atticarum+ 3:716 for Dexippus.

Corpus inscriptionum latinorum.  14:3608 (Dessau ILS 986).  Inscription of Plautus Silvanus at Tivoli.  See under Silvanus.

Corsini, Eugenio.  Introduzione alle *Storie+ de Orosio.  Turin:  Giappichelli, 1968.  D 17 O74 C6.  Rev:  Duval Latomus (1969).

Cosmas Indicopleustes.  Christian Topography.  Text:  Montfaucon, reprinted in PG 88;  McCrindle, Winstedt, Wolska.  Studies:  Anastos, Mirchandani.  DATE???  Four references to the White Huns (Leukoi Hounnoi), see Authors file.

Coster, Charles Henry.  *Synesius, a Curialis of the Time of Emperor Arcadius.+  Byzantion 15 (1940/41) 10-38.

Coster, Charles Henry.  *Christianity and the Invasions:  Two Sketches.+  CJ 54 (1958/59) 146-159.  Paulinus of Nola, Rutilius.  Orosius on Stilico, 154.

Coster, Charles Henry.  *Christianity and the Invasions:  Synesius of Cyrene.+  CJ 55 (1959/60) 290-312.

Couderc, Camille.  *Godefroy, Jacques.+  La Grande Encyclopédie.  18:1146-1147.  With list of his considerable publications, including editions of Libanius and Julian.

Coulie, Bernard.  29 AnPhil, 19 hits on UTLink.

Coulie, Bernard.  *Chaînes d’allusions dans les discours IV et V de Grégoire de Nazianze.+  JOeByz 32 (1982) 137-143.  Julian.

Coulie, Bernard.  *Style et traduction:  réflexions sur les versions arméniennes de textes grecs.+  Revue des études arméniennes.  25 (1994/95) 43-62.   DS 161 R3.

Coulie, Bernard.  *La lemmatisation des textes grecs et byzantins:  une approche particulière de la langue et des auteurs.+  Byzantion 66 (1990) 35-54.  Text transmission, cataloging.

Couling, Samuel.  The Encyclopaedia Sinica.  Oxford UP, 1917.  EAs DS 733 C7 1917.

Courcelle, Pierre.  Les lettres grecques en Occident:  De Macrobe à Cassiodore.  BEFAR, 159.  Paris:  Boccard, 1943.  ROBA D 5 B4;  PIMS BQ 430 C7.  Biblio.  *Saint Jérôme et l’hellénisme chrétien+ 37-115.  Jerome used Porphyry extensively (61).  *Jérôme est aussi le seul Occidental qui ait lu plusieurs oeuvres de l’autre grand exégète du III siècle:  Hippolyte.  Quoiqu’Hippolyte fût lui-même un Occidental, c’est sûrement par l’Orient que Jérôme a connu cet écrivain de langue grecque+ (101).

Courcelle, Pierre.  Histoire littéraire des grandes invasions germaniques.  Paris, 1948;  3rd edition Paris:  Etudes augustiniennes, 1964.  D 135 C68.

Courcelle, Pierre.  *Sur quelques textes littéraires relatifs aux grandes invasions.+  Revue belge.  31 (1953) 23-47.

Courtois, Christian.  *Les politiques navales dans l’empire romain.+  RH 186 (1939) 17-47;  225-259.  Au Haut Empire, la Med est vidée de bateaux, les flottes fluviales sont beaucoup plus importantes, les flottes de transport aident la défense (225f).  La flotte romaine sur le Danube prend part à la 2e expédition de Constance II contre les Sarmates (Amm 19,11,8) (246ff).  Au témoignage de la Not Dig, la frontière danubienne était gardée par 15 flottes (247).  Mais cette organisation militaire a dû s’écrouler sous le choc des barbares (249).  *La flotte minimale de Carthage pouvait bien être de l’ordre de 1,000 ou 1,500 navires+ (256).

Courtois, Christian.  *Auteurs et scribes:  remarques sur la Chronique d’Hydace.+  Byzantion 21 (1951) 23-54.

Courtonne, Yves, ed.  Lettres:  Basile de Césarée.  3 vols.  Paris:  BL, 1957-1961-1966.  BR 65 B32 C6.  Vol 1:  letters 1-100;  vol 2:  101-218;  vol 3:  219-366.  *ordre chronologique … de Dom Maran+ (1:v).  Index of names, vol 3.

Cowley, A.  *Another Unknown Language from Eastern Turkestan.+  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.  1911:159-166, plates.  DS 1 R55, 10th Apex, some vols missing.  Relevant for Ancient Sogdian Letters.  Texts in Aramaic script found by Stein on ancient Chinese limes in Tun-huang.  *regularly garrisoned from the beginning of the first century BC down to the last half of the first century AD+ (160).  Allusion to change of status during fourth century AD:  no longer a limes after the Chyonitae gain control of region;  important for trade routes.  See Gauthiot and Hoernle for responses.

Cribb, Joe.  *Numismatic Evidence for Kushano-Sasanian Chronology.+  Studia Iranica.  19 (1990) 151-198, 8 pl.  DS 251 S78.  Biblio.  *This set of relationship places the last Kushan kings in the time of Shahpur II and his Gupta contemporary Samudragupta [king of India, c. 335-375]+ (175).  Re:  Priscus.  *I find it difficult to relate the coins in question to these references about a hundred years later than the coins and in an area remote from their place of issue.  Although I have put forward a hypothesis which identifies and links together these rulers Kirada, Peroz (III) and Kidara, distinct from the main Kushano-Sasanian kings, and from their Kushan contemporaries, I still feel there is insufficient evidence either to identify them as Sasanian or Kushan or to link them with the Huns.+ (181)

Cribb, Joe.  *Numismatic Perspectives on Chronology in the Crossroads of Asia.+  In Gandharan Art in Context:  East-West Exchanges at the Crossroads of Asia.  Ed:  Frank Raymond Allchin, et al.  New Delhi:  Regency Publications, 1997.  215-230.  N 7291 G36.

Criscuolo, Ugo.  *Sull’epistola di Guliano imperatore al filosofo Temistio.+  Koinonia 7 (1985) 89-111.  PA 9 K64.

Croissant, Jeanne.  *Un nouveau discours de Thémistius.+  In Serta Leodiensia.  Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l’Université de Liège, 44.  Liège and Paris, 1930.  7-30.  BX 4705 M324 H3.  Cf Julian’s epistle to Themistius.  See Bouyges (Nevsky.bib) for notes on text which only survives in Arabic.  See also Julian’s Epistle to Themistius.  *C’est un petit traité théorique de philosophie politique, que l’auteur dit avoir écrit sur les instances du Souverain [Julien l'Apostat], désireux de lui entendre exposer les qualités que doit posséder un chef d’Etat+ (9).  Political ideas only.

Croke, Brian, ed., tr.  The Chronicle of Marcellinus.  Sidney: Australian Association for Byzantine studies, 1995.  Pims DF 550 M37.

Croke, Brian.  Count Marcellinus and his Chronicle.  Oxford:  UP, 2001.  DF 556 C76.

Crump, G. A.  *Ammianus and the Late Roman Army.+  Historia 22 (1973) 91-103.

Cumont, Franz.  Julien.  See Bidez.

Cumont, Franz, bibliography.  In Hommage à Joseph Bidez et Franz Cumont.  Latomus, 2.  Brussels, 1949.  DE 3.5 H6.

Cunningham, Maurice P., ed.  Prudentius:  Opera.  CCSL, 126.  Turnhout:  Brepolis, 1966.  Pims, etc.

Curran, John.  *From Jovian to Theodosius.+  Chapter 3 of The Late Empire, AD 337-425.  Vol 13 of The Cambridge Ancient History.  Cambridge UP, 1998.  78-110.  Roba D 57 C25 1970.

Cyril, St., Patriarch of Alexandria, St [fifth cent].  Opera.  Text:  PG 68-77 (Aubert, augm);  Durand, McGuckin, Pusey…  BR 65 C9524.  Tr:  McCauley and Stephenson.  Christological controversy, Trinitarian, Nestorianism, exegesis of St Luke.  Isaiah.bib;  Slavon.bib;  Izbornik.bib.

Cyril of Alexandria.  Commentarius in Isaiam prophetam.  Text:  Aubert (PG 70:9-1450).  See Procopius of Gaza.

Cyril of Alexandria.  Commentarius in Lucam.  Text:  Aubert (PG 72:475-959).  Emmaus.

Cyril of Alexandria.  Lexicon.  Ed:  Latte.  Slavon.bib.

Cyril of Alexandria.  Letters.  Tr:  McEnerney.

Cyril of Alexandria.  Adversus Julianum imperatorem libri decem.  Text:  Spanheim with tr by Aubert and Nicolas Borbon (PG 76:489-1064);  Burguière (SC);  Nestle.  Studies:  Grant.  History of text:  Moureaux.  Refutation and source of Julian’s Against the Galileans.

Dabbs, Jack Autry.  The History of the Discovery and the Exploration of Chinese Turkestan.  The Hague:  Mouton, 1963.  DS 793 S62 D3.  Aurel Stein, Paul Pelliot, etc.

Dagron, Gilbert.  *L’empire romain d’Orient au IVe siècle et les traditions politiques de l’hellénisme:  le témoignage de Thémistios.+  Travaux et mémoires.  3 (1968) 1-242.  Discours politiques: 16-24.  Biblio: 27-33.  Panégyriques:  I, VII, XV.  *Le règne de Théodose Ier [...] marque l’apogée de la carrière politique de Thémistios+ (11).  Notes in Nevsky.bib.

Damsté, P. H.  *Adversaria critica.+  Mnemosyne 55 (1927) 241-259;  58 (1930) 1.  Ammianus.

Daniel, Book of.  Chapter 7, commentary on the Four Monarchies.  BS 1555.  Comm:  Jerome, Charles.

Dardel, Robert de.  A la recherche du protoroman.  Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie, 275.  Tübingen:  Max Niemeyer, 1996.  PC 3 Z52.  Biblio.  Hun, Chun, Ion, etc.

Daur, Klaus-D., ed.  *Consultatio sive commonitorum Orosii ad Augustinum de errore Priscillianistarum et Origenistarum.+  In Sancti Aurelii Augustini Opera.  CCSL, 9.  Turnhout:  Brepols, 1985.  9th Apex.

Dautremer, Léon.  Ammien Marcellin:  étude d’histoire littéraire.  Lille:  Le Bigot, 1899.  PA 6205 D38.  Biblio.

Davids, Johannes Alphons.  De Orosio et sancto Augustino Priscillianistarum adversariis commentatio historica et philologica.  Ph.D. Rotterdam, 1930.  The Hague:  Govers, 1930.  PIMS BQ 5710 A5 D3.

de Boor, Carl Gotthard.  *Zu Iohannes Antiochenus.+  Hermes 20 (1885) 321-330.  Julian, 329.  Socrates, HE 3,22 re Julian, source of John (330).  John may also have used Eunapius on Julian (330).

De Bruyne, Donatien.  *Quelques lettres inédites de saint Jérôme.+  Revue bénédictine.  27 (1910) 1-11. PIMS.  All dated to ca AD 417, re Pelagius.

De Bruyne, Donatien.  *La correspondance échangée entre Augustin et Jérôme.+  Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft.  31 (1932) 233-248.  VUEM?

Décsy, Gyula.  The Turkic Protolanguage:  A Computational Reconstruction.  Bibliotheca Nostratica, 9.  Bloomington:  Eurolingua, 1998.

Décsy, Gyula.  *The Alanic Tribe Name Roxolani/Rhôxolanoi.+  ESY 73 (2001) 151.  Suggests ruaks *firestorm+ as etymon.  Elsewhere mentions Rava the Mordvin name of this river.

Deferrari, Roy Joseph, ed.  St Basil of Caesarea:  The Letters.  Loeb.  4 vols.  1928-1934.  BR 65 B32 D4, Roba;  Pims BR 65 D4.  With maps, index of Scriptures, proper names, vol 4.

Deferrari, Roy Joseph, et al.  A Concordance of Lucan.  Washington:  CUAP, 1940.  PA 6480 D45.

Deferrari, Roy Joseph, tr.  Paulus Orosius:  The Seven Books of History Against the Pagans.  Washington DC:  Catholic University of America, 1964.  D 17 O653.

de Groot, Jan Jakob Maria.  Chinesische Urkunden zur Geschichte Asiens.  Vol 1:  Die Hunnen der vorchristlichen Zeit.  Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, phil-hist Kl., …  2 vols.  Berlin:  W. de Gruyter, 1921-1926.  RomF DS 2 G76;  MICR DS G747 mfe.  Check AS 182 B34.  Vol 1 contains Ssima Tsien ‘110, ‘123.

Deguignes, Joseph [Joseph de Guignes].  Histoire générale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongols et autres Tartares occidentaux, ouvrage tiré des livres chinois.  Paris:  Dessaint et Saillant, 1756-1758.  MICR G 853 mfm.

Deguignes, Joseph [Joseph de Guignes].  *…+  Mémoires de l’Académie des Inscriptions.  25 (1759) 17-33.

Dekkers, Eligius.  Clavis patrum latinorum.  CCSL.  Bruges:  Reyaert, 1951/1995.  PIMS BQ 310 C81;  ROBA?  History of ms and editions, organized by author.

De la Berge, Victor C.  Essai sur le règne de Trajan.  BEPHE, 32.  Paris:  Vieweg, 1872.  By AD 106, Trajan had conquered and organized Roman Dacia (only a part of the whole Dacia), 54ff.

Delatour, M., tr.  *Claudien:  Oeuvres complètes.+  In Lucain, Silius Italicus, Claudien:  Oeuvres complètes.  Collection des auteurs latins.  Ed:  M. Nissard.  Paris:  Firmin-Didot, 1862.  497-749.  PA 6169 A58.  Have citations.

De la Ville de Mirmont, Henri.  *Le mont Armonius.+  Revue de philologie.  15 (1891) 84-85.  Ammianus xxii,8,17.  Armonius should be Acmonius, as per Apollonius Rhodius.

Delehaye, Hippolyte.  *Passio S. Sabae Gothi.+  AB 31 (1912) 216-221.  PIMS.  In *Saints de Thrace et de Mésie+ 161-300.  Contains edition of text.

Delehaye, Hippolyte.  Les origines du culte des martyrs.  1912.  2nd edition, revised Brussels:  Bollandistes, 1933.  PIMS;  SMC BQX 8215 D34;  ROBA Old Class. H Eccl D.  Aetherios of Crimea, 254.

Demandt, Alexander.  *Der Tod des älteren Theodosius.+  Historia 18 (1969) 598-626.  Maximinus, 617, important.

Demandt, Alexander.  *Die Feldzüge des älteren Theodosius.+  Hermes 100 (1972) 81-115.  Biblio, timeline.

Demandt, Alexander, and Guntram Brummer.  *Der Prozess gegen Serena im Jahre 408 n. Chr.+  Historia 26 (1977) 479-502.  Note:  consider that the sources are pagan.

Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie.  *Porphyre.+  GRBS 12 (1971) 49-57.

Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie.  *Un aspect de la polémique païenne à la fin du IIIe siècle:  le vocabulaire chrétien de Porphyre.+  VCh 26 (1972) 117-129.  Pims.  Porphyre *utilise le vocabulaire chrétien … avec une extrême réserve+ (128).

Demiéville, Paul.  Review of Bazin 1948.  T’oung Pao 39 (1950) 356-357.

Demougeot, Emilienne.  *Le préfet Rufin et les barbares.+  Annuaire de l’Institut de philologie et d’histoire orientales et slaves.  Mélanges Grégoire, 2.  10 (1950) 185-191.  PJ 4 B7.  Claudien *outrances calomnieuses+ (191).  Rufin *embaucha ainsi dans sa garde du corps des Chuni qui, lors de l’attentat de l’Hebdomon, le défendirent jusqu’à la mort+ (190).

Demougeot, Emilienne.  De l’unité à la division de l’empire romain.  Paris, 1951.  Roba DG 312 D4;  PIMS DG 332 D4.

Demougeot, Emilienne.  *Saint Jérôme, les oracles sibyllins et Stilicon.+  Revue des études anciennes.  4 (1952) 83-92.  PA 2 R4.  Excellent.

Demougeot, Emilienne.  *L’idéalisation de Rome face aux barbares.+  REA 70 (1968) 401f.

Demougeot, Emilienne.  *Modalités d’établissement des fédérés barbares de Gratien et de Théodose.+  In Mélanges William Seston.  Paris, 1974.  113-129.  DG 213 M4.

Den Boer, W.  Some Minor Roman Historians.  Leiden:  Brill, 1972.  DG 205 B62.  Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, Festus.

Denk, Jos.  *Orosius 5,27.+  Archiv für lateinische Lexikographie und Grammatik.  11 (1896) …  Rev:  RPhil 23 (1899).  Eques = equus.

Deny, Jean, et al.  Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta.  Wiesbaden:  F. Steiner, 1959.  PL 21 A4.

Deroy, Louis.  L’emprunt linguistique.  Bibliothèque de la Faculté de philosophie et de littérature de Liège, 141.  1956.  PQ 1441 C43 A4.  Consult for Türki loan words.

Descriptio totius mundi.  See Expositio totius mundi.  The Descriptio is the shorter version, edited by Sinko, with reference to the Ioneum, Choneum.  Cf Rougé’s version.  For later Greek derivative, see Klotz.

Destrez, Jean and Guy Errera Fink.  *Des manuscrits apparemment datés.+  Scriptorium 12 (1958) 56-93.

Detlefsen, Sönnich Detlef Friedrich.  *Vermuthungen über Varros Schrift de Ora maritima (Untersuchungen zu den geographischen Büchern des Plinius, 2).+  Hermes 21 (1886) 240-265.

Detlefsen, Sönnich Detlef Friedrich.  *Zu Plinius Naturalis historia:  Die Ausschreiber der ersten Bücher und Verbesserung zu Buch II.+  Hermes 32 (1897) 321-340.  Solinus, Dicuil, Capella, who all drew upon Pliny.

Detlefsen, Sönnich Detlef Friedrich.  Die geographischen Bücher (II, 242- VI – Schluss) der Naturalis Historia des C. Plinius Secundus mit vollständigem kritischen Apparat.  Berlin, 1904;  reprint Rome:  L’Erma di Breitschneider, 1972.  PA 6611 A6 (1904).  Capital, this is an edition.  Check Scythia.

Detlefsen, Sönnich Detlef Friedrich.  Die Anordnung der geographischen Bücher des Plinius und ihre Quellen.  Berlin, 1909;  reprint Rome:  L’Erma di Breitschneider, 1972.  G 85 P5 D5.  Agrippa, 11-16.  *Die Scythen+ 121-124.

Devine, Albert M.  *Arrian’s Tactica.+  Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt.  2:34,1 (1993) 312-337.  PIMS DG 209 T36.

Devresse, Robert.  Le Patriarcat d’Antioche depuis la paix de l’Eglise jusqu’à la conquête arabe.  Paris:  Gabalda, 1945.  See Honigmann 1947.

Dewar, Michael, ed.  Claudian:  Panegyricus de sexto consulatu Honorii augusti.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1991.  PA 6373 E5 P34.  Authors file.

Dewing, Henry Bronson, ed, tr.  Procopius:  Complete Works.  7 vols.  Loeb Classical Library.  London:  Heinemann, 1914-1940.  PA 5340 A2.  Check for White Huns of Central Asia, and Huns of Maeotis.

Dexippus, P. Herennius [210-273].  Chronica.  Check PA 3965 D123 Z7.  Text:  Bekker, Böhme, Dindorf, Müller (FGH 3:66-687), Niebuhr.  Studies:  Blockley, Buck, Millar.  Continued by Eunapius who claims Huns almost unknown.

Dexippus, P. Herennius.  Scythica.  History of the Gothic wars of the mid third century.

Deydier, Henri.  *La date de Kanishka, l’art du Gandhara et la chronologie du Nord ouest de l’Inde.+  JA 249 (1951) 133-152.  Review of Lohuizen.

Diakov, VN.  *L’occupation romaine de la Tauride.+  VDI … (1941) 87-.   Cited Belin 170n1.

Dicks, David R.  *The Klimata in Greek Geography.+  Classical Quarterly.  49 (1955) 248-255.

Dicks, David R.  Review Strabo.  Classical Review.  21 (1971) 188-194.  More incuna.bib.

Didymus the Blind [330-390].  PG 39.  For study of allegorical method, see Binder, Tygcheler.  For Comm on Job, see Text Transmission.

Diekamp, Franz.  *Zu Theodorus Lektor.+  Historisches Jahrbuch.  24 (1903) 553-558.  P Hist G 1 (1880) – 18 (1897) and D1 H76.

Diekamp, Franz.  *Die Wahl Gregors von Nyssa zum Metropoliten von Sebaste im Jahre 380.+  Theologische Quartalschrift.  90 (1908) 384-401.  PER VUEM, SMC.  For chronology of events, see Zuckermann.

Diekamp, Franz.  *Gelasius von Caesaria.+  …  Orientalia Christiana Analecta.  117 (1938) 16-49.  ROBA BX 101 O7 Z28;  PIMS ST BQX 5402 07.

Diesner, Hans-Joachim.  *Orosius und Augustinus.+  AAA Sc Hung.  11 (1963) 89-102.  CC 1 A19.  *Die älteste christliche Weltchronik [...] sind die Chronographiai des Sextus Julius Africanus zum Beginn des dritten Jhs.;  von ihr hängen die Chronik des Hippolytus von Rom, der 235 starb, und die Chronikoi kanones des Eusebius ab.  Letztere wurden von Hieronymus übersetzt und erweitert und boten sich der Benutzung durch Augustin und Orosius an.  Sulpicius Severus [...] steht etwas mehr am Rande der Entwicklung…+ (91).

Dihle, Albrecht.  *Serer und Chinesen.+  In his Antike und Orient:  Gesammelte Aufsätze.  Heidelberg:  Winter, 1984.  201-215.  CB 311 D513 1984.  Posidonius.  Important:  oriental studies.

Dilke, Oswald Ashton Wentworth.  Claudian.  Leeds UP, 1969.  PA 6374 D55.  Orosius calls Claudian a pagan.  See emacore.bib and incuna.bib for works of cartography by this author.

Dillemann, Louis.  *Ammien Marcellin et la géographie des pays de l’Euphrate et du Tigre.+  Syria:  Revue d’art oriental et d’archéologie.  38 (1961) 87-158.  DS 94.5 S8.  Discursive.  *Hommes de bibliothèque, [les commentateurs d'Ammianus] ont minimisé l’importance des sources orales+ (90).

Diller, Aubrey.  *Geographical Latitudes in Eratosthenes, Hipparchus and Posidonius.+  Klio 27 (1934) 258-269.

Diller, Aubrey.  The Tradition of the Minor Greek Geographers.  Philological Monographs of the American Philological Association, 14.  1952.  G 84 D5.  Reviews 1953: CW, AC, RBPH.  Scymnus.

Diller, Aubrey.  The Textual Tradition of Strabo’s *Geography+.  With appendix:  The manuscripts of Eustathius’ Commentary on Dionysius Periegetes.  Amsterdam:  Hakkert, 1975.  G 87 S95 D54.  Biblio.  Editions of Strabo, 167-179 (including fragments).  *The earliest trace of Strabo’s Geography is found in the didactic poem of Dionysius Periegetes…+ (7).  Check for Cyriacus of Ancona, Aldus Manutius.

DiMaio, Michael.  *The Antiochene Connection:  Zonaras, Ammianus Marcellinus and John of Antioch on the Reigns of the Emperors Constantius II and Julian.+  Byzantion 50 (1980) 158-185.

DiMaio, Michael.  *The Antiochene Connection.+  Byzantion 51 (1981) 502-510.

DiMaio, Michael.  *Smoke in the Wind:  Zonaras’ Use of Philostorgius, Zosimus, John of Antioch, and John of Rhodes in his Narrative of the Neo-Flavian Emperors.+  Byzantion 58 (1988) 230-255.

Dindorf, Ludwig August, ed.  Chronicon paschale ad exemplar Vaticanum.  CSHB, 4-5.  2 vols.  Bonn:  Weber, 1832.

Dindorf, Ludwig August, ed, tr.  Ioannis Zonarae Epitome historiarum.  Cum Caroli Ducangii suisque annotationibus.  6 vols.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1868-1875.  VUPT PA 3404 Z7;  Roba PA 5395 Z67.  Vol 5:  Appendices.  Vol 6:  notes, index, Schmidt, *Quellen+.

Dindorf, Ludwig August, ed.  Historii graeci minores.  2 vols.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1870-1871.  VUPT storage PA 40 H629gD V.01;  also mfm.  Dexippus in vol 1.

Dindorf, Wilhelm, ed.  Themistii orationes.  With notes by Petau and Hardouin.  CSHB, …  Bonn:  Weber, 1832;  reprint Hildesheim:  Olms, 1961.  PA 4441 T5.

Dio Chrysostom of Prusa.  perì basileías.  Panégyrique de Trajan.  See Krapinger.  Dacia, Scythia?

Dion, Roger.  *Le Danube d’Hérodote.+  Revue de philologie.  3rd series 42 (1968) 7-41.  Out to lunch over Pyrene.

Dion, Roger.  Aspects politiques de la géographie antique.  Paris:  BL, 1977.  G 86 D56.

Dionysius Alexandrinus Periegetes.  Fl under Hadrian 117-138.  Periegesis.  Ed:  Bernhardy in his Geographi graeci minores, 2,xv-xl; 103-176.  Tr:  Jacob.  Thomson 228f.  Bunbury, notes on the Huns in text.  See Authors file.

Dionysius Exiguus.  Signatures at PL 381.  PL 67;  Mansi 3:568-572.

Dittenberger, W.  *Ethnika und Verwandtes.+  Hermes 41 (1906) 78-102;  160-219.  Derivation and syntax.  *Skythikós von Skýthês, nicht von Skythía+ (198).  *das Skythikòn tóxon der Bogen, den die Skýthai führen+ (205).

Dittenberger, W.  *Ethnika und Verwandtes.+  Hermes 42 (1907) 1-34;  161-234.

Divisio orbis terrarum.  Text:  Riese, HX?  *ab oriente Alania est, in medio Dacia, ubi et Gothia;  deinde Germania est, ubi plurimum partem Suevi tenent.  Quorum omnium sunt gentes LIIII.+ (p. 62, lines 18-19, ’21).  Cites Tacitus, Germania.

Divjak, Johannes.  *Biblio Hieronymiana manuscripta.+  Scriptorium 30 (1975) 85.

Divjak, Johannes, ed.  Sancti Aureli Augustini opera:  Epistula ex duobus codicibus nuper in lucem prolatae.  CSEL, 88.  Vienna, 1981.  BR 60 C6.  ’19 to Jerome, re:  Orosius, Pelagius.  ‘ 27 Jerome’s letter to Aurelius of Carthage.

Divjak, Johannes.  Les lettres de saint Augustin découvertes par Johannes Divjak.  Colloque 20-21 sept. 1982.  Paris:  Etudes augustiniennes, 1983.  ROBA BR 65 A9 L4;  Pims BQ 5737 L48.

Dodgeon, M. H., and Samuel N C Lieu.  The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars (AD 226-363):  A Documentary History.  London:  Routledge, 1991.  DG 271 R56.

Döpp, Sigmar.  Zeitgeschichte in Gedichten Claudians.  Hermes Einzelschrift, 43.  1980.  Invectives.

Dörrie, Heinrich.  Porphyre.  Entretiens de la Fondation Hardt, 12.  Vandoeuvres-Genève, 1966.  Pims, Roba B 697 Z7 P67.

Doise, Jean.  *Le partage de l’Arménie sous Théodose I.+  Revue des études anciennes.  47 (1945) 274-277.  PA 2 R4.  Disagrees with those who like Baynes place it in 387.  *négotiations lentes… le partage fut effectué en 384 pour devenir définitif en 389, selon Marquardt, en 390 selon Nöldeke+ (277).

Dombart, B., and A. Kalb, eds.  Augustini de civitate dei.  2 vols  CCSL.  Turnhout:  Brepolis, 1955.

Donalson, Malcom Drew.  A Translation of Jerome’s *Chronicon+ with Historical Commentary.  Lewiston:  Mellen UP, 1996.  BR 65 J473 C4713.  Biblio (typos).  AD 332:  *The Romans defeated the Goths in the territory of the Sarmatians+ (41).  AD 334 *Sarmatae Argragantes…+ mistranslated, see Helm (41).  AD 359 (241i) *Almost all the churches in the whole world were polluted under the pretence of peace and the partnership of the king of the Arians+ (49).  AD 377:  *The race of the Huns devastated the land of the Goths+ (56).  With reprint of Helm.

Donis, Nicolaus de [Donnus Nicolaus Germanus], ed.  Claudius Ptolemaeus.  [Cosmographia].  Tr:  Jacobus Angelo.  Ulm:  Lienhart Holle, 1482.  Incunabula Short Title Catalogue ‘ip01084000;  available online and in microform.  Reprint Amsterdam:  Theatrum orbis terrarum, 1963.  Metro Ref fo 912 T3374 1st series, vol 2. The 1963 edition is a facsimile reproduction with introduction by R. A. Skelton, based on copies held by the Stadt-Bibliothek Nürnberg and the Stadtbibliotheek at Bruges.  See Rylands who considers this the only good edition of Ptolemy.

Downey, Glanville.  *The Perspective of the Early Church Historians.+  GRBS 6 (1965) 68.

Downey, Glanville, ed.  Themistii Orationes quae supersunt.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1965.  PA 4441 T5.  See Schenkl.

Dowsett, C. J. F.  The History of the Caucasian Albanians.  London Oriental series, 8.  Oxford:  UP, 1961.  DK 511 A4 M613.

Drake, Harold A.  In Praise of Constantine:  A Historical Study and New Translation of Eusebius’ Tricennial Orations.  University of California Publications, Classical Studies, 15.  Berkeley, 1976.  DG 315 D73.  Anything on Council of Nicaea?

Drews, Robert.  *The Earliest Greek Settlements on the Black Sea.+  JHS 96 (1976) 18-31.  Biblio.  Classical period, and earlier.  Mining, iron.

Drijvers, Jan Willem.  See Groningen Commentary.

Drijvers, Jan Willem.  *Arsaces.+  In The Late Roman World and its Historian:  Interpreting Ammianus Marcellinus.  Ed:  JW Drijvers and David Hunt.  London:  Routledge, 1999.  193-206.  DG 206 A4 L37.

Drouin, Edmond Alphonse.  *Bactriane.+  In La grande encyclopédie.  31 vols.  Paris, 1886-1902.  4:1115-1122.  Biblio.  *Le pays des Indo-Scythes dont Ptolémée fait la description dans le VIIe livre de sa Géographie (écrite vers 150 de J-C) n’est pas autre chose que le royaume des Yué-tchi ou Kouchans+ (4:1120).

Drouin, Edmond Alphonse.  *Huns et Hioung-nou.+  In La grande encyclopédie.  Paris, 1886-1902.  20:405-411.  GenR AE 25 G62.  *Les Huns n’apparaissent en réalité dans l’histoire [occidentale] que vers 375, au moment où, franchissant le Tanaïs (le Don) qui leur servait de limite, ils se jettent en Germanie et sur l’empire romain+ (20:406).  *Les mêmes Huns [...] ravagent de nouveau l’Arménie, la Mésopotamie, la Syrie qui leur sont livrées par la fourberie de l’hyparche Rufin et du stratélate Adée+ dit Josué le Stylite (qui écrivait en 515).  Les Huns se présentèrent devant Ctésiphon, mais ils furent repoussés par Bahram IV (396)+ (20:407).

Drouin, Edmond Alphonse.  *Huns blancs.+  In La grande encyclopédie.  Paris, 1886-1902.  20:411.

Drouin, Edmond.  Review of Smith and Hoernle, 1889.  JA 8th series 16 (1890) 360-369.  *Les auteurs byzantins (Cosmas et Procope) leur donnent le nom de Huns blancs (Leukoi Hounnoi).  De leur côté, les chroniques indiennes désignent ces peuples envahisseurs venus du nord-ouest sous le nom particulier de Hûnas+ (364f).  *la liste du sceau serait [...] une liste de descendance et non de succession+ (391).

Droysen, Hans, ed.  Evtropi Breviarivm ab vrbe condita cvm versionibvs graecis et Pavli Landolfiqve additamentis.  MGH Auctorum antiquissimorum, 2.  1879.  Includes Eutropius (with parallel Greek translation) 8-182, with additions by Paul.

Du, Yachen, rev.  Sima Qian, translation by Yaxiong Du and Izabella Horvath.  ESY 76 (2004) 81-83.  Includes corrections of Watson’s English translation.

Du, Yaxiong, and Izabella Horvath, trs.  Sima Qian:  A hunok legkorábbi története.  A Shiji 100. kötete.  [Ssima-Tsien:  the 100th volume of the Shiji.]  Budapest;  Magyar Ház, 2000.  Rev: Yachen Du.  Parallel text, Chinese and Hungarian.

DuCange, Charles.  See Dindorf.

Duchesne, Louis.  Histoire ancienne de l’Eglise.  Paris: Fontemoing, 1906-1925.  ROBA BR 162 D82;  PIMS BQX 243 D8.  Orosius, vol 3.

Dübner, Friedrich, and Carl Müller, eds.  Arriani Anabasis et Indica:  Reliqua Arriani et scriptorum de rebus Alexandri.  2 vols in 1.  Paris:  Ambroise Firmin-Didot, 1846.  PA 3935 1846. *Acies contra Alanos+ 1:250-253.  Greek with Latin translation.

Dueck. Daniela.  Strabo of Amasia:  A Greek Man of Letters in Augustan Rome.  London:  Routledge, 2000.  G 87 S95 D84.  Biblio, history of text.  Latin sources, 88-96.  Strabo probably used the Commentaries of Agrippa and the Res gestae divi Augusti.

Duff, John Wight, and Arnold MacKay Duff, eds.  Minor Latin Poets.  Loeb.  2 vols.  Harvard UP, 1934;  new edition 1982.  PA 6121 A4.  Biblio.  Namatianus *the crime of cursed Stilicho in that he was the betrayer of the Empire’s secret [...] he let loose the arms of the Barbarians to the death of Latium;  he plunged an armed foe in the naked entrails of the land+ (Verses 2:41-46, in 1982 edition 2:825-827).  Verses 1:83-86 for Four Monarchies.

Duff, James D., tr.  Lucan:  The Civil War.  Loeb.  1928.  Based on Housman.  Text in file?

Dufraigne, Pierre, ed, tr.  Aurélius Victor:  Livre des Césars.  Paris:  BL, 1975.  PA 6966 F4.  Biblio, history of editions.  Written in 360 by a supporter of Julian’s, no mention of the Armenian alliance in his chapter on Constantius II.  Does mention earlier the importance of Armenia for keeping Persia in check, ‘39,34.  ‘41,12 for Goths and Sarmatians.

Dulaurier, Edouard, tr.  *Extrait de la chronique de Michel le Syrien.+  Journal asiatique.  12 (1848) 281-334;  13 (1849) 315-375.  Julian’s Persian War?

Dulaurier, Edouard.  Recherches sur la chronologie arménienne.  Vol 1 of Bibliothèque historique arménienne.  Paris:  Durand, 1858;  Paris:  Imprimerie impériale, 1859.  WCat 12.

Durry, Marcel, tr.  Panégyrique de Trajan.  In vol 4 of Pline le Jeune.  Paris:  Belles-Lettres, 1947.  86-194.  ROBA, VUPT PA 6638 A2.  *Dix ans sous les drapeaux t’ont permis d’apprendre les moeurs des peuples, la géographie des régions, les opportunités des lieux et les différences de température des eaux et des climats+ (15,3).  Danube mentioned a few times (see index) as border, no mention of Dacia.

Dussaud, René.  Topographie historique de la Syrie antique et médiévale.  2 vols.  Paris:  Geuthner, 1927;  reprint in one volume Toronto:  U of Toronto, 2000.  DS 94 D88.

Duval, Rubens.  *Chronique d’Edesse.+  Revue critique d’histoire et de littérature.  NS 35 (1893) 481-486.  Z 1007 R45.  Review of Hallier 1892.

Duval, Yves-Marie.  Review of Corsini.  Latomus 28 (1969) 227-231.  Augustine as mentor.

Duyvendak, Jan Julius Lodewijk.  Review of Eberhard 1948.  T’oung Pao.  39 (1950) 369-374.  *do not the Turks appear a little too frequently?+ (370).  *Eberhard’s interpretation of that difficult period of the Division between North and South is entirely new and very stimulating+ (370f).

Dwyer, William Francis.  The Vocabulary of Hegesippus.  Washington DC, 1931.  Contemporary of Ambrose.

Dyson, RW, tr.  Augustine:  The City of God Against the Pagans.  Cambridge UP, 1998.  BR 65 A64 E5.

Eadie, John William.  The *Breviarium+ of Festus:  A Critical Edition.  London:  Athlone, 1967.  PA 6385 F6.  Biblio.  Ends in 364, written before 370.  For KG see Blockley.

Eberhard, Wolfram.  *The Epoch of the First Division of China (AD 220-580).+  In his A History of China.  1948;  transl London, 1950;  U of Calif P, 1977.  109-168.  DS 735 E2.  Rev:  Duyvendak, Pulleyblank, Wittfogel.  Alexander Soper.  J Am Or Soc.  71 (1951) 67-71.  Art historical.  Also Harvard JAS.  13 (1950) 565-567.  Vol missing.

Far Eastern Quarterly.  10 (1950-51) 380-2.  DS 500….
Asiatische Studien.  (1949) 56-59;  (1947) 19-28.  DS 1 A76.

Edmondson, Jonathan, tr.  Dio:  The Julio-Claudians, Selections from Books 58-63 of the Roman History of Cassius Dio.  LACTOR, 15.  London:  Association of Classical Teachers, 1992.  DG 281 C36613.  Review by PM Swan, Bryn Mawr Classical Review, 04.05.03, online.  Bio, biblio, etc.  Dates Dio’s writing to 211-222, like Reimar and Rich, but contra Barnes and Millar.  Tiridates is crowned king of Armenia by Nero, AD 65 (63,1,1-7,2, Xiphilinus, pages 102-104, commentary 229-234).   *N’s settlement of Armenia was commemorated by a series of coin issues emphasizing Victory and Peace [...] and in official art+ (229).  For Xiphilinus, 29-30.

Eisenhut, Werner.  *Textkritische Bemerkungen zur Invectiva in Ciceronem.+  Hermes 93 (1965) 467-477.

Eichert, Otto.  Vollständiges Wörterbuch zu Philippischen Geschichte des Justinus.  Hanover:  Hahn, 1882;  reprint Hildesheim:  Olms, 1967.  PA 6445 J8 E35.  Trogus.

Eichholz, David Edward, ed, tr.  Theophrastus:  De lapidibus.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1965.  PA 4448 D3.  Biblio.  *in Liguria, where amber also exists+ (2,16).  *Like the smaragdus the lyngurium, which is carved into signets and is as hard as any stone, has an unusual power.  For it attracts other objects just as amber does …+ (5,28ff).  Not useful for geography.

Ekkehart IV of St. Gall [ca 980-1036].  Glossator on Orosius.  See Clark, Dümmler, Jäger, Lehmann.  Mentions Uldin, leader of the Huns, also mentioned by Zosimus.

Eliot, [Sir] Charles Norton Edgecumbe.  *Huns.+  In The Encyclopaedia Britannica.  11th edition.  Cambridge UP, 1910.  Vol 13, 932-933.  GenR AE 5 E363 1910a.  Fair summary of scholarship, see also *Ephthalites+ in the same.

Elliott, Thomas George.  Ammianus Marcellinus and Fourth-Century History.  Toronto:  Samuel Stevens, 1983.  DG 205 E6.  *During the middle ages, the Apostate was persona non grata+ (3).

Elliott, Thomas George.  *Eunapius’ Account of Julian the Apostate.+  Ancient History Bulletin.  5 (1991) 88.  TRIN PER.  Contra Buck, don’t trust Ammianus.

Emmerick, Ronald E.  *The Iranian Settlements to the East of the Pamirs.+  Chapter 7 of The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods.  Ed:  Ehsan Yarshater.  Vol 3, part 1 of The Cambridge History of Iran.  Cambridge, 1983.  263-277.  VUPT, ROBA DS 272 C34.  Khotan.

Encuentra, Alfredo.  Pauli Orosii operum concordantiae.  3 vols.  Hildesheim:  Olms, 1998.  D 17 O65 E58.

Enmann, Alexander.  *Eine verlorene Geschichte der römischen Kaiser und das Buch De Viris Illustribus Urbis Romae:  Quellenstudien.+  Philologus, Suppl.  4 (1884) 335-501.  SHA.  Mostly third century, fourth starts 445ff.  Danubian nations, 447.  *Aus der consequenten benennung Scythae für die Gothen, sieht man dass die quelle eine griechische war, vermuthlich Dexippos, wie der vergleich mit Zosimus lehrt+ (376).

Enoki, Kazuo.  *Yü-ni-ch’êng and the Site of Lou-lan.+  UAJ 33 (1961) 52-65.  DB 901 U7.  Biblio.  Early history of the Hsiung-nu.  So-called Chinese Turkestan.

Enoki, Kazuo.  *On the Date of the Kidarites.+  The Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunkyo.  27 (1969/70) 13-38.  ROM Far Eastern PS To 850.  Xiongnu in Peshawar.

Enoki, Kazuo.  *The Origin of the White Huns or Hephthalites.+  East and West.  NS 6/3 (1995) 231-237.  DS 1 E27 APEX.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  *Kaiser Julians Gesetzgebungswerk und Reichsverwaltung.+  Klio 18 (1922) 104.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  Zur Geschichtschreibung und Weltanschauung des Ammianus Marcellinus.  Klio, Beiheft, 16.  Leipzig:  Dieterich, 1923.  D 51 K62.  *Ammians Religion+ 48-102.  Does not discuss how Ammianus perceived the imperial component of Julian’s state religion.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  *Die weltgeschichtliche Bedeutung der Kämpfe zwischen Rom und Persien.+  Neue Jahrbücher für Wissenschaft und Jugendbildung.  4 (1928) 399-415.  PA 3 N62.  Biblio.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  *Dalmatius Censor, der Halbbruder Konstantins I.+  RhM 78 (1929) 199-212.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  *Zum Heermeisteramt des spätrömischen Reiches: ….+  Klio 23 (1930) 306-325.  Check Rufinus, Stilicho.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  *Zum Heermeisteramt des spätrömischen Reiches: ….+  Klio 24 (1931) 102-145.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  *Zum Heermeisteramt des spätrömischen Reiches: ….+  Klio 24 (1931) 465-502.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  *The Persian Wars with Rome.+  With Arthur Christensen.  1939:126-137.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  *Zu Orosius VII,25,9 und zum Persefeldzug des Cäsars Maximianus Galerius.+  PhW 60 (1940) 669-671.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  Zu den Kriegen des Sassaniden Schapur I.  Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, 5.  Munich, 1947.  AS 182 M823.  SKZ, Northern nations, passim.

Ensslin, Wilhelm.  Des Symmachus Historia romana al Quelle für Jordanes.  Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, 3.  Munich, 1948.  AS 182 M823.  Attila.

Enthoven, Ludwig Karl.  *Analecta critica.+  Mnemosyne 22 (1894) 386-396.  Zosimus, 396.

Ephrem of Nisibis [303-373].  Hymn Against Julian.  Text:  Beck, NPNF, sec ser 3.  UTLink hits:  46.  Book of Daniel, Four Monarchies, see Charles, Comm.  *And he — the emperor — commanded that the ships of victory be burnt, and his idols and demons were confounded by a trick+ (3.15).

Epitome de Caesaribus.  Text:  Festy (Budé);  Pichlmayr and Gruendel (Teubner).

Ericsson, K.  *Revising a Date in the Chronicon Paschale.+  Jahrbuch des österreichischen Byzantinistik [der byzantinistischen Gesellschaft].  17 (1968) 17-28.  Sathas Pims;  Roba DF 501 O3.

Etienne, Robert.  *Chronique.+  Revue des études anciennes.  PA 2 R4.  Every five years.  Late Roman Spain.

Etienne, Robert.  *Chronique.+  Revue des études augustiniennes.   See Jacques Fontaine.

Etienne, Robert.  *Ausone ou les ambitions d’un notable aquitain.+  In Ausone:  Humaniste aquitain.  With Sesto Prete and Louis Desgraves.  Bordeaux:  Société des bibliophiles de Guyenne, 1986.  1-91.  PA 6223 E87.

Eunapius of Sardis, ca 345-ca 420.  Lives of the Sophists.  With Philostratus.  PA 4272 A6.  Education.

Eunapius of Sardis, ca 345-ca 420.  Universal History, continuation of Dexippus.  See Blockley, Goulet, Müller 4:7-56.  Fragment 41, for Huns, see Authors file.  Fragment 60 (Blockley) = Fr 61 (Müller):  Theodosius settled Huns in Thrace under their own chieftains.

Euphemia and the Goth.  By anonymous author.  Ed:  Burkitt.  See Authors file.

Eusebius of Caesaria.  Life of Constantine.  See Barnes, Drake, Richardson (NPNF), Winckelmann (GCS).  Scythian bishops at Nicaea, III,7.

Eusebius of Caesaria.  Selected Works.  Tr:  Ernest Cushing Richardson.  A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, New Series, 1.  Oxford and New York, 1895.  VUEM, PIMS Roba BR …

Eutropius [fl 360's].  Breviarum.  Text:  Bird, Droysen, Hellegouarc’h, Miller, Santini.  Dedicated to Valens, written in AD 369.  Survives embedded in Paulus Diaconus.  Author *was also a member of [Julian's Persian] expedition+ (10,6).  No mention of the Armenian alliance, was he a supporter who recanted?  Cf Aur Victor.  Under Gallienus *Dacia, quae a Trajano ultra Danubium fuerat adiecta, tum amissa est.  Graecia, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia uastata est per Gothos+ (9,8,2).  *provinciam Daciam quam Traianus ultra Danubium fecerat intermisit, vastato omni Illyrico et Moesia, desperans eam posse retinere, abductisque Romanos ex urbibus et agris Daciae in media Moesia collocavit appellavitque eam Daciam, quae nunc duas Moesias dividit et est dextra Danubio in mare fluenti, cum antea fuerit in laeva+ (9,15,1).  Galerius and the Basternae, 9,25, see Bird for English.  Latin needed.

Evagrius Ponticus [345-395].  See Frankenberg.  Attended Council of CPL 381.  Scythian bishops.

Evagrius Scholasticus.  Historia ecclesiastica.  See Allen BR 160 E 7544;  Bidez-Parmentier BR 160 E6 B5;  Whitby.  PG 86 (1867) for reproduction of Reading’s edition of 1844, deemed *careless+ by Bidez-P.  Wrote about the period 331-594.  Julian.  Mention of Huns.

Expositio totius mundi et gentium [rerum?].  Ed:  Lumbroso, Müller in GGM, Riese, Rougé, Sinko.  Comparison with Ammianus, Romano.  See Klotz, Wölfflin for history;  Authors file and article for notes.  Author pagan, a Syrian merchant, literate, but not from the cultured elite (Rougé 30).  *Il s’agit … d’un texte grec … dont nous n’avons conservé que deux versions latines:  une recension longue, qui a de fortes chances d’être la plus proche de l’original, l’Expositio totius mundi et gentium, et une recension courte, plus récente la Descriptio totius mundi (Rougé 7).  Later excepts in original Greek edited at the end, and also by Klotz.  Date of paramount importance because of reference to Chyonitai:  written under Constantius II who died in 361.  Exact date unknown, see discussion in Rougé (9-26) who himself dates it to 359 (21) but mentions others who would date it somewhat earlier, to ca 350 (9ff).  For the Chyonitai, the exact date is not essential;  the synchronisation with Ammianus suffices.

Fabricius, Franz [1527-1573].  Notes.  In Paulus Orosius:  Adversus paganos historiarum libri septem.  Ed:  Siwart Haverkamp.  Leyden:  Luchtmans, 1767.  RBSC E‑10 5880.

Fabricius, Johannes Albert.  Bibliotheca graeca sive notitia scriptorum veterum graecorum.  1717;  fourth edition by Gottlieb Christopher Harles.  12 vols.  Hamburg:  Carolus Ernestus Bohn, 1790.  Z 7021 F2.  See incuna.bib.  8:221-240.  *Phalaridis Epistolae+ 1:662ff.  Julian and Armenia, 680ff.

Fa-hien, Chi.  Buddhist Kingdoms.  Text:  Beal, Giles, Legge.  For Chyonitai, Gandhara, Ephthalites, Khotan, Yue-ti.

Fargues, Pierre.  Claudien:  Etudes sur sa poésie et son temps.  Paris:  Hachette, 1933.  PIMS PA 6374 F2.  Check for his assessment of Claudian’s reliability.

Faustus of Byzantium [or Buzanta].  History of the Armenians.  AD 344-387.   Text:  Langlois in Müller, FHG;  Bedrosian, Emin, Garitte, Jacoby, Lauer.  Studies:  Baynes, Garsoïan DS 176 F75, Sahi, Traina.  See Authors file.  Alliance with Constantius, Olympias, Huns under Julian, 4,15.

Fedwick, Paul Jonathan, ed.  Basil of Caesaria.  2 vols.  Toronto:  PIMS, 1981.  BR 1720 B3 B3 ROBA;  PIMS BQ 1167 B38.  Chronology of Basil.

Feist, Sigmund.  Gothic Dict.  PD 1193 L44.

Feist, Sigmund.  Grammar of Gothic.  Old Class.  Indo-Europeanist.

Ferreiro, Alberto.  The Visigoths in Gaul and Spain, AD 418-711.  A Bibliography.  Leiden:  Brill, 1988.  PIMS, ROBA Z 2177 F47.  Orosius, 569-586.

Festugière, André Jean.  Translation of Sozomen, see Grillet.

Festugière, André Jean.  *Sur les Hymnes de Synésius.+  REG 58 (1945) 268-279.  Review article, with emendations.

Festugière, André Jean.  *Vraisemblance psychologique et forme littéraire chez les anciens.+  Philologus 102 (1958) 21-42.

Festugière, André Jean.  Antioche païenne et chrétienne:  Libanius, Chrysostome et les moines de Syrie.  BEFAR, 194.  Paris:  E. de Boccard, 1959.  Julian, 63-89.  Nothing on Statues.  *ceux que les orthodoxes dénonçaient comme ariens … toux ceux, bien plus nombreux, qui, mettant au-dessus de tout l’unité de l’Eglise, cherchaient à trouver une formule qui conciliât les deux parties+ (70).

Festugière, André Jean.  Ephèse et Chalcédoine:  actes des conciles.  Paris:  Beauchesne, 1982.  Pims BQV 12 31 A214.

Festugière, André Jean.  Biblio.  In Mémorial André-Jean Festugière:  antiquité païenne et chrétienne.  Ed:  Henri-Dominique Saffrey and Enzo Lucchesi.  Geneva:  Cramer, 1984.  Pims BR 131 M4.

Festy, Michel.  Pseudo Aurélius Victor:  Abrégé des Césars.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1999.  PA 6169 A1 V42.  Dernier en date des bréviaires, de la bataille d’Actium à la mort de Théodose (395).  Antérieur à 408.  Julien *son culte des divinités était marqué par trop de superstition+ (43,7).  Julien a *La passion brûlante de la gloire…+  (43,8).  Gratien et les barbares, 47,1-4.

Filliozat, Jean.  *La doctrine des brahmanes d’après saint Hippolyte.+  RHR ……..(1945) 59.  VUEM.

Filliozat, Jean.  *Hephthalites.+  JA 236 (1948) 315-317.  Rev of Ghirshman.  Ecriture tokharienne = grecque très altérée.

Fink, Guy [Fainck].  Paul Orose et sa conception de l’histoire.  Ph.D. Aix en Provence, 1951.  WCat 3.  Ask PIMS.

Fink, Guy.  Paul Orose et sa conception de l’histoire.  Aix-Marseille, 1951.  From AnPhil.  Rectification à 24 p. 126.

Fink, Guy Errera.  *Recherches bibliographiques sur Paul Orose.+  Revista de Archivos, Bibliotecas, y Museos.  58 (1952) 271-322.  Z 671 R41.  *Dante le compare à Tite-Live+ (271).

Fink, Guy Errera.  *San Agustín y Orosio:  Esquema para un estudio de las fuentes del De civitate Dei.+  La Ciudad de Dios.  167 (1954) 455-549.  AP 60 C5.  Biblio.  Orosius is considered a disciple of Augustine, yet he did not dedicate his work to him (455).  Comparison of sources, 504ff.

Fink, Guy Errera.  *Des ms apparemment datés.+  1958.  See Destrez.

Fink, Guy Errera.  *.+  Scriptorium 13 (1959) 89-118.

FitzGerald, Augustine, tr.  The Letters of Synesius of Cyrene.  London:  Oxford UP, 1926.  PA 4441 S8 E53.

FitzGerald, Augustine, tr.  The Essays and Hymns of Synesius of Cyrene.  2 vols.  London:  Oxford UP, 1930.  PA 4441 E53.  *Rather by their own acts did [the Romans of old] admonish these men to wall of their own by crossing the Euphrates repeatedly in pursuit of the Parthians, and the Danube in pursuit of the Getae and the Massagetae.  But now do these nations spread terror amongst you, crossing over in their turn, assuming other names, and some of them falsifying by art even their countenances, so that another race new and foreign may appear to have sprung from the soil+ De Regno ’11 (1:127).

Fleet, John Faithfull, ed.  Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings and their Successors.  2nd revised edition.  Volume 3 (in 2 parts) of Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum.  Varanasi (India):  Indological Book House, 1970.  CN 1170 C67.  Bhitari inscription, qv.  Inscriptions by King Yasodharman, see under his name.  Kahaum inscription, ’15, 65-68, by Skandagupta, AD 460/461.

Fletcher, Geoffrey Bernard Abbott.  *Notes on Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Classical Quarterly.  24 (1930) 193-197.  Ballista.

Fletcher, Geoffrey Bernard Abbott.  *Ammianus Marcellinus and Solinus.+  Philologus 91 (1936) 478.  Parallels.

Fletcher, Geoffrey Bernard Abbott.  *Ammianea.+  Am J Phil.  58 (1937) 391-402.  Emendations.

Fletcher, Geoffrey Bernard Abbott.  *Stylistic Borrowings and Parallels in Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Revue de philologie.  11 (1937) 378-395.  Biblio.

Fletcher, Geoffrey Bernard Abbott.  *On Ammianus Marcellinus xxi,2,4 and xxvi,5,2.+  Am J Phil.  60 (1939) 242.  pridie = pridem.

Fliche, Augustin, and Victor Martin, eds.  Histoire de l’Eglise depuis les origines jusqu’à nos jours.  Paris:  Bloud et Gay, 1945.  Vol 3:  De la paix constantinienne à la mort de Théodose.  Pierre Champagne de Labriolle, Gustave Bardy, and Jean-Rémy Palanque, eds.  BX 944 H57.

Florus, Lucius Annaeus.  Epitoma.  Text:  Forster (Loeb), Jal, Rossbach.  I,35:  Barbares du Nord.

Flusser, David.  *The Four Empires in the Fourth Sibyl and in the Book of Daniel.+  Israel Oriental Studies.  2 (1972) 148-175.  PJ 3001 I8.  *only two works which contain the pre-Roman scheme of four empires.  The first is the ancient source contained in the fourth Sibyl.  [...]  The second witness is the Book of Daniel …+ (153).  Daniel pre-Roman (155).

Focke, F.  *Synkrisis.+  Hermes 58 (1923) 327-368.

Follieri, Enrica.  *Saba Goto e Saba Stratelata.+  AnBoll 80 (1962) 249-307.  PIMS.

Fontaine, Jacques.  *Chronique d’histoire et de littérature hispaniques (paléochrétiennes et visigotiques, 1972-1976).+  Revue des études augustiniennes.  22 (1976) 402-435.

Fontaine, Jacques.  *Unité et diversité du mélange des genres et des tons chez quelques écrivains latins de la fin du IVe siècle:  Ausone, Ambroise, Ammien.+  In Christianisme et formes littéraires de l’antiquité tardive en Occident.  Ed:  Olivier Reverdin.  Entretiens de la Fondation Hardt, 23.  Vandoeuvres-Genève, 1977.  425-472.  BR 67 C5.  *ce que l’on pourrait commencer par appeler globalement les phénomènes d’interférence+ (430).  *Pour nous en tenir au genre dominant… on y peut observer au moins deux procédés ou, plutôt, deux perspectives d’interférence.  La plus frappante… est celle du mélange des genres au sens le plus simple du mot…  La seconde perspective est celle d’un raffinement extrême dans la technique de l’allusion …  L’éclatement des tons et la superposition des genres sont les instruments de ce jeu…  Non pour un pur divertissement, mais pour créer les conditions favorables à un détachement contemplatif, et pour traduire en son langage même un message d’instabilité+ (441-3, on the subject of Ausonius).  Check for AM:  undertones of invective and eulogium.

Fontaine, Jacques, ed, tr.  Ammien Marcellin:  Histoire (livres XXIII-XXV).  Vol 4,1 (texte).  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1977.

Fontaine, Jacques, ed, tr.  Ammien Marcellin:  Histoire (livres XXIII-XXV).  Vol 4,2 (notes).  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1977.

Fontaine, Jacques.  *Le Julien d’Ammien Marcellin.+  In L’Empereur Julien:  de l’histoire à la légende (331-1715).  Ed:  René Braun and Jean Richer.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1978-1981.  31-65.  DG 317 E46.  *on soupçonne aujourd’hui, non sans de bonnes raisons, d’autres erreurs dont [Ammien] n’a rien dit … la désobéissance larvée des commandants de sa colonne Nord aux ordres d’attaque combinée, que les inexplicables lenteurs de Procope, Sébastien et leur allié arménien n’ont pas peu contribué à faire échouer+ (50).  *silences … troubles … des réticences et des glissements chronologiques+ (50).

Fontaine, Jacques, ed, tr.  Ammien Marcellin:  Histoire (livres XX-XXII).  Vol 3.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1996.

Fornara, Charles W.  *Julian’s Persian Expedition,+  JHS 111 (1991) 1-15.

Forster, Edward Seymour, ed.  Lucius Annaeus Florus:  Epitome of Roman History.  Loeb.  1984.  PA 6386 A2.

Fotheringham, John Knight, ed.  Eusebii Pamphili chronici canones latine vertit, adauxit, ad sua tempora produxit S. Eusebius Hieronymus.  London:  H Milford, 1923.  D 17 E7 1923.

Foussard, JC.  *Julien philosophe.+  In L’Empereur Julien:  de l’histoire à la légende (331-1715).  Ed:  René Braun and Jean Richer.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1978-1981.  189-212.  DG 317 E46.

Fraenkel, Eduard.  *Lucan by Housman.+  Gnomon 2 (1926) 497-532.

Francken, Cornelis Marinus, ed.  M. Annaei Lucani Pharsalia cum commentario critico.  2 vols.  Leiden:  Sijthoff, 1896-1897.  LL L9323Fr, Karl.

Franke, Otto.  Türkvölker und Skythen.  Abhandlungen der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil-hist Kl.  Berlin, 1904.  AS 182 B34.  WCat.  Holdings start in 1908.

Franke, Otto.  Geschichte des chinesischen Reiches.  5 vols.  Berlin:  Gruyter, 1930-52.  DS 735 K73.  See De Groot.

Franke, Rudolf Otto.  Kleine Schriften.  2 vols.  Wiesbaden:  Steiner, 1978.  PK 1003 F7.

Frankenberg, Wilhelm, ed, tr.  Evagrius Ponticus.  Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, philos-historische Klasse, NS 13,2.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1912.  AS 182 G812.  Syriac, Greek and German.  Heresies.

Frankfort, Thérèse.  *La date de l’autobiographie de Flavius Josèphe et les oeuvres de Justus de Tibériade.+  Revue belge.  39 (1961) 52-58.

Frassinetti, Paolo.  *In margine ad Ammiano Marcellino.+  Athenaeum 44 (1966) 298-306.  DE I A43.  Re Selem’s edition, emendations.

Frede, Hermann Josef.  Kirchenschriftsteller.  Freiburg/Breisgau:  Herder, 1981.  PIMS BS 73 A2.  For standard Latin editions of Church Fathers.

Freese, John Henry, tr.  The Library of Photius.  London:  SPCK, 1920.  LGr P5756 Ef Old Class, missing.

Freixas, Alberto.  *La visión imperial de Paulo Orosio.+  Anales de historia antigua y medieval.  Buenos Aires.  1959/60:84-98.  D 51 A53.

Fremantle, William Henry, tr.  St. Jerome:  Letter and Select Works.  Vol 6 of NPNF Second Series.  New York:  The Christian Literature Company, 1893.  BR 60 S46.

Frend, William Hugh Clifford.  *The Roman Empire in Eastern and Western Historiography.+  Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society.  194 (1968) 19-32.  P 11 C2.  Reprinted 1976.  Theoretical.

Frend, William Hugh Clifford.  Religion Popular and Unpopular in the Early Christian Centuries.  London:  Variorum, 1976.  PIMS BQX 235 F73.

Frend, William Hugh Clifford.  *The Divjak Letters:  New Light on St. Augustine’s Problems, 416-428.+  Journal of Ecclesiastic History.  34 (1983) 497-512.  BR 140 J6.  *Pelagianism is a major topic+ (500).

Frend, William Hugh Clifford.  *The Divjak Letters:  New Light on St. Augustine’s Problems, 416-428.+  Reprinted in his Archaeology and History in the Study of Early Christianity.  London:  Variorum 1988.  ROBA BR 165 F749.  Newly discovered letter of Jerome to Bishop Aurelius of Carthage, published in CSEL 88 (Vienna 1981) # 29.

Frend, William Hugh Clifford.  *The Church in the Reign of Constantius II (337-361):  Mission, Monasticism, Worship.+  In L’église et l’empire au IVième siècle.  Ed:  Albrecht Dihle.  Entretiens de la Fondation Hardt, 34.  Vandoeuvres-Genève, 1989.  73-111.  DE 3 E45 ROBA.

Freyburger, Marie-Laure, and Jean-Michel Roddaz, ed., tr., cm.  Dion Cassius:  Histoire romaine.  Livres 50-51.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1991.  DG 268 C3714.  Very poor on topography:  50,26 calls the city of the Istrians Istros, and not Istria.

Frick, Carl.  *Ueber die Abfassungszeit der Chorographia des Pomponius Mela.+  Philologus 33 (1874) 741-742.

Frick, Carolus, ed.  Pomponius Mela:  De Chorographia libri tres.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1880;  reprint 1935.  PA 6512 A2.  Authors file.  More in incuna.bib, move.bib.  Check if Frick or Parthey better edition, according to critics.

Frick, Carl, ed.  Bishop Hilarian:  De cursu temporum.  In his chronica minora.  Vol 1.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1892.  End 4th century.  LL.C F897c, B2 Karl.

Frick, Carl.  Rev:  Lumbroso.  Berliner Phil W.  25 (1905) 409-416.

Fritz, Wilhelm.  Die Briefe des Bischofs Synesius von Kyrene:  ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Attizismus im IV. und V. Jahrhundert.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1898.  PA 4441 S7 E634.  Pure philology.

Fromen, Heinz, ed.  Athanasii Historia acephala.  Ph.D.  Münster, 1914.  WCat.

Frye, David.  *A Mutual Friend of Authaulf and Jerome.+  Historia 40 (1991) 507-508.  Identifies him as Rusticus, the correspondent of Jerome.

Frye, Richard Nelson, and AM Sayili.  *Turks in the Middle East before the Seljuqs.+  JAOS 63 (1943) 194-207.

Frye, Richard Nelson.  Notes on the Early Coinage of Transoxania.  Numismatic Notes and Monographs, 113.  New York, 1949.  CJ 1848 M4 N63.  *The Kushans and Romans had a mutual enemy, and mutual interests in trade, so it is not surprising to find both minting gold while the Parthians maintained a silver standard+ (11).

Frye, Richard Nelson.  *The Political History of Iran under the Sasanians.+  Chapter 4 of The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods.  Ed:  Ehsan Yarshater.  Vol 3, part 1 of The Cambridge History of Iran.  Cambridge, 1983.  116-180.  VUPT, ROBA DS 272 C34.  With chronology of rulers.  *In the east the empire extended over the “lands of the Kushans up to Pashkibur (Peshawar?), and to Kashgar, Sogdiana and Tashkent” (Parthian line 2, Greek line 4).  In other words, the empire included the domain of the Kushans, at least as far as the lowlands of the north-west frontier of Pakistan.  It also extended to Sogdiana and Central Asia, but did not include them.  For it is likely that what Shapur meant in his inscription was that the Kushan kingdom had submitted to him, and the boundaries of that kingdom extended to Peshawar, Sogdiana, Kashgar (or possibly Kish) and Tashkent.  No Sasanian prince is designated as Kushanshah by Shapur, so we may infer that the ruler who had submitted retained his title, but under Sasanian suzerainty+ (27).

Frye, Richard Nelson.  The History of Ancient Iran.  Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 3,7.  Munich:  C. H. Beck, 1984.  VUPT PA 25 H24;  Roba DS 275 F73.

Gabain, Annemarie von.  *Louis Bazin:  Un texte proto-turc du ive siècle:  Le distique hiong-nou du Tsin-chou.+  Der Islam.  29 (1949) 244-246.  DS 36 I7.  Review.

Gabain, Annemarie von.  Die Schreiber der alttürkischen Brahmi-Texte.  Studia orientalia, 28,5.  Helsinki, 1964.  per.bib.

Gärtner, Hans.  Einige Ueberlegungen zur kaiserzeitlichen Panegyrik und zu Ammians Charakteristik des Kaisers Julian.  Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Abhandlungen der Geistes- und Socialwissenschaftliche Klasse, Jahrgang, 10:499-529.  Mainz Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur:  In Kommission bei F. Steiner, Wiesbaden, 1908.  Offprint at DG 317 G3.

Gagé, Jean.  *Un thème de l’art impérial:  La victoire d’Auguste.+  MEFRA 49 (1932) 61-92.  Epinicie d’Horace, Odes IV,14,33-34, page 77.  *le Parthe ne cesse pas de jouer à Rome, dans l’art et dans les cérémonies d’apparat, le rôle du perpétuel vaincu, que requiert nécessairement la mystique impériale du perpétuel vainqueur+ (78).

Gagé, Jean.  *La théologie de la victoire impériale.+  RH 171 (1933) 1-43.  Idéologie de l’imperator invictus.  For the political impact of Julian’s catastrophic defeat.

Gagé, Jean.  *Stauros nikopoiós:  la victoire impériale dans l’empire chrétien.+  RHPR 13 (1933) 370-400.  VUEM.  Good foundation.

Gagé, Jean.  La montée des Sassanides et l’heure de Palmyre.  Paris:  Albain Michel, 1964.  DS 286 G34.  3rd century.

Gaidukevich, Viktor Frantsevich.  Bosporskoe Tsarstvo.  Leningrad:  Akademiia Nauk, 1949.  DF 261 B7 G3.  Borani, 443.  Ch 12 *Raspad bosporskogo tsarstva+ 439-484.  Notes in text.

Gajdukevic, Viktor Frantsevich, ed.  Arkheologiia i istoriia Bospora:  Sbornik statei.  Simferopol':  Krymizdat, 1952.  DF 261 B7 A7.

Gaidukevich, Viktor Frantsevich, et al.  Ol’viia:  Temenos i agora.  Leningrad:  Nauka, 1964.  DK 508.95 O5 I62.  Olbia.  Articles by Slavin, Levi.

Gajdukevic, Viktor Frantsevich.  Das bosporanische Reich.  1949;  transl Berlin:  Akademie Verlag, 1971.  DF 261 B7 G315.  Toxaris, 84-85.

Gaidukevich, Viktor Frantsevich.  Antichnye goroda Bospora:  Mirmekii.  Leningrad:  Nauka, 1987.  DF 261 B7 G24.

Gaiffier, Beaudoin de.  *Sub Iuliano Apostata dans le martyrologe romain.+  AnBoll 74 (1956) 5-49.  Bonosus and Maximilianus, martyrs under Julian.  Sources:  Chrysostom and Theodoret, HE.

Gallay, Paul, ed.  Grégoire de Nazianze:  Lettres.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1964.  BR 65 G84 A43.  ‘7 au sujet de Césaire et Julien.

Galletier, Edouard, ed, tr.  *Panégyrique de Mamertin en l’honneur de Maximin Auguste.+  In volume 1 of his Panégyriques latins.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1949.  24-37.  PA 6138 P3.  Delivered AD 289, see intro for date.  *L’intérêt de ce texte est considérable+ (12).

Galletier, Edouard, ed, tr.  *Discours anniversaire de Mamertin en l’honneur de Maximin.+  In volume 1 of his Panégyriques latins.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1949.  49-67.  PA 6138 P3.  Delivered AD 291, see intro for date.  *Avec l’assistance des Saci, des Rufii et des Geli, Ormias attaque les Perses eux-mêmes+ (III:17,2, page 65).

Galletier, Edouard, ed, tr.  *Discours de remerciement de Claude Mamertin à l’empereur Julien.+  In volume 3 of his Panégyriques latins.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1955.  3-44.  PA 6138 P3.

Galletier, Edouard, ed, tr.  *Panégyrique de Théodose par Pacatus (juin-septembre 389).+  In volume 3 of his Panégyriques latins.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1955.  47-117.  PA 6138 P3.  Père de Théodose:  *à moi se présentera l’Hister rougi du sang des Sarmates+ (‘ 5, p. 72).  *Ton père serait appelé Saxonicus et Sarmaticus…+ (…)  Sarmates, Hister, ‘ 10, p. 77;  Scythian people ‘ 11, p. 78.

Galletier, Edouard, ed, tr.  Ammien Marcellin:  Histoire (livres XIV-XVI).  With Jacques Fontaine.  Vol 1.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1968.  Galletier died before edition ready, and Fontaine took over;  see also Sabbah, Marié.  Authors file.  Re Cusenos = Eusenos.  *Le nom de ce peuple est peut-être à mettre en rapport avec celui de la localité d’Eusène sur la côte de Paphlagonie, entre Amysos et l’Halys, dont Arrien parle dans son Périple du Pont-Euxin, 22, et que la Table de Peutinger 10,1 cite sous la forme Ezeni+.  Cites Ruge who never made such a reference.

Ganss, George E., tr.  St Peter Chrysologus:  Selected Sermons.  NPNF, 17.  New York, 1953.  Pims BQ 6176 A5 G2.

Gardthausen, Viktor Emil.  *Wie und wann kam der Fuldensis des Ammian Marcellinus in den Vatican.+  Hermes 6 (1872) 243-248.

Gardthausen, Viktor Emil.  Die geographischen Quellen Ammians.  PhD diss, Leipzig.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1873.  PA 6205 G37.  See Brok, Mommsen.  Fragile, should xerox.

Gardthausen, Viktor Emil.  Ammiani Marcellini rerum gestarum libri qui supersunt.  2 vols.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1874-1875.  PA 6208 A2 1874.  With Anonymous Valesianus 2:280-305.  Remnants of Ammianus’ lost books 1:1-4.

Gardthausen, Viktor Emil.  *Die Ammianhandschrift des Accursius.+  Hermes 7 (1876) 168-175.

Gardthausen, Viktor Emil.  *Interpolationen beim Ammian.+  Hermes 7 (1876) 453-464.

Gardthausen, Viktor Emil.  *Ammianus.+  Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift.  37 (1917) 1471-1480;  1505-1512;  1633-1634.

Garitte, Gérard.  *La tradition manuscrite de l’Agathange grec.+  Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique.  37 (1941) 190-209.  BX 940 R5.  Greek translation has life of its own.  Check out how Lagarde edits the passage about Trdat and the Huns.

Garitte, Gérard.  Documents pour l’étude du livre d’Agathange.  Studi e testi, 127.  Vatican:  Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1946.  PIMS BQ 3351 G3 G2.  Biblio.  See also van Esbroek.

Garitte, Gérard.  *Agathange, version arabe.+  Le Muséon.  63 (1950) 231-247.  DS 1 M8 APEX.

Garitte, Gérard.  *Traduttore traditore di se stasso.+  Bulletin de la Classe des lettres et des sciences morales et politiques:  Académie royale de Belgique.  62 (1971) 39-80.  AS 242 B312.  Biblio.  *question … de la détection de la traduction+ (45).

Garitte, Gérard.  Scripta disiecta, 1941-1977.  Publications de la faculté, 21-22.  2 vols.  Louvain UP, 1980.  Roba BR 67 G27 storage.

Garnier, Julien, ed.  Sancti Patris nostri Basilii Caesareae Cappadociae archiepiscopi Opera omnia quae exstant.  3 volumes.  Paris: …, 1721-1730.  PIMS folio BQ 1158 A2 1721.

Garnier, Julien, ed.  Sancti Patris nostri Basilii Caesareae Cappadociae archiepiscopi Opera omnia quae exstant.  3 volumes.  Paris, 1721-1730.  Reprint with additions by L. de Sinner.  6 volumes.  Paris:  Gaume, 1839.  ROBA BR 65 B3 1839;  PIMS BQ 1158 A2.  Latin and Greek.  Reprint with changes in Patrologia Graeca, 29‑32, 1857.  For critique and history of edition see Armand 1945/46.

Garsoïan, Nina G.  *Politique ou orthodoxie?  L’Arménie au quatrième siècle.+  Revue des études arméniennes.  NS 4 (1967) 297-320.  DS 161 R3.  Relations with Rome.

Garsoïan, Nina G.  *Byzantium and the Sassanians.+  Chapter 15 of The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods.  Ed:  Ehsan Yarshater.  Vol 3, part 1 of The Cambridge History of Iran.  Cambridge, 1983.  568-592.  VUPT, ROBA DS 272 C34.

Garsoïan, Nina G., FS.  From Byzantium to Iran:  Armenian Studies in Honour of Nina G. Garsoïan.  Ed:  Jean-Pierre Mahé and Robert W. Thomson.  Atlanta:  Scholars Press, 1996.  DS 176 F75.

Garzya, Antonio, and Hugo Criscuolo, eds.  In Themistii Orationes index auctus.  Hellenica et byzantina neapolitana, 11.  Naples:  Bibliopolis, 1989.  Roba PA 4441 T5 Z93.  Based on Schenkl-Downey edition.

Gauthiot, Robert.  *Note sur la langue et l’écriture inconnues des documents Stein-Cowley.+  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.  1911:497-507.  See Cowley and Hoernle.

Gauthiot, Robert.  *De l’alphabet sogdien.+  JA 1911:…..  Did Ancient Sogdian Letters contain Uigur loan-words?

Gauthiot, Robert.  *Manuscrits sogdiens du fonds Pelliot.+  JA 1912:163-197.

Gautier Dalché, Patrick.  *Orose géographe:  A propos d’un ouvrage récent.+  Le moyen âge.  4th series 39/90 (1984) 503-507.  Review of Janvier Orose.  Re errors in Orosius *plus affirmées que démontrées, en général+ (503).

Gautier Dalché, Patrick.  *De la glose à la contemplation.  Place et fonction de la carte dans les manuscrits du haut Moyen Age.+  Testo e immagine nell’alto medioevo.  Settimane, 41.  Spoleto, 1994.  693-764, plate.  Orosius, 755, 759.  Also Wends = Slavs in Life of Columbanus by Jonas of Bobbio.

Geerard, Morits, and Franz Glorie, eds.  Clavis Patrum Graecorum.  Vols???  Turnhout:  Brepols, 1974-1979.  Roba Z 7791 G44;  PIMS BQ 310 C83.  CPG:  Used for standard edition of Church Fathers.  Cyril of Alexandria:  3:5200-5438.  Chrysostom?

Geffcken, Johannes, ed.  Die Oracula Sibyllina.  GCS, 8.  Leipzig:  Hinrichs, 1902.  PA 4253 O83.

Geffcken, Johannes.  Komposition und Entstehungszeit der Oracula Sibyllina.  Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der alten christlichen Literatur, NS 8,1.  Berlin:  Akademie-Verlag, 1902.  Pims BQ 25 T3, vol 8.

Geffcken, Johannes.  *Kaiser Julianus und die Streitschriften seiner Gegner.+  Neue Jahrbücher für das klassische Altertum.  … (1908) 161.  PA 3 N664.  Or PA 3 N65, 12th Apex.

Gelasius of Caesaria [died 395].  History of the Church.  CPG ‘ 3521.  Text:  Loeschke, NPNF 2, vol 3.  Studies:  Glas, Honigmann, Schamp, Scheidweiler, Paul van den Ven, van Nuffelen.  Mentions Scyths at Councils.

Gelsomino, Remo, ed.  Lucan:  Pharsalia.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1967.

Gelzer, Heinrich Karl Guido [1847-1906].  Sextus Julius Africanus und die byzantinische Chronographie.  Burt Franklin Research and Source Works, 169.  2 vols.  New York:  B. Franklin, 1964.  Roba CE 15 G4;  PIMS BQ 1014 F7 G4.

Gelzer, Heinrich.  *Die Anfänge der armenischen Kirche.+  Berichte über die Verhandlungen der königlich sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig.  47 (1895) 109-174.  AS 182 S214.

Gelzer, Heinrich.  *Geographische und onomastische Bemerkungen zu der Liste der Väter des Konzils von 381.+  BZ 12 (1903) 126-130.  CPL 381.

Gentz, Günter, ed.  Die Kirchengeschichte des Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopulus und ihre Quellen.  Ed:  Friedhelm Winkelmann (posthumous).  Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der alten christlichen Literatur, 98.  Berlin:  Akademie-Verlag, 1966.  Pims BQ 25 T3, vol 98;  Roba BX 300 N52 G4.

George, Pierre, ed.  Dictionnaire de la géographie.  Paris:  PUF, 1970.  G 103 D57.

Geppert, Franz.  Quellen des Kirchenhistorikers Socrates Scholasticus.  Leipzig:  1898;  reprint Aalen:  Scientia, 1972.  BR 160 S65 G4.  Julian, Kata khristianos;  Athanasius and Sabinus, 82-111.

Gershevitch, Ilya.  A Grammar of Manichean Sogdian.  Oxford:  Blackwell, 1954.  Roba, Pims P 921 G4.  Used by Sims-Williams, who does not recommend Benveniste.  Check out /xwn/.

Getty, Robert J.  *Observations on the First Book of Lucan.+  CQ 30 (1936) 55-63.  Text critical, astronomy, geography (river names).

Getty, Robert J.  *East and West in Lucan i.15 and Elsewhere.+  Class Ph 46 (1951) 25-31.  Points of the compass, see Bruère, Semple.  Quarters of heaven determined by solar, not sideral positions.

Ghirshman, Roman.  *Inscription du monument de Chapour Ier à Châpour.+  With Arthur Christensen.  Revue des arts asiatiques.  10 (1936) 123-129.  Roba N 2 A83 and RomU P.S. Ar 1620.  Starts in 1954;  check out Musée Guimet.

Ghirshman, Roman.  *Fouilles de Bégram (Afghanistan).+  JA 234 (1943/45) 59-71.  Founded beginning of 2nd century BC.  *La nouvelle ville royale a dû être abandonnée au cours de la seconde moitié du IVe siècle, et selon toute vraisemblance devant la menace de l’invasion des Chionites-Hephtalites+ (62f).

Ghirshman, Roman.  *Une inscription bilingue (pahlavi- hun hephthalite) trouvée en Afghanistan.+  JA 234 (1943/45) 449.  Abstract only.  Inscription… transcrite en une écriture grecque modifiée… a permis le déchiffrement de cette langue.

Ghirshman, Roman.  Bégram:  Recherches archéologiques et historiques sur les Kouchans.  Mémoires de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale, 79.  Mémoires de la délégation archéologique française en Afghanistan, 12.  Cairo:  Institut français, 1946.  RomF DS 353 D44 M45 vol. 12, folio.  Rev:  Deydier in BEFEO 45 (1951/52) 584-586.  Begram is *Kapiçi décrite par Hiuan-Tsang+ (Deydier 584).

Ghirshman, Roman.  Les Chionites-Hephthalites.  Mémoires de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale, 80.  Mémoires de la délégation archéologique française en Afghanistan, 13.  Cairo, 1948.  WCat 37;  ROM, vol 13.  Rev:  Filliozat;  Deydier in BEFEO 45 (1951/52) 584-586.  *Ghirshman has proved that Ammianus Marcellinus’ Chionitae, the hyôn (xyôn, xiyôn) of the Pahlavi books, the Hephthalites (OIONO on their coins), and the Hûna (hûna) of the Indian sources were the same people.  He rightly separates them from the Attilanic Huns.  But few will accept his thesis that these names have nothing to do with Ounnoi = Huni.+ (Maenchen-Helfen 1959:227f).

Ghirshman, Roman.  L’Iran des origines à l’Islam.  Paris:  Payot, 1951.  Transl Penguin 1954.

Ghirshman, Roman.  Iran:  From the Earliest Times to the Islamic Conquest.  Tr:  Margaret Munn-Rankin.  Intro:  Max Mallowan.  Harmondsworth:  Penguin, 1954/1962.  Have copy.  For 1964 see DS 275 G5 ROBA.

Ghirshman, Roman.  *Le problème de la chronologie des Kouchans.+  Cahiers d’histoire mondiale.  3 (1956/57) 689-722.  GersteinR D 1 C25.  Biblio.  Nouvelle chronologie basée sur les fouilles de Bégram;  date de l’avènement de Kanishka.  Mouvement en trident des Kouchans sur l’Inde, des Parthes sur l’Iran et des Sarmates sur la Scythie pontique, vers la fin de l’ère pré-chrétienne, (691).  Découverte de l’inscription trilingue de Châpour I (241-272) près de Persépolis, rédigéee vers 262-263;  mention du pays des Kouchans annexé par Châpour (699).  Critique de Maricq (98-110) qui attribue ces conquêtes au père de Châpour Ardéshir I;  il se base sur Tabari, dont Gh reconnaît l’exactitude (…..)  *La grande erreur de Maricq fut d’interpréter Kusnxstr par ‘le royaume des Kouchans’ au lieu de ‘pays des Kouchans’+ (705).  L’empire fut démembré, seul l’occident fut conquis par les Sassanides.  *La date de la conquête de possessions occidentales des Kouchans par Châpour I ne peut être fixée d’une façon absolue+:  entre 241 et 252 (709).

Ghirshman, Roman.  Iran:  Parthes et Sassanides.  Paris:  Gallimard, 1962.  N 5390 G5, 2 copies, one lost.

Gibbon, Edward.  The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.  1825;  annotated edition by JB Bury, with notes, in 6 vols London:  Methuen, 1897-1898.  DG 311 G5 1897.  Ammianus *the accurate and faithful guide [...] has composed the history of his own times without indulging the prejudices and passions which usually affect the mind of a contemporary+ (3:112).  3:70ff for misidentification of Huns and Hiung-nu, for which see Parker 1902.  Barnes critiques Bury’s division of chapters.

Giles, Herbert Allen.  Review of Legge, Buddh Kingdoms.  Journal of the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.  21 (1886) 314-321.  Roba AS 452 R68.  Fa Hsien.

Giles, Herbert Allen.  A Chinese Biographical Dictionary.  London:  Quaritch, 1898.  EAs DS 734 G46 1898.

Giles, Herbert Allen.  The Travels of Fa-hsien (399-414 AD) or Record of the Buddhistic Kingdoms.  Cambridge UP, 1923;  2nd ed 1956.  DS 6 F35.  Chyonitai.

Giles, Lionel.  Six Centuries at Tunhuang.  London, 1944.  Z 6621 B85 S8.  Huge biblio, Orient.bib.

Gilliam, J. Frank.  *The dux ripae at Dura.+  TAPA 72 (1941) 157-175.  Md-third century.

Gimazane, Jean.  Ammianus Marcellinus:  Sa vie et son oeuvre.  Ph.D. Thesis.  Toulouse:  Edouard Privat, 1889.  WCat 10, UC Berkeley.

Giunta, Francesco, and A. Grillone, eds.  Iordanis de Origine Actibusque Getarum.  Fonti per la storia d’Italia, 117.  Rome, 1991.  Pims, Roba DG 403 F7.

Gladis, Carolus [Karl Otto], ed.  De Themistii, Libanii, Iuliani in Constantium orationibus.  PhD diss.  Bratislava, 1907.  B2 Pamph LGr.H. G Old Class.

Glas, Anton.  Die Kirchengeschichte de Gelasios von Kaisarea.  Byzantinisches Archiv, 6.  1914.  #per.bib.   WCat 24, ask Pims.

Glorie, Franciscus, ed.  S. Hieronymi presbyteri opera:  Commentariorum in Hiezechielem libri XIV.  CCSL, 75.  Turnhout:  Brepols, 1964.  9th Apex.

Glorie, Franciscus, ed.  S. Hieronymi presbyteri opera:  Commentariorum in Danielem libri III (IV).  CCSL, 75A.  Turnhout:  Brepols, 1964.  9th Apex.  Vision and four monarchies, 837ff.

Glorie, Franciscus, ed.  Itineraria et alia geographica.  CCSL, 175.  Turnhout:  Brepols, 1965.  Orosius, 467-471.

Godley, A. D., tr.  Herodotus.  Loeb Classical Library.  4 vols.  London:  Heinemann, 1946.

Godefroy, Jacques, ed [Jacobus Gothofredus 1587-1652].  Vetus orbis descriptio graeci scriptoris.  Geneva:  Chouët, 1628.  WCat 1:  Oxford.  In-quarto.  Reprinted by Mai.  For his contribution to the history of Expositio, see Rougé, intro.

Godefroy, Jacques, ed, cm.  Theodosian Code.  3 vols.  Lyon, 1667.  See Couderc for publications.

Göbl, Robert.  Dokumente zur Geschichte der Iranischen Hunnen in Bactrien und Indien.  4 vols.  Wiesbaden:  Harrassowitz, 1967.  CJ 1667 G6.  Biblio.  Hephthalite coins of sun worship, 3:38.

Göbl, Robert.  *Sasanian Coins.+  Chapter 9 of The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods.  Ed:  Ehsan Yarshater.  Vol 3, part 1 of The Cambridge History of Iran.  Cambridge, 1983.  322-342.  VUPT, ROBA DS 272 C34.  Igor.bib.

Goetz, Hans Werner.  Die Geschichtstheologie des Orosius.  Darmstadt:  Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1980.  Roba, Pims BR 115 H5 G64.  Four monarchies.

Goetz, Hans Werner.  *Orosius und die Barbaren.+  Historia 29 (1980) 356-376.  D 51 H5.

Goldbacher, Alois.  Lettre inédite d’Orose à saint Augustin.  Zeitschrift für österreichischen Gymnasien.  24 (1883) 104.  See Paucker.

Goldbacher, Alois.  Das Speculum des h. Augustinus.  Vienna:  Gerold, 1883.  WCat 1.  Check if AS 142 A53.

Goldbacher, Alois, ed.  Augustini Epistulae.  CSEL, 54-57.  BR 60 C6.

Goold, George P., ed., tr.  Propertius:  Elegies.  The New Loeb.  Cambridge, Mass:  Harvard UP, 1990.  PA 6645 E5 G6.  Biblio.  Ms history.  Bk 4, Elegy 3, Arethusa to Lycotas, maps.

Gothic Philology:  Batiffol, Braune, Feist, Hempel, Jantzen, Jülicher, Loewe, Streitberg.

Gotoff, Harold C.  The Transmission of the Text of Lucan in the Ninth Century.  Cambridge, Mass:  Harvard University Press, 1971.  PA 6480 G6.  Five mss survive from Carolingian Renaissance.  Closely related, treated as one witness by editors, yet *each of these five is a source of independent information, stored in some cases in the text, in some cases between the lines and in the margins+ (1).  Contra Housman, see Haekanson.

Goulet, Richard.  *Sur la chronologie de la vie et des oeuvres d’Eunape de Sardes.+  JHS 100 (1980) 60-72.  See Banchich.

Graebner, F.  *Eine Zosimosquelle.+  ByzZ 14 (1905) 87-159.  Goffart calls him excessively subtle, 1971:419n37.  Important.  Comparison with Dexippus, Eunapius and others, very complex relationships of text transmission.  Focus on events of mid third century:  Valerian and Shapur, passim;  Boranoi, p. 101, Scyths everywhere, especially crossing the Don or the Danube, 88ff, 100ff, 106, 119.

Grant, R. M.  *Greek Literature in the Treatise De Trinitate and Cyril’s Contra Julianum.+  JTS 15 (1964) 265-279.  VUEM, KNOX.  *Other quotations … show clearly that Cyril undertook special research in order to write against Julian+ (272).  Query:  was he targetting the professors at Athens?

Graves, Robert, tr.  Lucan Pharsalia:  Dramatic Episodes of the Civil Wars.  Harmondsworth:  Penguin, 1956.  PA 6479 E5 G7.

Greatrex, Geoffrey, and M. Greatrex.  *The Hunnic Invasion of the East of 395 and the Fortress of Ziatha.+  Byzantion 69 (1999) 65-75.  *it is hard to imagine that [Rufinus] could have established contact with the Huns north of the Caucasus+ (72).  Huns served as mercenaries.  *no other narrative source makes any mention of Addaeus+ (…)  Actually Joshua the Stylite does, and so does Faustus, see Baynes (638).  General Terentius and Count *Ade+ sent by Valens to Armenia in 371.  Euphemia.

Green, Roger P. H.  The Works of Ausonius:  Edited with Introduction and Commentary.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1991.  PA 6221 A2.  Biblio.

Green, Roger P. H.  Decimi Magni Ausonii opera.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1999.  PA 6221 A25 1999.  Biblio of editions.

Green, Tamara M.  Zosimus, Orosius and their Tradition:  Comparative Studies in Pagan and Christian Historiography.  Ph.D. New York, 1974.  WCat, mfm.

Grégoire, Ant.  *Un problème phonétique du latin vulgaire.+  In Mélanges Paul Thomas.  Bruges:  Imprimerie Sainte-Catherine, 1930.  369-377.  PA 26 T5 1930.  digitus, non dicitus.

Gregory of Nazianzus.  Studies:  Asmus, Guignet, Hürth.

Gregory of Nazianzus.  Invectives against Julian.  In Orationes.  PG 38?  BR 60 A62 F3.  Text:  Bernardi, Karmann, King.  Studies:  Asmus (date).

Gregory of Nazianzus.  Epistulae.  Gallay.  ‘7 to Cesarius re Julian.

Gregory of Nyssa.  Opera.  PG 46.  For the chronology of the Gothic mutiny of 379, see Zuckerman.

Gregory of Nyssa.  Encomium of Theodore Tiro.  PG 46:736-748.

Gregory of Nyssa.  Vita Macrinae.  Text:  Maraval.

Gregory of Nyssa.  De vita beati Gregorii Thaumaturgi.  PG 46:893-958.  Armenia, 930B.  River Lykos 930ff.  City of Comana, 934C.  Check for invasions of mid third century.

Gregory of Nyssa.  Epistles.  ’19 to John, concerning Macrina.  Text:  Maraval.

Gregory Thaumaturgus [fl 250].  Opera.  PG 10:1020-1041;  Routh.  See Slusser.  Tr:  Heather and Matthews.  Life by Gregory of Nyssa.  Check:  AnBoll, BHG.  Canon ‘ 5 *since the Boranoi and Goths worked on these deeds of war, so they may become Boranoi and Goths to others+.

Grenet, Frantz.  *Regional interaction in Central Asia and North Western India in the Kidarite and Hephthalite periods.+  Proceedings of the British Academy.  FS H. Bailey.  116 (2002) 203-234, 8 plates.  AS 122 L5.  Biblio.

Grenet, Frantz, and Nicholas Sims-Williams.  *The historical context of the Sogdian ancient Letters.+  Transition periods in Iranian History.  Symposium 1985.  Paris:  Association pour l’avancement des études iraniennes, 1987.  101-122, maps.  DS 273 T73.  Letters discovered by Aurel Stein in 1907, date unknown, somewhere 2-6th century AD.

Griaznov, Mikhaïl Petrovich.  Kompleks arkheologicheskikh pamiatnikov u gory Tepseï na Enisee.  With other authors.  Novosibirsk:  Nauka, 1980.  GN 855 S5 K6.  Biblio.  Ienissei, up to the Christian era.

Gryaznov, Mikhaïl [Griaznov].  Sibérie du sud.  Archaeologia mundi.  Geneva:  Nagel, 1969.  Ienissei.

Griaznov, Mikhaïl Petrovich.  South Siberia.  Archaeologia mundi.  Geneva:  Nagel, 1969.  RomU DK 757 G894so.

Grillet, Bernard, and Guy Sabbah, eds, trs.  Sozomène:  Histoire ecclésiastique.  Paris:  BL, 1983-1996.  BR 160 S8 F7.  Greek by Bidez, transl by Festugière, revised by new editors.  First 4 books only.

Grimal, Pierre.  Les intentions de Properce et la composition du livre IV des Elégies.  Brussels:  Latomus, 1953.  PA 6646 G7.  Arethusa and map?

Grisart, A.  *La chronique de S. Jérôme, le lieu et la date de sa composition.+  Helikon 2 (1962) 248-258.  DE 1 H4.

Groningen (Dutch) Commentators on Ammianus Marcellinus.  1935-present.  Pims and Roba.

Jonge, Pieter de.  Sprachliche und historische Kommentar zu Ammianus Marcellinus, XIV,1-7.  Vol 1.  Groningen:  Wolters, 1935.  Roba PA 6205 J65 vol 1.

Jonge, Pieter de.  Sprachliche und historische Kommentar zu Ammianus Marcellinus, XIV,2 Hälfte (c – 11).  Vol 2.  Groningen:  Wolters, 1939.  Roba PA 6205 J65 vol 2.

Jonge, Pieter de.  Philological and Historical Commentary on Ammianus Marcellinus XV,1-5.  Vol 3.  Groningen:  Wolters, 1948.  Roba PA 6205 J65 vol 3.

Jonge, Pieter de.  Philological and Historical Commentary on Ammianus Marcellinus XV,6-13.  Vol 4.  Groningen:  Wolters, 1953.  Roba PA 6205 J65 vol 4.

Jonge, Pieter de.  Philological and Historical Commentary on Ammianus Marcellinus XVIII.  Vol 5.  Groningen:  Bouma, 1980.  Roba PA 6205 J65 vol 5.

Jonge, Pieter de.  Philological and Historical Commentary on Ammianus Marcellinus XIX.  Vol 6.  Groningen:  Bouma, 1982.  Roba PA 6205 J65 vol 6.

Boeft, Jan den, Daniël den Hengst, and Hans C Teitler.  Philological and Historical Commentary on Ammianus Marcellinus XX.  Groningen:  Forsten, 1987.  PA 6205 B6.  For Olympias and the Armenian alliance.

Boeft, Jan den, Daniël den Hengst, and Hans C Teitler.  Philological and Historical Commentary on Ammianus Marcellinus XXI.  Groningen:  Forsten, 1991.  PA 6205 B644.

Boeft, Jan den, Jan Willem Drijvers, Daniël den Hengst, and Hans C Teitler.  Philological and Historical Commentary on Ammianus Marcellinus XXII.  Groningen:  Forsten, 1995.  PA 6205 B645.

Boeft, Jan den, Jan Willem Drijvers, Daniël den Hengst, and Hans C Teitler.  Philological and Historical Commentary on Ammianus Marcellinus XXIII.  Groningen:  Forsten, 1998.  PA 6205 P48.  C II anxious over the Armenian alliance, Julian very superior, according to AM 23,2,11 (Boeft 248).  Date of her death disputed but cannot be before AD 360 (249).

Boeft, Jan den, Jan Willem Drijvers, Daniël den Hengst, and Hans C Teitler.  Philological and Historical Commentary on Ammianus Marcellinus XXIV.  Leiden:  Brill.  PA 6205 P45 2002.

Gros, Etienne, and V. Boissé.  L’Histoire romaine de Cassius Dion.  10 vols.  Paris:  Didot, 1848-1889.  WCat 11.

Grützmacher, Georg.  Hieronymus:  Eine biographische Studie zur alten Kirchengeschichte.  3 vols.  Berlin, 1901-1908.  ROBA BR 1720 J5 G7;  PIMS BQ 6049 G8.

Grützmacher, Georg.  Synesios von Kyrene:  ein Charakterbild aus dem Untergang des Hellenentums.  Leipzig:  Dechert, 1913.  B 703 S74 G7.  Check Catastasis, Unnigardae.

Grumel, Venance.  *L’Illyricum.+  REB 9 (1951) 5-46.  See Slavonic.bib for more.

Gryson, Roger, et al, editors.  Commentaires de Jérôme sur le prophète Isaïe.  (Vetus Latina:  Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel, 23, 27, 30, 35, 36…) Freiburg:  Verlag Herder, 1993-.  BS 74 A8.  Up to Book 15, inclusively.  See Isaiah.bib.

Gsell, Stéphane.  *Panégyrique de Trajan.+  MEFRA 7 (1887) 339-382.

Guenther, Otto, ed.  Epistulae Imperatorum Pontificum Aliorum inde ab A. CCCLXVII usque ad A. DLIII datae:  Avellana quae dicitur collectio.  CSEL, 35.  Vienna, 1885.  BR 60 C6.

Güterbock, Karl.  *Römisch-Armenien und die römischen Satrapien in 4-6 Jhdt.+  In FS Schirmer.  Königsberg:  Hartung, 1900.  Roba K F 4174 1900A;  WCat 5.

Guidi, Ignatius, ed, tr.  Chronicon Edessenum.  In Brooks, Chronica minora.  CSCO Scriptores Syri, series 3, tome 4, part 1.  Leipzig:  Harrassowitz, 1903.  1-11.  See also:  Duval, Hallier, Wright.  Hun raid in 395, see AUTHORS.

Guidi, Ignatius, ed.  Check PO for other works.  PIMS.

Guignet, M.  S. Grégoire de Nazianze et la rhétorique.  Paris:  Picard, 1911.  PIMS BQ 1444 G9.

Guinot, Jean-Noël, tr.  Théodoret de Cyr:  Commentaire sur Isaïe.  With reprint of Greek edition by A. Möhle.  3 vols.  Paris:  Le Cerf, 1980-1984.  BS 1515.3 T44.  Biblio useful for Julian?

Gutschmid, Alfred von.  *Ueber die Glaubwürdigkeit der armenischen Geschichte des Moses von Khoren.+  Berichte über die Verhandlungen der königlich sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig.  28 (1876) 1-43.  AS 182 S214.

Gutschmid, Alfred von.  *Agathangelos.+  Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft.  31 (1877) 1-60.  PJ 5 D4.  Reprinted 1889.  Covers events from mid-third century including Zenobia, Shahpur, the Romans, the Goths, 50f.  *Ebensowenig werden wir den Zug, dass Trdat Hunnen (d.i. Kaukasusvölker) angeworben und die Bevölkerung eines grossen Theils von Persien in die Sklaverei geschleppt habe, als unhistorisch zu beanstanden brauchen+ (52).

Gutschmid, Alfred von.  *Agathangelos.+  In his Kleine Schriften.  Ed:  Franz Rühl.  5 vols.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1889.  3:339-420.  WCat McMaster.

Gutschmid, Alfred von.  *Diamerismos.+  In his Kleine Schriften.  Ed:  Franz Rühl.  5 vols.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1889.  5:240ff;  585ff.

Gutzwiller, Hans, tr.  Claudius Mamertinus:  Die Neujahrsrede des Konsuls Claudius Mamertinus vor dem Kaiser Julian.  Basel 1942;  reprint Hildesheim:  Olms, 1980.  DG 317 C4.

Haarhoff, Theodor Johannes.  Schools of Gaul, a Study of Pagan and Christian Education in the Last Century of the Western Empire.  Oxford, 1920;  2nd ed 1958.  LA 96 H3.  Jerome?

Haase, Felix.  *Die Abfassungszeit der Edessenischen Chronik.+  Oriens Christianus.  NS 7/8 (1918) 88-96.  DS 1 065 Yellow Apex.  Written in ca 540 using episcopal lists, Joshua Stylite, hagiography and a history of the Persian war.

Haase, Felix.  *Die Chronik des Josua Stylites.+  Oriens Christianus.  NS 9 (1920) 62-73.  DS 1 065 Yellow Apex.  Dated 506/507, re Persian war.

Haase, Felix.  *Die Abfassungszeit der armenischen Geschichte des Moses von Khoren.+  Oriens Christianus.  NS 10/11 (1923) 77.  DS 1 065 Yellow Apex.

Haekanson, Lennart.  *Problems of Textual Criticism and Interpretation in Lucan’s de bello civili.+  Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society.  205 (1979) 26-51.  P 11 C2.  Re Housman and Gotoff.  Scyths.

Häusler, Alexander.  *Zu den sozialökonomischen Verhältnissen in der Cernjachov-Kultur+  Zeitschrift für Archäologie.  13 (1979) 23-65.  Biblio.  Mapping the Goths’ empire.

Hagedorn, Dieter, and Reinhold Merkelbach.  *Ein neues Fragment aus Porphyrios’ Gegen die Christen.+  VChr 20 (1966) 86-90.  PIMS.

Hagendahl, Harald.  Studia Ammianea.  Uppsala, 1921.  PA 6205 Z5 H3.  Rev:  Gardthausen PhW 42 (1922) 50-51.  Philological notes.

Hagendahl, Harald.  *Zu Ammianus Marcellinus.+  In Strena philologica für P. Persson.  Uppsala, 1922.  74.  WCat 20.

Hagendahl, Harald.  *De abundantia sermonis Ammianei.+  Eranos 22 (1924) 161-216.  PA 9 C7.

Hagendahl, Harald.  Orosius und Justinus:  Ein Beitrag zur Justinischen Textgeschichte.  Göteborgs Högskolas Aersskrift, 47,12.  Göteborg, 1941.  Not AS 284.  Check Z 242 T6 N33;  NA 275 H67.  Rev:  Klotz 1942.  Does Jerome cite Justinus?

Hagendahl, Harald.  *Methods of Citation in Post-classical Latin Prose.+  Eranos 45 (1947) 114-128.  PA 9 E7.

Hagendahl, Harald.  Latin Fathers and the Classics:  A Study on the Apologists, Jerome and Other Christian Writers.  Göteborg:  Elanders, 1958.  Roba BR 67 H3;  Pims BQ 5016 H22.

Hahn, István.  *Der Tod Julians des Abtrünnigen.+  Klio 53 (1960) 225-232.  Date of Libanius, Or 24.

Halkin, Louis.  *Tib. Pl. Silvanus, légat de Mésie sous Néron.+  L’antiquité classique.  3 (1934) 121-161.  DE 1 A43.  Olbia, Scythia.  Re:  CIL  14:3608.

Halkin, François, ed.  Bibliotheca hagiographica graeca.  3 vols.  Brussels:  Société des Bollandistes, 1957.  Roba Z 7844 B5;  Pims Z 7844 H35.  Supplement, 1969, at Pims.  Sava Gothicus.

Halkin, François.  *La passion des sept évêques de Cherson (Crimée).+  AB 102 (1984) 253-261.  PIMS.  Edition of BHG 2652.  Tauroskythai.  Cf Karlin-Hayter and Genesios.  Compounds in ancient nomenclature:  cf Celtibers.

Hall, John Barrie, ed.  Claudii Claudiani carmina.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1985.  PA 6372 A2.

Hallier, Ludwig, ed, tr.  Untersuchungen über die Edessenische Chronik mit dem syrischen Text und einer Uebersetzung.  Texte und Untersuchungen, 9,1.  Leipzig:  Hinrichs, 1892.  PIMS BQ 25 T3.  Translation of Guidi’s edition, see Duval for review.  Re-edition of Assemani’s ed in his Bibliotheca Orientalis.  Date of Hun raid, 104.  See Author.file.  Heraclius.

Hamblenne, P.  *La longévité de Jérôme:  Prosper avait-il raison?+  Latomus 28 (1969) 1081-1119.  Accepts Prosper on the basis of word study, puer, senex, etc.

Hammond, Bammel CP.  *The Last Ten Years of Rufinus’ Life and the Date of His Move South from Aquileia.+  JThS NS 28 (1977) 372-429.  VUEM.

Hammond, Bammel CP.  *Products of Fifth-Century Scriptoria Preserving Conventions used by Rufinus of Aquileia, I.+  JThS NS 29 (1978) 366-391.

Hammond, Bammel CP.  *Products of Fifth-Century Scriptoria Preserving Conventions used by Rufinus of Aquileia, II.+  JThS NS 30 (1979) 430-462.

Hammond, Bammel CP.  *Products of Fifth-Century Scriptoria Preserving Conventions used by Rufinus of Aquileia, III.+  JThS NS 34 (1984) 347-393.

Han Annals.  See Howorth, Wylie.

Hansen, Olaf.  *Die Berliner Hephtaliten-Fragmente.+  La nouvelle Clio.  3 (1951) 41-69.  D 1 N83.  Coins of the Hephthalites inscribed OIONO vs HIONO, unresolved (45f).  *Dieses neue O‑Zeichen … ist vielleicht eigentlich ein Φ+ (46).  *der Name des Königs Vima Kadphises in griechischen Zeichen OOHMA geschrieben … OOHMA kann man daher *hvima lesen+ (46n1).

Hansen, Olaf.  *Ein neues Hephthalitenfragment.+  La Parola del passato.  6 (1951) 361-365.  Shah, melek, ghwt’a.  Türki words?

Hansen, R.  *Die Chorographie des Pomponius Mela.+  Jahrbücher für classische Philologie.  117 (1878) 575-612.  PA 3 N65.

Hargis, Jeffrey Wayne.  Against the Christians:  The Rise of Early Anti-Christian Polemic.  New York:  Peter Lang, 1999.  BR 160.3 H37.  Re:  Celsus, Porphyry, Julian.

Harmand, René.  *Valérius Flaccus et les Barbares.+  RPhil.  23 (1899) 37-50.  Alans, 39.

Harmatta, János.  *The Dissolution of the Hun Empire.+  AAASH.  2 (1952) 277-305.  DB 920 A15.  *It has been pointed out repeatedly that the Hiung-nu who captured Lo-yang in 311 are referred to in an old Sogdian letter as xwn, a datum that proves the identity of the Hiung-nu and the Huns+ (283).  It does not:  Greek authors called these xwn Chyonitai;  they used the name Ounnoi for another nation altogether.

Harmatta, Janós.  *Eine neue Quelle zur Geschichte der Seidenstrasse.+  Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte.  (1971, vol 2) 135-143.  HC 281 J35.  Old Sogdian letters, text and translation.

Harmatta, János.  *Goten und Hunnen in Pannonien.+  Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.  19 (1971) 293-297.

Harmatta, János.  *Archaeological Evidence for the Date of the Sogdian “Ancient” Letters.+  Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.  24 (1976) 71-86.

Harmatta, János.  *Arrival of the Huns in Western Europe.+  Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.  24 (1976) 277-283.  CC 1 A19.

Harmon, Austin Morris.  The Clausula in Ammianus Marcellinus.  Transactions of the Connecticut Academy, 16.  Yale UP, 1910.  WCat 25.

Harnack, Adolf [von].  Die Chronologie der altchristlichen Literatur.  4 vols.  Leipzig:  Hinrichs, 1904;  reprint 1958.  Roba, Pims BR 67 H35.

Harnack, Adolf [von].  *Porphyrius, Gegen die Christen, 15 Bücher, Zeugnisse und Referate.+  Abhandlungen der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil-hist Kl., 1:1-115.  Berlin, 1916.  AS 182 B34.  For critique, see Benoît.

Harnack, Adolf [von].  *Neue Fragmente… Porphyrius, Gegen die Christen, 15 Bücher.+  Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos-hist Klasse.  ….. (1921) 266-284; 834.  AS 182 B343.  Incomplete, starts in 1922.  WCat?

Harrauer, Hermann.  A Bibliography of Propertius.  Hildesheim:  Gerstenberg, 1973.  Z 8713.59 H37.  From 1472 to 1973.  Arethusa, maps?

Harries, Jill.  *Prudentius and Theodosius.+  Latomus 43 (1984) 69-84.

Harries, Jill.  *Sozomen and Eusebius:  The Lawyer as Church Historian in the Fifth Century.+  In The Inheritance of Historiography, 350-900.  Ed:  C. Holdsworth and Timothy Peter Wiseman.  Exeter UP, 1986.  45-52.  D 17 I54.

Hartke, Werner.  Geschichte und Politik im spätantiken Rom.  Klio, Beiheft, 45.  1940.

Hartmann, Karl.  *Ueber das Verhältnis des Cassius Dio zur Parthergeschichte des Flavius Arrianus.+  Philologus 74 (1917) 73-91.  Alans, 88ff.

Hartranft, Chester D., tr.  Sozomenus:  Church History from AD 323-425.  NPNF, second series, 2.  1890;  reprint Grand Rapids, Mi.:  Eerdmans, 1979.  179-427.  BR 60 S46.

Haskins, Charles Edmund, ed.  M. Annaei Lucani Pharsalia.  With introduction by William Emerton Heitland and notes by C. E. Haskins.  London:  Bell, 1887;  reprint Hildesheim:  Olms, 1971.  PA 6478 A2.  Suggests allusion to Mithridatic war, check.  Proposes Alani are really Albani, page 280.

Hatch, William Henry Paine.  *The Origin and Meaning of the Term Uncial.+  Classical Philology.  30 (1935) 247-254.  Expression first recorded by Jerome.

Haury, Jakob.  *Petros Patrikios Magister und Petros Patrikios Barzymes.+  BZ 14 (1905) 529-531.  Procopius and Justinian.  Contains fragment on Persian war.

Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter, tr.  Basilius von Caesarea:  Briefe.  Stuttgart:  Hiersemann, 1971-1973.  ROBA BR 65 B32 H3.  Biblio.  Vol 1, 1971, repr 1990;  vol 2, 1973;  vol 3, 1973, repr 1993.

Hauser-Meury, Marie-Madeleine.  Prosopographie zu den Schriften Gregors von Nazianz.  Theophaneia, 13.  Bonn:  Hanstein, 1960.  PIMS BQ 1442 H3.  Anything on Julian?

Hauvette, Amédée.  *La géographie d’Hérodote.+  Revue de philologie. 13 (1889) 1-24.  Pyrene = city in the Alps, 19f.

Haverfield, F.  *Zu Aurelius Victor.+  Hermes 20 (1885) 159-160.  Ms reading.

Haverfield, F.  *Scholia on Claudian.+  Journal of Philology.  17 (1888) 271-273.  Old Class.  In Rufinum, astronomy, geography.

Haverfield, F.  *Tacitus During the Late Roman Period and the Middle Ages.+  JRS 6 (1916) 196-201.  Jerome mentions Tacitus as the author of a history in 30 vols (= Annals and Histories), page 199.  Orosius *mentions Tacitus by name fairly often, and quotes the Histories recognizably about a dozen times+ (199).  Also Cassiodorus.

Havet, Louis.  *Sur Pomponius Méla.+  Revue de philologie.  7 (1883) 5-6.  Emendations, important.  Sarmates et Vistule, 3,4,33.  Scythie 1,1,18, 1,3,18.

Haywood, Mark S.  *Some Geographical Etymologising in Claudian (BG I 504-526).+  Mnemosyne 40 (1987) 425-426.  Important for method.

Heather, Peter J.  *The Anti-Scythian Tirade in Synesius’ De Regno.+  Phoenix 42 (1988) 152-172.  Footnotes make plain his dependence on H Wolfram.

Heather, Peter J.  Goths and Romans, 332-489.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1991.  Pims, Roba D 137 H43.  Leaves out Gothic
participation in Constantius II’s war against the Limigantes, their mid-third century expansionism.  Misrepresentation of their place and role on the political checkerboard.

Heather, Peter J., and John F. Matthews.  The Goths in the Fourth Century.  Liverpool University Press, 1991.  D 137 G8.  Texts include Gregory Thaumaturgus, Themistius, Ulfila.  Gajdukevich not mentioned.  Boradoi/Boranoi, p. 3, for which see Gregory Th and Zosimus.

Heather, Peter J., and John F. Matthews.  *The Sintana de Mures-Cernjachov Culture.+  In their The Goths in the Fourth Century.  Liverpool University Press, 1991.  51-101.  D 137 G8.  *Culture associated with the spread of Gothic power in the period before Hunnic nomads [...] later third and fourth century A.D.+ (54).  *Settlements tend to be found along main river valleys and secondary valleys leading off from them+ (56).

Heather, Peter J.  *Martyrs and Martyrologies.+  In The Goths in the Fourth Century.  Ed:  PJ Heather and JF Matthews.  Liverpool University Press, 1991.  103-131.  St. Sabas.

Heather, Peter J.  The Goths.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1996.  PIMS D 137 H425.  *A number of … observations … minimize the extent of any possible Scandinavian contribution to the Wielbark culture+ (25).  *The core of any argument in favour of a link between the Goths and Scandinavia remains, therefore, the Getica’s account of Berig’s migration+ (26).  *The mutually confirmatory information of ancient sources and the archaeological record both suggest that Goths can be first identified beside the Vistula+ (30).

Heather, Peter J.  *Goths and Huns, c. 320-425.+  Chapter 16 of The Late Empire, AD 337-425.  Vol 13 of The Cambridge Ancient History.  Cambridge University Press, 1998.  487-513, map.  Roba D 57 C25 1970.  Notable for what it leaves out.  *the Huns.  Of their origins, Ammianus report that they come from the north, near the “ice-bound ocean” (xxxi.2.1)+ (499).

Heather, Peter J., and David Moncur, trs.  Politics, Philosophy and Empire in the Fourth Century:  Select Orations of Themistius.  Liverpool University Press, 2001.  PA 4441 T5 A26.

Hecker, H.  Zur Geschichte des Kaisers Julianus:  Eine Quellenstudie.  Progr Kreuznach, 1886.  Pamphlet, WCat 6.

Hecquet-Noti, Nicole, ed, tr.  Avit de Vienne:  Histoire spirituelle.  2 vols.  Paris:  Le Cerf, 1999-2005.  PA 6229 A9 D45.

Hellegouarc’h, Joseph, ed, tr.  Eutrope:  Abrégé d’histoire romaine.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1999.  PA 6384 A214.  Biblio.  Notes under main entry.

Helm, Rudolf.  Eusebios’ Chronik und ihre Tabellenform.  Abhandlungen der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil-hist Kl., vol 1923,4.  Berlin, 1924.  AS 182 B34.

Helm, Rudolf.  *De Eusebii in Chronicorum libro auctoribus.+  Eranos 22 (1924) 1-40.  PA 9 E7.  Not recent history.

Helm, Rudolf.  *Hieronymus und Eutrop.+  RhM NS 76 (1927) 138-170;  254-306.  Have xerox 296f for Sarmatian war.  Barnes says important.

Helm, Rudolf, ed.  Die Chronik des Hieronymus (Hieronymi Chronicon).  Vol 7? of Eusebius Werke.  Die Griechische Christliche Schriftsteller, 34?.  Leipzig:  Hinrich, 1926?.  Cited Jovanovic, exact text required.  AD 334 (234) *Sarmatae Limigantes dominos suos, qui nunc Argaragantes uocantur, facta manu in Romanos solum expulerunt+ (Donalson’s translation incorrect).

Helm, Rudolf, ed.  Die Chronik des Hieronymus (Hieronymi Chronicon).  Second Part:  Lesarten der Handschriften und Quellenkritischer Apparat zur Chronik.  Vol 7 of Eusebius Werke.  Die Griechische Christliche Schriftsteller, 34.  Leipzig:  Hinrich, 1926.  BR 160 E37.  Goths, 233.

Helm, Rudolf.  *Hieronymus’ Zusätze in Eusebius’ Chronik und ihr Wert für die Literaturgeschichte.+  Philologus, Supplementband.  21,2 (1929).  PA 3 P5.  Organized by author.  Pliny 87.  Rev:  Supplément Budé 2 (1930) 170-172.

Helm, Rudolf.  *Untersuchungen über den auswärtigen diplomatischen Verkehr des römischen Reiches im Zeitalter der Spätantike.+  Archiv für Urkundenforschung.  12 (1932) 375-436. CD 9 A7.

Helm, Rudolf.  *Lucanus.+  Lustrum 1 (1956) 163-228.  PA 3 L8, 12th Apex.

Hempel, Heinrich.  Gotisches Elementarbuch.  Berlin:  de Gruyter, 1962.  PD 1123 H4.

Hengst, Daniël den.  See Groningen Commentary.

Hennig, Richard.  *Die Anfänge des kulturellen und Handelsverkehrs in der Mittelmeerwelt.+  Historische Zeitschrift.  139 (…) 1-33.  D 1 H74.  Amber, 25ff.  Long distance trade in antiquity.

Henning, Walter Bruno Hermann.  *The Great Inscription of Sapur I.+  BSOS 9 (1937/39) 823-849.  Discovered in 1936 by the Oriental Institute of Chicago, published by Sprengling in spite of his inexperience.  *The sequence Calecome-Batnae gives a further valuable point:  it shows that the enumeration of towns is not a list of towns chosen at random, but an itinerary.  Not, of course, the itinerary of a peaceful traveller, but the route taken by Sâpûr in his attack on Syria [in 256]+ (826).  Shahr = provincia (828).  When Shapur vanquished Valerian, he claimed suzerainty over all the Roman provinces, which he enumerates (831-833).

Henning, Walter Bruno Hermann.  *Two Manichaean Magical Texts With an Excursus on the Parthian ending -endeh.+  BSOS 12 (1941) 39-66.  *II:  A Parthian Amulet+  47-57, plate.  Includes emendations of Sprengling’s edition of the Gesta Saporis.  For the NW limits:  *Up to Mount Caucasus and the Gate of the Alans+ (54).  Insists that in Shahpur’s inscription, the eastern limit of the Sassanian state is Peshawar, 53.  Should read:  *the definition of his eastern possessions, therefore ends with these words ‘…Paratan and Hindastan and the Kushan country up to Peshawar and up to the limits of Kashghar, Sogdiana, and Tashkent+ (54).  This reading approved by Ghirshman.

Henning, Walter Bruno Hermann.  *The date of the Sogdian Ancient Letters.+  BSOAS 12 (1947/48) 601-615.  Emendation on Reichelt’s edition;  with text and translation.  Dates letters to AD 313, based on the destruction of Lo-yang by the Hsiung-nu, which took place in AD 311 (603f).  Sogdian writers call the Hsiung-nu xwn, line 18, page 604 for Sogdian, and p. 606 for English translation, which Henning gives as Huns (s/b Hsiung-nu).  *China itself not only appears as [Chinastan...] but is also referred to as “inside”+ (609).  *Thus xwn can be read as Hun or Hûn or Xun or Xûn+ (615).  This name xwn is *employed not of nomads of vague definition, but actually of the genuine Far-Eastern Hsiung-nu [...] well before the time when either the European Huns or the tribes that became known as Hûna to the Indians made their first appearance in history+ (615).  Compare article with MHelfen’s interpretation.  *One could refer to Skt. dranga “frontier-watch and station”+ (605n4).  *Turning now to the West, we have a firm point in drw’n = Thurwan = Ptolemy’s Throana = Tun-huang+ (609).  *As a vehicle of communicating foreign, above all Chinese, names the Sogdian script may well claim to be the worst imaginable, even without the complication of vacillating orthography+ (611).  Sogdian New Year, early September (614n1).  *Yet here we find a name that is indistinguishable from that of the Hunas, Hounnoi, Hunni, Arm. Honk…+ (615).

Henry, René, ed, tr.  Photius:  Bibliothèque.  Vol 1:  Codices 1-84.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1959.  PA 5330 B513.  ’80 *Olympiodore+ 166-187.  *L’auteur parle de Donat et des Huns et de l’adresse extrême de leurs chefs à l’arc;  l’historien lui-même est allé en ambassade chez eux et auprès de Donat.  Il fait un récit dramatique de sa course errante sur mer [thalassês] et du danger qu’il courut, et il rapporte comment on trompa Donat par un serment pour le mettre à mort, au mépris de toute loi, et comment Charaton, le premier des rois, s’emporta à cause de ce meurtre+ (p. 173).  Galla Placidia:  *le roi Honorius, son frère, lui prit la main malgré elle et la mit dans celle de Constance, auquel il la donnait+ (180).

Herding, Wilhelm, ed.  Hieronymi de viris inlustribus liber.  Leipzig, 1879.  Old Class LL .C H541h.  Page 65 for Strido, cited Jovanovic 1997.

Hermelin, Ingeborg.  Zu den Briefen des Bischofs Synesios.  Uppsala:  Almqvist and Wiksell, 1934.  WCat 24.

Hermes.  See early indices for *Stellenregister+ to track down author, title, passage.

Herodotus.  Histories.  Text:  Dindorf, Godley (Loeb), Hude, Legrand, Rawlinson.  Studies:  How & Wells, Immerwahr, Powell, Stein, Windberg.  Mentions a North-Eastern trade route across Russia, 4,21ff, cited by Myres (608).  Compare with Beckers and the Amber route across Russia.  Hyperboreans and Delians, 4,33.  Paktyike, 3,202 …;  4,44 (Pashtun).  Rhipaean mountains.

Herrmann, Albert.  Alte Geographie des unteren Oxusgebiets.  Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Phil.-Hist., NS 15,4.  Berlin, 1914.  AS 182 G812.  Contains comparison of Massagetai in Strabo vs Herodotus.

Hertlein, Friedrich Karl Gottlob.  *Zu Julians Briefen.+  Hermes 3 (1868) 309-312.

Hertlein, Friedrich Karl Gottlob.  *Ein Edikt des Kaisers Julian.+  Hermes 8 (1874) 167-176.  With note by Mommsen.  Christian education.

Hertlein, Friedrich Karl Gottlob, ed.  Juliani imperatoris quae supersunt praeter reliquias apud Cyrillum omnia  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1875-1876.  VUPT STORAGE PA 30 J942qH;  B2 LGr J94H;  WCat many.

Hertz, Martin.  *Aulus Gellus und Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Hermes 8 (1873) 257-302.  Style.

Herwerden, Henricus van.  *Ad Zosimi historiam novam ed. Mendelssohn.+  Mnemosyne 16 (1888) 348-353.

Herwerden, Henricus van.  *Ad Zosimi historiam novam ed. Mendelssohn.+  Mnemosyne 37 (1909) 338-340.

Herzfeld, Ernst.  *Khursaw Parwez und der Taq-Vasten.+  Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran.  9 (1938) 91-158, plates.  DS 261 A1 A67.

Herzfeld, Ernst.  The Persian Empire.  Wiesbaden:  Steiner, 1968.  DS 44.9 H47 Roba;  DS 44.9 H47 ROM.

Herzog, Reinhart, ed.  Restauration und Erneuerung:  die lateinische Literatur von 284 bis 374 N. Chr.  Vol 5 of Handbuch der lateinischen Literatur der Antike.  Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 8, 5.  Munich:  Beck, 1989.  PA 6007 H35. Historians, geographers, Church polemics.

Heseler, Peter.  *Die Kirchengeschichte des Gelasius von Kaisarea.+  Jahrbuch der Görres-Gesellschaft.  1929/30 (1931) 90.  Check P Hist G 1 (1880) – 18 (1897) and D 1 H76.

Heseler, Peter.  *Neues zur Vita Constantini des Codex Angelinus 22.+  Byzantion 10 (1935) 399-402.  Philostorgius.

Heyne, Christian Gottlob.  Bibliography.  2002.  Z 8402.54 H33.  Zosimus?

Hilberg, Isidorus, ed.  Sancti Eusebii Hieronymi Epistulae.  Vol 1:  Epistulae I-LXX.  1910.  2nd edition.  CSEL, 54.  Vienna, 1996.  Roba BR 60 C6.  With apparatus, but no index or table of contents.

Hilberg, Isidorus, ed.  Sancti Eusebii Hieronymi Epistulae.  Vol 2:  Epistulae LXXI-CXX.  CSEL, 55.  Vienna, 1912.

Hilberg, Isidorus, ed.  Sancti Eusebii Hieronymi Epistulae.  Vol 3:  Epistulae CXXI-CLIV.  CSEL, 56.  Vienna, 1918.  Roba BR 60 C6.

Hirschfeld, Otto.  *Der Name Germani bei Tacitus und sein Aufkommen bei den Römern.+  In Beiträge zur alten Geschichte und Geographie:  FS Heinrich Kiepert.  Berlin:  Reimer, 1898.  Pages? …  Review Le Moyen-Age.  11 (1898) 487.  Check DE 3.5 B4.  WCat 20, contains Gelzer *Väter von Nikea.+  Ask Pims.

Hirth, Friedrich.  China and the Roman Orient.  1885.  Tr:  …  New York, 1966.  DS 6 H6.  Description of West in Wei-lio.

Hirth, Friedrich.  *The Story of Chang K’ién, China’s Pioneer in Western Asia:  Text and Translation of Chapter 123 of Ssïma Tsi’én’s Shï-ki.+  Journal of the American Oriental Society.  37 (1917) 89-152.  Roba PJ 2 A5.  Biblio, re Brosset 1828.  Ssïma Tsi’én:  the Herodotus of China, completed his work in BC 99 (91).  The Khan of the Hiung-nu *made him governor of the Western ordu [city, or fortified camp]+ (100).  *The An-ts’ai [= Aorsi], called A-lan in later Chinese records+ (137).  Also:  Yüe-tchi.

Historia acephala.  Ed:  Fromen 1914;  Martin and Albert (Budé).  Attributed to Athanasius, and edited with his works.

Hoefer, Ulrich.  *Pontosvölker, Ephoros und Apollonios von Rhodos.+  RhM 59 (1904) 542-564.

Hoefer, Ulrich.  *Zur alten Geographen.+  RhM NS 73 (1920) 342-349.  Mela, Danube, etc.

Hoefer, Ulrich.  *Pseudo-Skymnos und Eratosthenes.+  RhM NS 77 (1928) 127-152.  Pseudo-Scymnus, Scyths?

Hoefer, Ulrich.  *Die Periegese des sog Skymnos.+  RhM 82 (1933) 67-95.

Höfler, C. von.  *Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der alten Geschichte, vii:  Kritische Bemerkungen über Zosimos und den Grad seiner Glaubwürdigkeit.+  Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte.  95 (1879) 521-565.  AS 142 A53.

Hoffmann, E., ed.  Augustini de civitate dei.  2 vols.  CSEL.  Vienna, 1899-1900.

Hoffmann, Joseph, tr.  Porphyry:  Against the Christians.  1994.  BR 160.3 R6713.  Daniel, four monarchies.

Holl, Karl [Ch].  *Die Zeitfolge des ersten origenistischen Streits.+  Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos-hist Klasse.  9 (1916).  AS 182 B343, start in 1922.  Date of Jerome’s Adversus Jovinianum, with note by Adolf Jüllicher.

Holl, Karl [Ch].  Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Kirchengeschichte.  Tübingen:  Mohr, 1928;  reprint 1948.  BR 142 H6.  Vol 2 for 1916.

Holum, Kenneth G.  *Pulcheria’s Crusade AD 421-22 and the Ideology of Imperial Victory.+  GRBS 18 (1977) 153-22.  Pulcheria brought relics of St. Stephen to CPL, see sermon by Proclus.  Long cross solidi:  *The goddess Victory of the Coins, like dedication of a cross on Golgotha, associated the symbol of Christ’s passion with victory+ (165).

Holum, Kenneth G.  *The Trier Ivory, adventus Ceremonial, and the Relics of St. Stephen.+  With Gary Vikan.  DOP 33 (1979) 113-133.

Homo, Léon [Pol].  Essai sur le règne de l’Empereur Aurélien (270-275).  BEFAR, 89.  Paris, 1904.

Homo, Léon.  *L’empereur Gallien et la crise de l’Empire romain au IIIe siècle.+  RH 113 (1913) 1-22;  225-267.  Boranoi, passim. Defense of Gallienus against the SHA, cf Ammianus who compares Constantius to Gallienus.

Honigmann, Ernst.  *Zur Geographie des Ptolemaeos.+  Klio 20 (1926) 202-214.  Review of Cuntz.  Balkan and Danube geography.

Honigmann, Ernest.  Die Ostgrenze des byzantinischen Reiches von 363 bis 1071 nach griechischen, arabischen, syrischen und armenischen Quellen.  Corpus Bruxellense Hist Byz, 3.  Brussels, 1936.  PIMS DF 552 V33.

Honigmann, Ernest.  *Recherches sur les listes des Pères de Nicée et de Constantinople.+  Byzantion 11 (1936) 429-436.  *basé sur le principe géographique, c-à-d en groupant les évêchés d’après les provinces auxquelles ils appartiennent+ (430).  Sources for signatures, 440f.

Skythías
142. Terentios poleôs Tomeôn
143. Etherios poleôs Khersonêsou (page 443).

Honigmann, Ernest.  *La liste originale des Pères de Nicée.+  Byzantion 14 (1939) 17-76.

Honigmann, Ernest.  *Les Pères de Nicée.+  Byzantion 16 (1942/43) 23.

Honigmann, Ernest.  *The Patriarchate of Antioch:  A Revision of Le Quien and the Notitia Antiochena.+  Traditio 5 (1947) 135-161.  Biblio.  Re Devresse, Antioche, mostly fifth century.

Honigmann, Ernest.  *Une liste inédite des Pères de Nicée.+  Byzantion 20 (1950) 63-71.  ’84 Theophylos Gotthias (67).

Honigmann, Ernest.  *Annianus Deacon of Celeda (415 AD).+  In his  Patristic Studies.  Studi e testi, 173.  Vatican, 1953.  54-58.  Pims BQ 177 H77.  Orosius and Pelagius.

Honigmann, Ernest, and André Maricq.  Recherches sur les *Res gestae divi Saporis+.  Mémoires de l’Académie royale de Belgique.  47,4.  Brussels, 1953.  AS 242 B325.  Only last chapter by Honigmann.  Le Kusansahr, 98ff.  RG *au milieu du IIIe siècle+ (9).  Notes in article.  Lazare de Pharbi, PH 85, Peroz tué par les Hephthalites en 484 (53).  Ghirshman for critique.  Agathange, PH, I,2:  *après la chute des Arsacides et l’avènement des Sassanides en Iran, le roi arsacide d’Arménie Xosrov fait passer le Caucase aux Huns pour qu’ils envahissent le territoire de l’Asorestan jusqu’aux portes de Ctésiphon+ (50).  See Garitte for Agathange.  *Comme pour ne laisser subsister aucun doute, le texte précise que les Portes [Caspiennes] se trouvent dans le pays des Huns.  Markwart se débarasse de ce membre de phrase en déclarant qu’il ne se rapporte naturellement pas aux Portes Caspiennes, mais qu’il constitue l’intitulé de la partie suivante du texte.  La phrase suivante, qui enchaîne:  et ultra easdem portas…, rend cette explication impossible.  Dès lors, comment douter qu’il s’agisse de Derbend, si souvent appelée “Porte des Huns” par les Arméniens? (83f).+   Translation of passage:  *Bazgun regio et lingua eius, quae portis Caspii et mari, in terra Hunnorum sitis, contigua est seque usque ad eas extendit+ (82).

Honigmann, Ernest.  *Gélase de Césarée et Rufin d’Aquilée.+   Bulletin de la Classe des lettres et des sciences morales et politiques:  Académie royale de Belgique.  5th series 40 (1954) 122-161.  AS 242 B312.

Honigmann, Ernest.  Trois mémoires posthumes d’histoire et de géographie de l’orient chrétien.  Ed:  Paul Devos.  Mémoires de l’Académie royale de Belgique, 54,6.  Brussels, 1961.  Roba AS 242 B325;  BQX 5422 H6 Pims.  Biblio of Honigmann.  Council of CPL 394 under Rufinus.  Anything on Crimea?

Horsfall, Nicholas.  *Illusion and Reality in Latin Topographic Writing.+  Greece and Rome.  32 (1985) 197-208.  DE 1 G62.  On the subject of Polybius, he writes that *maps had no place in the composition or publication of historical works+ (198).  *a thick fog of pernicious schematization+ (198).

Horwath, Izabella.  *Uygur’s Scholar’s Significant Discovery:  Ancient Turkic Source Says Xiongnu are Turks.+  Eurasian Studies Yearbook.  79 (2007) 59-68.  Hsiung-nu.

Hosius, Carolus, ed.  M. Annaei Lucani belli civilis libri decem.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1892/1913.  PA 6478 A2 1892.

Hosius, Carl.  *Lucan und seine Quellen.+  RhM NS 48 (1893) 380-397.  S/b xeroxed.  *Seine Hauptquelle is Livius+ (384).  Geography 389ff.

Hosius, Carl.  Review of Schroff, Claudian.  Gnomon 4 (1928) 58-59.  Not flattering.

Hosius, Carl.  Die römische Literatur in der Zeit der Monarchie bis auf Hadrian.  Vol 2 of Geschichte der römischen Literatur.  Ed:  Martin von Schanz and Carl Hosius.  Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft.  Munich:  Beck, 1935.  PA 6007 B54.  *Die Geographen+ 329-336.  Agrippa, TPeut.  Biblio.  *Die Weltkarte des Agrippa war die grossartigste Leistung der Römer auf dem Gebiete der Geographie.  Auch dieses Werk trägt ganz den Stempel ihres Geistes;  während den Griechen die Sterne die Führer bei der Bestimmung der Erdoberfläche waren, gingen die Römer von den Meilensteinen aus+ (331).

Housman, Alfred Edward, ed.  M. Annaei Lucani Belli Civilis libri decem.  Oxford:  Blackwell, 1926;  second corrected impression 1927.  PA 6478 A2 1926.  *Astronomical Appendix+ 325-338, deals with astronomical problems and refers to Saliger and Palmierus for problems of geography.  Rev:  Anderson.  Contains critical history of editions.  Not much on the mss themselves because he establishes the high worth of earliest editions:  *the true line of division is between the variants themselves, not between the manuscripts which offer them+ (vii).  *The manuscripts group themselves not in families but in factions;  their dissidences and agreements are temporary and transient+ (vii).  Commenting on 1:8-12:  *not one word or letter is in fault, and both vices have been imported by punctuation+ (vi).  Lucan’s *earliest interpreters are still in many respects his best+ (vi).  *even now it is often necessary to abandon Cortius and Oudendorp and the rest of his successors and return to the text of Grotius+ (xxxi).  *an idle yet pretentious game … Ueberlieferungsgeschichte … a longer and nobler name than fudge+ (xiii).

si uos, o Parthi, peterem cum Caspia claustra
et sequerer duros aeterni Martis Alanos,
passus Achaemeniis late decurrere campis
(8:222-224)
[...]  quem non violasset Alanus,
non Scytha, non fixo qui ludit in hospite Maurus
(10:454-455)

How, Walter Wyburgh. and Joseph Wells.  A Commentary on Herodotus.  2 vols.  Oxford University Press, 1912;  re-edited with corrections 1928.  PA 4004 H6.  Index in vol 2.  Pactyice *perhaps survives in Pushtoo, the Afghans’ name for themselves+ (1:289).  Again 1:319.  Rhipaean mountains.

Howorth, Henry Hoyle.  *Introduction to the Translation of the Han Annals.+  JRAI 3 (1874) 396-401.  See Wylie.  *The Huns … were a race of Ugrians … The Hiong-Nu were not Ugrians.  It was Klaproth … who … first proved that the Hiong-Nu were Turks+ (398).

Hritzu, John Nicholas.  The Style of the Letters of St. Jerome.  CUA Patristic Studies, 60.  Washington, 1939.  P LaCl C.  Uses PL, Hilberg, Freemantle, and Wright (Loeb).  *St. Jerome’s use of the rhetorical figures in his Letters is guided by the principle of utility, not of ornamentation+ (9).

Huart, Pierre.  *Julien et l’hellénisme.+  In L’Empereur Julien:  de l’histoire à la légende (331-1715).  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1978.  99-123.  DG 317 E46.

Hude, Charles, ed.  Herodotus:  Histories.  2 vols.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1908.  HCopy.

Hudson-Williams, A.  *On some Passages of Lucan.+  In Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History, 4.  Ed:  Carl Deroux.  Latomus, 196.  Brussels, 1986.  492-498.  PA 6011 S78.  Refers to Graves’ translation.  Habitual infinitives, cf Claudian Carm min 30,89-92.

Hübner, Ulrich.  *Eine übersehene Metonymie in Lucans Pharsalia.+  Hermes 103 (1975) 200-211.

Hübner, Ulrich.  *Zu Lucan 7,566f.+  Philologus 120 (1975) 302-307.

Hürth, Xavier.  De Gregorii Nazianzene Orationibus Funebris.  Strassbourg:  Trübner, 1906.  Editor?

Hüsing, Georg.  *Die Saken.+  Berichte des Forschungs[-]institut[e]s für Osten und Oriens.  2 (1918) 1-3.  DR 1 F6.  Review of sources.

Hiuen Tsiang, Pilgrim.  fl AD 61.  Studies:  Mirchandani.

Hulley, K.  *Principles of Textual Criticism Known to St. Jerome.+  Harvard Studies in Classical Philology.  55 (1944) 87-109.

Hulsewé, Anthony François Paulus.  *Han-time Documents in Central Asia.+  T’oung Pao.  45 (1958) 1-50.

Hulsewé, Anthony François Paulus.  China in Central Asia:  The Early Stage, 125 BC-AD 23.  Leiden:  Brill, 1979.  DS 748 H86.  Hsiung-nu.

Hunger, Herbert, et al, eds.  Antikes und mittelalterliches Buch- und Schriftwesen.  Ueberlieferungsgeschichte der antiken Literatur.  Vol 1 of Geschichte der Textüberlieferung der antiken und mittelalterlichen Literatur.  2 vols.  Zurich:  Atlantis, 1961.  Roba, Pims Z 6602 G4.  Orosius cites Tacitus, who had become fashionable in his days, 413.

Hunter, David G.  *Resistance to the Virginal Ideal in Late Fourth Century Rome:  The Case of Jovinian.+  JTS 48 (1987) 45-64.  VUEM, KNOX.

Huot, Jean Jacques Nicolas, tr [1790-1845].  Pomponius Méla.  In Macrobe, Varron, Pomponius Méla.  Collection des auteurs latins.  Ed:  Désiré Nisard.  Paris:  Firmin Didot, 1863.  PA 6169 A62.  HX Mela.  Translator was geographer and geologist, and author.

Hussey, Robert, ed.  Socrates:  Ecclesiastical History.  3 vols.  Oxford:  UP, 1853;  revised, 3rd edition, in one volume, with introduction by William Bright, Oxford:  Clarendon, 1878.  Old class, retrieved.

Huxley, George.  *The Historical Scholarship of John Bagnell Bury.+  GRBS 17 (1976) 81-104.

Huxley, George.  *Sogdian Tanais in Aristobulus.+  Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists.  22 (1985) 117-121, map.  PA 3339 A54.  Re:  Arrian, Anab 3.30.7;  Strabo 11,7,4.  Don, Tanais, Danuvius, Danastris, Danapris = dan/don river, running water in Iranian [could be IE, cf Danaids, River Don in Scotland].

Huyse, Philip, ed.  Die dreisprachige Inschrift Sabuhrs I. an der Ka’ba-i Zardust (SKZ).  Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, Part III, Pahlavi Inscriptions.  2 vols.  London:  Society for Oriental and African Studies, 1999.  PK 6081 C67, pt 3, vol, 1, # 1 and # 2.  SKZ Biblio.  *’2 und Ich besitze … bis hin zum Kaukasus und (zum) Alanen-Tor, und die ganze Elburzkette… ‘3 … und (die) Kusanvölker bis vor Pesawar+ (1:23f).

Hydatius.  Chronicle.  Spanish Chronicler, cont of Jerome.  Mommsen MGH AA 9.  Tr:  Burgess, Tranoy (SC).  Studies:  Nautin.  [AD 414] *Athaulf married Placidia in Narbona.  By this event it is thought that the prophecy of Daniel was fulfilled…+ (Burgess 85).  Dates Persian embassy on Armenia to 384.  Barker 403n1 for emendation on death of Athaulf.  Latin ext in authors file.  For article:  [AD 376] *victi et expulsi sunt Gothi a gente Unorum et suscepit sunt in Romania pro misericordia iussione Aug. Valentis+ (242).

Iafeticheskii sbornik.  (Recueil japhétique).  St. Petersburg:  Russian Academy.  1 (1922) to 6 (1930).  PK 9001 A53.  Sogdian, Ossete, and other Iranian languages, problems of linguistics convergence, Nostratic, etc.

Iliescu, V.  *Devictis Sarmatis?+  Revue roumaine de linguistique.  16 (1971) 63-65.  P 2 R43.

Illner, Anneliese, comp.  Geographische Zeitschrift.  Register 1-50 (1895-1944).  Wiesbaden:  Franz Steiner, 1970.  G 1 G42, perbibl.  118f, history of geography.

Inscriptions.  Sassanid.  Paikuki, SKZ, Kartir.  See Chaumont, Ghirshmann, Henning, Huyse.

Inscriptions.  Sogdian.  See Sims-Williams.

Inscriptions.  Polyglot.  See Wyle.

Inscriptions.  Sanskrit.  Bhitari, see also names of rulers.  See Banerjee, Fleet, Mirchandani, Sohoni.

Inscriptions.  Greek (under Corpus).  Protogenes.  See Koeppen, Reynolds and Lopez.  Latyshev, Müllenhoff.

Inscriptions.  Latin.

Irigoin, Jean.  *Pour une étude des centres de copie byzantins.+  Scriptorium 12 (1958) 208-227;  13 (1959) 177-209.

Irigoin, Jean.  *L’onciale grecque de type biblique.+  Scriptorium 24 (1970) 67-74.  Review of Ricerche by Cavallo, 1967.

Irigoin, Jean.  *Titres, sous-titres et sommaires dans les oeuvres des historiens grecs du 1er siècle avant J.-C. au Ve siècle après J.-C.+  In Titres et Articulations du texte dans les oeuvres antiques.  Collection des Etudes Augustiniennes, Série Antiquité, 152.  Paris:  Institut des Etudes Augustiniennes, 1997.  127-134.  PN 171 T5 C65.

Jacob, W.  Handschriftliche Ueberlieferung der sogenannten *Historia Tripertita+ des Epiphanius-Cassiodor.  T u U, 4.  1954.  Pims.  See Cameron 1964.  Is this the same as Theodore Lector?

Jacoby, Felix.  Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker.  3 vols with many fascicles.  Berlin:  Weidmann;  Leiden:  Brill, 1923‑‑.  PA 3490 J3.  Historians numbered consecutively.  For Faustus, ‘679, 3-4 (in vol 3C, part 1, 350-364);  Olympiodorus.  Arrian’s Ectaxis.

Jackson, Blomfield, tr.  Theodoret of Cyrrhus:  Church History, Dialogues, Letters.  NPNF, Second Series, 3.  New York:  1892.  1-348.

Jackson, Blomfield, tr.  The Treatise *De Spiritu Sancto+, the Nine Homilies on the Hexaemeron and the Letters of Saint Basil the Great, Archbishop of Caesaria.  NPNF, 8.  New York, 1895.  BR 60 S46.

Jal, Paul, ed.  Florus:  Oeuvres.  2 vols.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1967.  PA 6366 A1.

Jal, Paul.  *Le rôle des barbares dans les guerres civiles de Rome, de Sylla à Vespasien.+  Latomus 21 (1962) 8-48.

Jal, Paul.  *Nature et signification politique de l’oeuvre de Florus.+  REL 48 (1965) 358-383.

Jal, Paul, ed.  Lucain:  La guerre civile (La Pharsale).  Revised edition of Bourgery and Ponchont.  2 vols.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1993.  PA 6478 F5 B67 1993.  Minor corrections only.

James of Edessa.  Chronicle.  Ed:  Brooks.  See Authors file.

Jan, Ludwig von, ed.  Plinius:  HN.  6 vols.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1856-1870.  TRINSTOR.  His index was retained by Mayhoff.

Jantzen, Hermann.  Gotische Sprachdenkmäler.  Leipzig:  Göschen, 1909.  PD 1123 J3.

Janvier, Yves.  La géographie d’Orose.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1982.  D 17 O 6524.

Janvier, Yves.  *Rome et l’Orient lointain:  le problème des Sères:  Réexamen d’une question de la géographie antique.+  Ktèma 9 (1984) 261-303.  DS 56 K74, full title per.bib.  Biblio.  *Méla se conforme au schéma hellénistique de la terre habitée [...] où l’inconnu était par principe supposé maritime+ (265).

Jeep, Ludwig.  *Die älteste Textesrecension des Claudian.+  RhM NS 28 (1873) 291-304.  Incunabula also.

Jeep, Ludwig.  *Die Kritik des Claudianus mit Ausschluss des Raptus Proserpinae.+  RhM NS 30 (1875) 1-25.  Text history, emendations.

Jeep, Ludwig.  *Die Lebenszeit des Zosimos.+  RhM NS 37 (1882) 425-433.

Jeep, Ludwig.  *Quellenforschung zu den griechischen Kirchengeschichte, VI:  Philostorgius und Nicephoros Kallistos.+  Jahrbücher für classische Philologie.  Suppl, 14.  1885.  98-105.  PA 3 N65.

Jeep, Ludwig.  *Die verlorenen Bücher des Ammianus.+  RhM NS 43 (1888) 60-72.  Limigantes at AM 19,11,1, 68.  Were the Royal Sarmatians driven out by the Limigantes, or by the Goths?  Conflict between Jerome, AM, AV, Eutropius.

Jeep, Ludwig.  *Beiträge zur Quellenkunde des Orients in Alterthum.+  RhM NS 52 (1897) 213-236.  Philostorgius, Axum, geography.

Jeffreys, Elizabeth, Michael Jeffreys, and Roger Scott, tr.  The Chronicle of John Malalas.  Melbourne, 1986.  D 17 M2313.  Julian and Persia?

Jeffreys, Elizabeth, Brian Croke, and Roger Scott.  Studies in John Malalas.  Melbourne, 1990.  D 17 M2313.

Jerome of Stridona.  Opera.  PL 24;  CSEL 54-56.  Tr:  Freemantle in NPNF.

Jerome of Stridona.  Adversus Jovinianum.  Dated to Easter 393, see Cavallera, Syme, Holl.  *The Nomad tribes, and the Troglodites, and Scythians, and the barbarous Huns with whom we have recently become acquainted, eat flesh half raw.  [...]  The Sarmatians, the Chuadi, the Vandals and countless other races, delight in th flesh of horses and wolves.+ (Tr:  Freemantle 2:7, page 393f).

Jerome of Stridona.  Chronicon.  See Donalson, Helm.  History of editions needed.  Date when Jerome made translation?  Did he have access to Ammianus?  Re:  Limigantes and Goths.  *the gloss in two MSS of Jerome’s Chronicle s.a. 381 alleging that Maximinus’ factio was responsible for the death of the elder Theodosius+ (Cameron 1971:260).  Check Demandt.

Jerome.  Commentaria in Abacuc.  Adriaen in CCSL 76A.  PL 25:1273ff.  Anexíkakon, (2.3.14:  76A:645 and 25:1329-30). Authors file.

Jerome.  Commentaria in Danielem.  Ed:  Glorie.  II,7-8, four monarchies.

Jerome.  Commentaria in Jeremiah.  Reiter (CSEL, 59).  Tr?  NPNF?  ATLA 5 hits, not useful.  Incomplete, Jerome died while writing it.  How does he handle the Scyths and the Cimmerians?  Check out Rowley, and recent commentators on this episode;  check out Epistula 77, and Palanque’s comments.  In preface, he discusses the Book of Daniel.

Jerome of Stridona.  Commentarii in Isaiam libri 18.  PL 24:17ff.  Adriaen in CCSL 73.  See Abel, Gryson.  Written in 408, see Cavallera.  CPL 24, 113.  *feras gentes et quondam nobis incognitas, quarum et vultus et sermo terribilis est, et femineus incisasque facies praeferentes virorum+ (7,21).  See Abel for context.

Jerome.  De viris inlustribus liber.  Text:  Herding, Vallarsi (PL).  Studies:  Opelt.  TU 14,1, Leipzig, 1896, PIMS.  Mention of Stridona and Gothic invasions.  Cited Jovanovic 1997.  *Hieronymus, natus patre Eusebio, oppido Stridonis, quod a Gothis eversum Dalmatiae quondam Pannoniaeque confinium fuit+ (Opelt 64).

Jerome.  Epistulae.  Text:  Labourt, Freemantle, Hilberg, Vallarsi (PL).  Other letters CSEL 54-56.  Letter 202.2 in Augustine’s correspondence CSEL 57:301.  Letter 134, dated AD 416, edited with Augustine # 172, for Orosius.  CSEL 88 (1981) Divjak.

Jerome.  Epistula ?.  Letter where he describes the damage by the Goths to his homeland.

Jerome.  Epistula 57.  See Bartelink.

Jerome.  Epistula 60.  Dated 396, to Heliodorus on the death of Nepotianus.  Date:  Nautin.  Invasion of 395, assassination of Rufinus.  Passage on the Huns, 60,16.  See Authors file.

Jerome.  Epistula 77.  To Oceanus, on the death of Fabiola, dated 400.  Massagetae and Huns 77,8, Authors file.  *Herodotus informs me that this people [the Huns] had held the East in captivity for 20 years under Darius, King of the Medes+ (Letter 77,8, commented by Palanque 1952:180, reference to Jeremiah).

Jerome.  Epistula 106.  St:  Zeiller.  Gothic philology.

Jerome.  Origenis in Isaiam Homiliae.  PL 24:935.

Jerome.  Vita Sancti Hilaronis.  For Epidaurus.  Cf Descriptio.

Job, Book of.  Commentary by Didymus the Blind.  See Text transmission.

John of Antioch.  Ed:  Müller, FHG, iv, v.  Studies: de Boor, Köcher.  See Brooks 1893, Lambros, Walton.  Source:  Constantine, Exc Hist;  frag 84 De insidiis.  Frag 181 for Jovian and Julian.  Frag 190 for Rufinus and the Huns.  For the Isaurians;  Honoria.

John of Nikiu.  Chronicle.  Text:  Charles, Zotenberg.  Has fourth century material.

John of Rhodes [John the Monk?].  Passio S Artemii.  References to Gallus and Persian wars.  This text also attributed to John Damascene.  See title entry.

Jones, Arnold Hugh Martin.  *Collegiate Prefectures.+  JRS 5 (1964) 78-89.

Jones, Arnold Hugh Martin.  The Later Roman Empire 284-602:  A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey.  3 vols.  Oxford:  Blackwell, 1964.  ROBA, VUPT, SMC DG 311 J6.  Maps.

Jones, Christopher P.  *Themistius and the Speech to the King.+  Classical Philology.  92 (1997) 149-152.  Re:  Aristides Aelius whom Themistius imitated in his Charisterion, Or 16, dated Jan 1, 383, re Theodosius, the Goths and the Danubian border.  Anything on the Sarmatians and the Goths?

Jones, Horace Leonard, ed, tr.  The Geography of Strabo.  Loeb.  8 vols.  Cambridge:  Heinemann, 1917-1932.  G 87 S9.  Based on Kramer’s and Meineke’s editions.  Footnote under 11,2,14:  *Soanas, Tzschucke from conj. of Casaubon, for Thoanes;  so the later editors.+

Jones, J. C.  *Orosius.+  Archiv für lateinische Lexikographie und Grammatik.  Checked index of per, and not found.  Rev:  RPhil   . . . (1907) 1-23.

Jonge, Pieter de.  See Groningen Commentary.

Jordanes.  Getica:  De origine actibusque Getarum.  Eds:  MGH AA 5:59.  Giunta/Grillone, Mierow.  Cm:  Löwe, Várady, Werner.  *Hunni post paene quinquaginta annorum invasam Pannoniam a Romanis et Gothis expulsi sunt+ ‘166.  Jordanes added “Gothis” to the text copied from Marcellinus, III,21, see article for notes.  Indirectly shows that the Huns were not in Pannonia when Olympiodorus went on his embassy.

Joshua the Stylite.  Chronicle.  See Chabot CSCO, 3, 1927;  Hoffman-Fleming, Martin, Wright DS 276 J6.  See Authors file.  An admirable piece of history, virtually a monograph on the Persian war of the early 6th century (Barnes 1983:254).  Rufinus and the Huns ‘9.  Pêrôz of Iran.  *Les mêmes Huns [...] ravagent de nouveau l’Arménie, la Mésopotamie, la Syrie qui leur sont livrées par la fourberie de l’hyparche Rufin et du stratélate Adée+ dit Josué le Stylite (qui écrivait en 515).  Les Huns se présentèrent devant Ctésiphon, mais ils furent repoussés par Bahram IV (396)+ (Drouin 20:407).

Jovanovic, Aleksandar.  *Prilog resavanju problema ubikacije Stridona.+  In Antidôron — Uzdarje Dragoslavu Srejovicu povodom sezdecetpet godina zivota.  Ed:  Miroslav Lazic.  Belgrade:  Centre for Archaeological Research, 1997.  393-398.  With English summary *A Contribution to the Problem of Location of Stridon.+  GN 803 U94.  Gothic remains and destruction in the vicinity of Siscia, the valley of the Sava;  Gothic graves.

Jülicher, Adolf.  *Die griechische Vorlage der gotischen Bibel.+  Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum.  52 (1910) 365-387.  PF 3003 Z5.

Jülicher, Adolf.  1916.  See Holl.  NT scholar.  WCat 77 hits.

Julianus Caesar, later Imperator [Apostate].  Opera.  Text:  Bidez, Lacombrade and Rochefort (Budé);  Wright (Loeb);  King;  Burguière and Evieux.  Studies:  Asmus, Bird, Blockley, Bradbury, Brok, Chalmers, Croissant, Cumont, Dimaio, Hertlein, Labriolle, Peeters, Petit.  Over 400 records in AnPhil.

Julian Caesar.  Encomium of Constans.  Giuliano imperatore:  Lettera al filosofo Temistio.  Genoa:  Alkaest, 1979.  Roba B 674 E662 I8.  Greek and Italian, reprint without name of editor(s) or translator, not in AnPhil.  This letter by Julian is the Portrait of the Ideal ruler, see Criscuolo.

Julian Caesar.  Encomium of Constantius II.  Text:  Bidez vol 1,1.  Dated late 356, written to offset court intrigues.  Based on Menander, Themistius, Libanius, but very individualistic.  One highlight:  Constantius restored the Armenian ruler in 338;  Julian mentions this, but not the more recent alliance which was not yet concluded.  *Les Arménien, nos anciens alliés, sont en proie aux divisions et une grande partie d’entre eux se joint aux Perses+ ’14.  Arméniens recrutés par C II, ’15.

Julian.  Misopogon.  The boorish Celts loved him, 339B.

Julian.  Kata khristianos.  Text:  Bourguière, Nestle.  See Cyril of Alexandria.

Julian.  *Arsakê Armeniôn satrapê.+  In Fragments, ed Bidez, 277-278.  Letter to Arsaces, order to go into battle.

Julian.  Orationes.  History of text, Bio:  Bidez.

Julien, Stanislas.  *Documents historiques sur les Tou-kioue (Turcs), extraits du Pien-i-Tien, et traduits du chinois.+  Journal asiatique.  6th series 3 (1864) 325-367;  490-549.  *les notices historiques sur les Tou-Kioue [...] sont toujours tirées des annales de chaque dynastie sous laquelle se sont passés les événements qui y sont rapportés+ 326.

Julien, Stanislas.  *Documents historiques sur les Tou-kioue (Turcs), extraits du Pien-i-Tien, et traduits du chinois.+  Journal asiatique.  6th series 4 (1864) 200-242;  391-430;  453-477.  Türki.

Juret, Abel C.  Review of Svennung.  REA 30 (1928) 248.  Not much.

Justin [Marcus Justinus Junianus].  Histories.  Text:  Chambry, Rühl, Seel.  Studies:  Sahi, Syme.  Epitome of Trogus Pompeius.  According to Sahi, mentions the Chyonitai;  no reference given and not listed in index.  *Scythia autem in orientem porrecta includitur ab uno latere Ponto, ab altero montibus Riphaeis, a tergo Asia et Phasi flumine+ II,ii,1).  Authors file, re:  Scyths.  *Artaban, ayant porté la guerre chez les Tochariens, fut blessé au bras, et mourut aussitôt+ (42,2,2).  Four ages of man, Cf Marrou.

Kabanov, S. K.  *The Late Kushans in Nakhshab.+  Vestnik drevnei istorii.  125 (1973) 159-171.  D 51 A424.  With summary in English.  Excavations in the Lower Kashka Darya valley (Central Asia);  coin series of IV-VI centuries.  White Huns.  See Internet for Nakhshab.

Kahaum Inscription.  See Skandagupta, Fleet.

Kaibel, Georg.  *Antike Windrosen.+  Hermes 20 (1885) 579-624.

Kalidasa.  Raghuvamça (la lignée des fils du soleil).  Ed:  Antoine, Bhat, Nandargikar, Renou.  PK 3796 R33.  Hunas.

Kallenberg, H.  *Der Artikel bei Namen von Ländern, Städten und Meeren in der griechische Prosa.+  Philologus 49 (1890) 515-547.  Almost like a dictionary.

Kallenberg, H.  *Straboniana.+  RhM 67 (1912) 174-194.  Place names.

Karlgren, Bernhard.  Etudes sur la phonologie chinoise.  Archives d’études orientales, 15.  3 vols.  Stockholm, 1913-1919.  PL 1201 K37.  Study of sixth century AD dictionary.

Karlgren, Bernhard.  *Prononciation ancienne des caractères chinois figurant dans les transriptions bouddhiques.+  TP NS 19 (1920) 104-121.

Karlgren, Bernhard.  *The Reconstruction of Ancient Chinese.+  TP NS 21 (1922) 1-42.

Karlgren, Bernhard.  Grammata serica.  Stockholm, 1940.  PL 1201 K38.  *aspect phonétique ancien de notation chinoise+ (Bazin).

Karmann, Alois.  Gregorius Nazianzen:  Oratio 4 gegen Julian.  PhD Zurich, 1986.  Basel:  Reinhardt, 1988.  Pims, Roba BR 65 G83 I553.

Kaster, Robert A.  *Notes on Primary and Secondary Schools in Late Antiquity.+  TAPA 113 (1983) 323-346.

Kaufmann, Georg.  *Wurde Theodosius von Gratian zunächst zum magister militum und erst nach einem siege über die Sarmaten zum kaiser ernannt?+  Philologus 31 (1872) 473-480.  Re:  Pacatus, Sarmatians.

Keene, Charles Haines, ed., and George Francis Savage-Armstrong, tr.  De reditu suo libri duo:  The Home-Coming of Rutilius Claudius Namatianus from Rome to Gaul in the year 416 AD.  London:  G Bell, 1907.  PA 6652 R7.

Kekelidse, Korneli.  Das Bekehrung Georgiens zum Christentum.  Morgenland, 18.  Leipzig:  Harrassowitz, 1928.  Old Class, 9th floor.

Kent, Roland G.  *The Latin Language in the Fourth Century.+  TAPA 50 (1919) 91-100.  *By the fourth century the Latin vowels had made decided progress toward the Romance status … the long close o and the short open u become the close o … the tendency appears in the not infrequent graphic confusion of ô and u+ (92).

Kelly, John Norman Davidson.  Jerome:  His Life, Writings and Controversies.  London:  Harper and Row, 1975.  PIMS.  Orosius, Jerome and Augustine, see 317-321.  Jerome’s letter 134 delivered to Augustine by Orosius.  *There is nothing to show that the Goths penetrated this heavily defended zone [Venetia-Istria] in the period in question+ (5).  Huns, invasion of 395, 204.  Jovinian, 182.

Kelly, John Norman Davidson.  Golden Mouth:  The Story of John Chrysostom — Ascetic, Preacher, Bishop.  London:  Duckworth, 1995.  BR 1720 C5 K45.  Nothing new on the Huns.

Kettenhofen, Erich.  Tirdad und die Inschrift von Paikuli:  Kritik der Quellen zur Geschichte Armeniens im späten 3. und frühen 4. n. Chr.  Wiesbaden:  Reichert, 1995.  DS 181 K47.

Keydell, Rudolf.  *Zu den Hymnen Synesios.+  Hermes  84 (1956) 151-162.  RE:  Metric.

Kiessling, Adolf.  *Hunni.+  RE 1913.  8:2583-2615.  Too many declarations supported by no stronger evidence than judgements like *Unsinn+;  jumps from Agrippa’s map to the Anonymous of Ravenna (800 years apart) as though populations had remained stable during this interval (2588).  These flaws justify Janvier’s judgement:  *article prolixe+ (108n92).  His unconvincing reading of Orosius huni, funi (2595) has been superseded by Janvier.  Notes in *Ammianus+, *Orosgeog+.  *bis zur Ostsee reichende Ostgotenreich+ (2583).  Literary scholar, more at home in Classical lit, and the Principate.

Kiessling, Adolf.  *Zu Zosimus.+  RhM NS 18 (1863) 135-136.  Re:  Cod Vat Graec 156, lacunae.  According to Bury, this article was the turning point in establishing the correct text of Zosimus.

Kimmig, Wolfgang.  Die Heuneburg an der oberen Danau.  Stuttgart:  Theiss, 1985.  DD 901 H6594 K56.

King, Charles William, ed.  Julian the emperor, containing Gregory Nazianzen’s two invectives and Libanius’ Monarchy, with Julian’s extant Theosophical Works.  London:  Bell, 1888.  DG 317 K56.

King, N Q.  *The 150 Holy Fathers of the Council of Constantinople 381.+  Studia Patristica, 1.  Conf Oxford, 19??.  Berlin:  Akademie-Verlag, 1957.  635-641.  Pims BQ 25 T3.  Revised list of signatories.

Kingsmill, Thomas W.  *Short Notes on the Identification of the Yué-ti and Kiang Tribes of Ancient Chinese History.+  Journal of the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.  10 (1876) 71-73.  Phonological demonstration.  Yue-ti = Widhal, i.e. Hephthalites.

Kingsmill, Thomas W.  *The Migrations and Early History of the White Huns, Principally from Chinese Sources.+  Journal of the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.  10 (1878?) 285.  Roba AS 452 R68.

Kingsmill, Thomas W.  *The Intercourse of China with Eastern Turkestan and the Adjacent Countries in the Second Century BC.+  Journal of the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.  NS 14 (1879) 1-29.  *The description … will serve to explain many of the allusions to Serica and the Seres in the pages of Augustan poets+ (2).  Ca BC 126:  the Hsiung Nu dispossess the Hephthalites, who in turn dispossess the Tokharians (according to Szema-Tsi’en).

Kingsmill, Thomas W.  *Dr. F. Hirth and the Hiung Nu.+  Journal of the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.  34 (1901/02) 136-141.  Dr Hirth *sought to find additional evidence in favour of the long exploded error of Deguignes that the Hiung Nu of the old Chinese writers were to be identified with the Hunni of Ammianus Marcellinus.  Deguignes confessed that his surmise arose only from the superficial and apparent resemblance of two names+ (136).  Emendations:  Hurnas = Firuz, not Hernak (138f).  Wennes = Wends (190).

Klaproth, Julius von.  *Conjecture sur l’origine du nom de la soie chez les anciens.+  JA 2 (1823) 243-245.

Klaproth, Julius von.  Tableaux historiques de l’Asie, depuis la monarchie de Cyrus jusqu’à nos jours.  Paris:  Schubart, 1826.  WCat 33.

Klaproth, Julius von.  Mémoires relatifs à l’Asie.  Paris:  Dondé et Dupré, 1824-1828.  WCat 20.

Klaproth, Julius von.  Foe koue ki:  ou Relation des Royaumes bouddhiques, Voyage dans la Tartarie, dans l’Afghanistan et dans l’Inde, exécuté à la fin du IVe siècle par Chy Fa hian.  With Abel Rémusat.  Paris:  Imprimerie royale, 1836.  DS 6 F36.  Fa-hien.

Klein, Walter.  Studien zu Ammianus Marcellinus.  Klio, Beiheft, 13.  1914.  D 51 K62.

Kloos, Rudolf M.  *Bamberger Orosiusfragmente des 9. Jahrhunderts.+  In Festschrift Bernhard Bischoff zu seinem 65. Geburtstag dargebracht von Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern.  Eds:  Johanne Authenrieth and Franz Brunhölzl.  Stuttgart:  Hiersemann, 1971.  178-197.  PA 2802 F47.  Italian origin, mention of Danube, Vienna.  Fragments correspond to Book 7, 33,1 to 37,10 of Zangemeister.  Huns should be mentioned twice here.

Klotz, Alfred.  Quaestiones Plinianae geographicae.  1906.  For supplement, see his 1930.  Re:  Map of Agrippa.

Klotz, Alfred.  *Ueber die Expositio totius mundi et gentium.+  Philologus 65 (1906) 97-127.  Biblio.  Re:  Sinko and oriental trade.

Klotz, Alfred.  *Die Insel Thia.+  Hermes 43 (1908) 314-320.  Re:  the islands Thera and Therasia.  Date of Pliny and Mela.  Orosius and Jerome.

Klotz, Alfred.  *Zu Dionysius Periegetes.+  RhM NS 64 (1909) 474-475.  Biographical.

Klotz, Alfred.  *Zur Hodoiporia apo Edem tou Paradeisou akhri tôn Rhômaiôn.+  RhM 65 (1910) 605-616.  Review of Expositio, Riese 1878, Greek and oriental material.  Paramount importance for dating Chônai.  Text reprinted in Rougé.  Apparatus:  *ethnos legomenos Khônai+ Khônai | Khonneon.  *Apo Khônaiôn…+ Khônaiôn | Khôneôn.

Klotz, Alfred.  *Eumenius.+  RhM NS 66 (1911) 513.  Author of Panegyrics 5-12?

Klotz, Alfred.  *Die Quellen Ammians in der Darstellung von Julians Perserkrug.+  RhM 71 (1916) 461-506.

Klotz, Alfred.  *Beiträge zur Textgeschichte und Textkritik der Scriptores Historiae Augustae.+  RhM NS 78 (1929) 268-314.

Klotz, Alfred.  *Beiträge zur Analyse des geographischen Kapitels im Geschichtswerk des Orosius (I,2).+  In Charisteria:  Alois Rzach zum 80. Geburtstag dargebracht.  Reichenberg:  Stiepel, 1930.  120-130.  WCat, 180 pages, ILL.  Suppl to his 1906.  Considers this chapter is derived from Agrippa;  influential, but unfounded.

Rev:  Mathieu, Georges.  REA 33 (1931) 176-178.  Contents and abstracts.  *le fait remonter à Agrippa (connu par Pline et divers geographi minores) avec des modifications dues en partie à l’influence de Ptolémée.+ (177).
Durry, Marcel.  Journal des savants.  1931:227.
N.H. Baynes in JRS 21 (1931) 171.

Klotz, Alfred.  *Die geographischen Commentarii des Agrippa und ihre Ueberreste.+  Klio 24/ NS 6 (1931) 38-58;  386-466.  Orosius;  Scythia, 422ff;  Pontos 447ff;  Oceanus, 461.

Klotz, Alfred.  Rev of Orosius and Justinus by Hagendahl (1941).  PhW 62 (1942) 532-536.  Ms study.

Knipovich, TN, and EI Levi, eds.  Nadpisi Ol’vii (1917-1968).  Leningrad:  Nauka, 1968.  DK 508.95 O5 I595.  Olbia.

Knopf, Rudolf, ed.  Ausgewählte Märtyrerakten.  Tübingen:  Mohr, 1929.  St. Sabas.  WCat.

Koch, Julius.  *Claudian und die Ereignisse der Jahre 395 bis 398.+  RhM NS 44 (1889) 575-612.

Koch, Julius.  *Claudianea.+  Philologus 49 (1890) 567-570;  744-748.

Koch, Julius, ed.  Claudii Claudiani carmina.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1893.  PIMS PA 6104 C48;  also B2.  Rev:  Postgate, CR 9:167;  86.

Koch, Wilhelm.  *Kaiser Julian der Abtrünnige.+  Jahrbücher für classische Philologie, Suppl 25.  (1899) 334-488.  PA 3 N65, 12th Apex.

Koch-Peters, Dorothea.  Ansichten des Orosius zur Geschichte seiner Zeit.  Studien zur klassische Philologie, 9.  Frankfurt:  Lang, 1984.  D 56.52 O75 K63.

Köcher, Adolf.  De Iohannis Antiocheni aetati, fontibus, auctoritate.  Bonn, 1871.  WCat 3, Berkeley.

Köhler, Ulrich.  Qua ratione T. Livi annalibus usi sint historici…  Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Phil-Hist. Kl.  Berlin, 1860.  AS 182 G812.  Orosius.

Köhler, Ulrich.  *Zu Orosius.+  Philologus 17 (1861) 552-555.  Livy as a source.

König, Ingemar, ed.  Origo Constantini:  Anonymus Valesianus.  Part 1:  Text und Kommentar.  Trier:  Trier Historische Forschungen, 1987.  PA 6140 A6.  Sarmatian and Danubian wars.

Koeppen, Peter von.  Alterthümer am Nordgestade des Pontus.  Vienna, 1823.  Inscription of Protogenes, CIG ‘2058.  Review in JA 3 (1823) 126.

Koraes, Adamantios [Korais, Corais], ed.  Strabonos geographikon biblia heptakaideka.  4 vols.  Paris:  Eberhard, 1815-1819.  WCat 9.  For French issue, see La Porte du Theil et al.

Kordosis, Michael.  *The Limits of the Known Land (Ecumene) in the East According to Cosma Indicopleustes:  Tzinista (China) and the Ocean.+  Byzantion 69 (1999) 99-106.  *from Tzinitza to the borders of Persia, between which are included all Iounia [Hounnia, in Vatican]+ (103).

Korenjak, Martin, ed, tr.  Ps-Skymnos:  Die Welt-Rundreise eines anonymen Autors.  Hildesheim:  Olms, 2003.  WCat 30.

Korenjak, Martin.  *Textkritische und interpretatorische Bemerkungen zu Pseudo-Skymnos.+  Philologus 147 (2003) 226-237.  Review of Marcotte.

Kornemann, Ernst.  Die neue Livius-Epitome aus Oxyrhynchus.  Klio Beiheft, 2.  Leipzig, 1904.  Orosius, Cimmmerian invasion.

Kotwicz, Wladyslaw.  *Sur les modes d’orientations en Asie centrale.+  Rocznik orientalistyczny.  5 (1927) 68-91.  PJ 9 R6.  Anything on “White” meaning North?

Krabinger, Johann Georg, ed.  Synesii Cyrenaei quae exstant opera omnia.  Landshut:  Thomann, 1850.  Reprinted in PG 66:1053-1108 with notes by Denys Petau.

Krapinger, Gernot, ed.  Dio Chrysostom:  oratio 6.  Graz:  UP, 1996.  PA 3965 D22 K6.  Trajan, basilikos.

Kramer, Otto, ed.  C. Valerii Flacci Setini Balbi Argonauticon libri octo.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1913/1967.  PA 6791 V4 1913a.

Krappe, Alexander H.  *Apollon Kuknos.+  CPh 37 (1942) 351-370.  *the swans of the amber country were singing swans [whoopers]+ (357).

Krappe, Alexander H.  *Avallon.+  Speculum 18 (1943) 303-322.  Biblio.

Kraus, Francis Xavier.  Observationes criticae in Synesii Cyrenaei *Epistolas+.  Regensburg: Pustet, 1863.  WCat 2, pamphlet.

Kraus, Francis Xavier.  *Studien über Synesios von Cyrene.+  Theologische Quartalschrift.  47 (1865) 381-448;  537-600;  48 (1866) 85-129.  PER VUEM, SMC.

Kromayer, Johannes [1859-193].  Heerwesen und Kriegführung der Griechen und Römer.  With A. Köster et al.  Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 4,3,2.  Munich:  C. H. Beck, 1928.  Roba U 33 K7.

Kromayer, Johannes, and Georg Veith.  Heerwesen und Kriegführung der Griechen und Römer.  Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 4,3,2.  Munich:  C. H. Beck, 1963.  VUPT PA 25 H24.

Krusch, Bruno.  *Neue Bruchstücke der Zeitzer Ostertafel vom Jahre 447.+  Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos-hist Klasse.  24th session (1933) 992-997.  AS 182 B343.

Kubitschek, Wilhelm.  *Die sogennante B-Redaktion der ptolemäischen Geographie.+  Klio 28 (1935) 108-132.

Kubitschek, Wilhelm.  Studien zur Geographie des Ptolemäus.  Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, 215,5.  Vienna:  Alfred Hölder, 1935.  AS 142 A53.  Sarmatia, 606.

Kulakovsky, Iulian Andreievich.  *Iz istorii Bospora Kimmeriiskago v kontse VI veka.+  Vizantiiskii Vremennik.  3 (1896) 1-17.  Torki.

Kunze, R.  *Zur griechischen Geographen (Strabo, Eustathius, Stephanos Byzantinos).+  RhM NS 56 (1901) 333-339.  Book 15, page 730:  Aristobulus.

Kunze, R.  *Unbeachtete Strabofragmente.+  RhM NS 57 (1902) 437-448.  Book 7, Scyths, Danube.

Kunze, R.  *Strabobruchstücke bei Eusthatius und Stephanos von Byzanz.+  RhM NS 58 (1903) 126-137.  See Pritchard.  Book 7.

Labourt, Jérôme.  Le christianisme dans l’empire perse sous la dynastie sassanide (224-632).  Paris, 1904.  BR 145 I7 L2?

Labourt, Jérôme, ed. tr.  Saint Jérôme:  Lettres.  6 vols.  Paris:  Budé, 1949-1958.  HX contents.

Labriolle, Pierre de.  *Martyr et confesseur.+  Bulletin d’ancienne littérature et d’archéologie chrétienne.  1 (1911) 50-54.  Old Class P Archaeol Phil B.

Labriolle, Pierre de, Gustave Bardy, and Jean-Rémy Palanque, eds.  De la paix constantinienne à la mort de Théodose.  Volume 3 of Histoire de l’Eglise depuis les origines jusqu’à nos jours.  General editors A. Fliche and V. Martin.  Paris:  Bloud et Gay, 1936.  431-470.  Robarts BX 944 H57.  Check out biblio of Councils, and lists of bishops.

Labriolle, Pierre Champagne de.  La réaction païenne.  1934;  Paris:  L’Artisan du Livre, 1942.  B2;  Pims BQX 291 L2.  Julian Apostate.  Porphyry.

Labriolle, Pierre Champagne de.  Histoire de la littérature latine du Christianisme.  3rd ed by Gustave Bardy.  2 vols.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1947.  BR 67 L3.  Orosius 2:673-680.  *La Chronique d’Eusèbe, traduite, remaniée et continuée par saint Jérôme, lui fournit les linéaments de son plan+ (676).  *Son exposé prend un intérêt spécial à partir de 378, car ses sources écrites, pour cette période, n’ont pas été conservées+ (677).  *Ecrites avec un certaine chaleur d’éloquence, dans une langue où l’imitation des classiques, en particulier de Virgile, a laissé maintes traces+ (680).

Lacombrade, Christian.  *Synésius et “l’énigme du loup”.+  REA 48 (1946) 260-266.  Wolves = Huns.  Unnigardae.

Lacombrade, Christian.  Synésios de Cyrène:  hellène et chrétien.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1951.  BR 1720 S9 L3;  PIMS BQ 1784 L22.  Unnigardae, 106, 231-233.  *Synésius ne cesse de demander à Constantinople … des renforts Unnigardes, cavaliers hors de pair .. à identifier … avec les Hunigari de Jordanès+ (106).

Lacombrade, Christian, tr, cm.  Le *Discours sur la royauté+ de Synésios de Cyrène à l’empereur Arcadios.  Paris:  BL, 1951.  PA 4441 S7 D5.  Tr:  *ces derniers … ont … parfois même altéré leurs traits par artifice afin de simuler je ne sais quelle horrible race nouvellement sortie de terre+ (54f).  Comment:  *Au mépris de la vérité ethnographique, l’orateur ici attribue à l’artifice ce que la physionomie des Huns a de repoussant+ (55n92).  Ritual scarification.

Lacombrade, Christian.  Discours de Julien Empereur.  Vol 2,2 of L’empereur Julien:  oeuvres complètes.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1964.  VUPT, Roba PA 4225 J4 1932.  Includes Misopogon.

Lacombrade, Christian.  Julien:  Le Misopogon.  1964.  Second edition with introduction by Aude de Saint-Loup.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 2003.  PA 4225 J4 M514 2003.

Lacroix, Bernard.  Orose et ses idées.  Publications de l’Institut d’Etudes médiévales, 18.  Montréal UP, 1965.  BR 65 O74 L3;  Pims BQ 6158 Z6 L3.  *chronologie et géographie sont les deux fondements de toute historiographie authentique+ (52).

Lagarde, Paul Anton de, ed.  *Agathangelos neu herausgegeben.+  Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen.  35 (1888) 3-164.  AS 182 G812.  Includes also the Acts of Gregory of Armenia and notes to Agathangelos.  *Hounnôn+ ’36/152 (page 116, line 1).  Other volumes are monographs, this one is periodical.  Check out this tiresome publication!!

Laistner, Max Ludwig Wolfram.  *Some Reflections on Latin Historical Writing in the Fifth Century.+  Classical Phil.  35 (1940) 241-258.  Jerome, Orosius.

Laffranque, Marie.  Poseidonios d’Apamée:  essai de mise au point.  Paris:  PUF, 1964.  B 607 P24 L3.

Lafontaine, Guy, ed.  La version grecque ancienne du livre arménien d’Agathange.  Publications de l’Institut orientaliste, 7.  Louvain, 1973.  DS 181 A6315.  With detailed history of text and scholarship.

Lambros, Spyridon.  *John of Antioch.+  Neos Hellenomnemon.  1 (1904) 7-31.  AS 201 N512.  See Walton.

Lammert, Friedrich.  *Hieronymus Lexicon.+  Philologus 75 (1918/20) 396-408.

Lammert, Friedrich.  *Die römische Taktik zu Beginn der Kaiserzeit und die Geschichtsschreibung.+  Philologus, Supplementband.  23,2 (1931).  Goths, Alans.

Lampe, Geoffrey William Hugo.  A Patristic Greek Lexicon.  Oxford, 1961.  GenR PA 455 P3 L3.  Jerome *Anexíkakon+, earliest citation NT (2 Tim 2,24).  Ditto LSJ.  Table of abbreviations for authors and works.

Lang, David M.  *Iran, Armenia and Georgia.+  Chapter 12 of The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods.  Ed:  Ehsan Yarshater.  Vol 3, part 1 of The Cambridge History of Iran.  Cambridge, 1983.  505-536.

Langen, Peter, comm.  Valerius Flaccus:  Argonautica.  2 vols.  Berlin:  Calvary, 1896-1897.  LL V164L, B2 Karl.

Langlois, Victor, tr.  Faustus de Byzance.  In Historicorum graecorum et syriorum reliquiae in armeniorum scriptis servatae.  Vol 5,2 of Fragmenta historicorum graecorum.  Ed:  Carl Müller.  Paris:  Didot, 1872.  PA 3490 M34.  Includes also:  Bardesane, Agathange, Faustus, Moïse de Khorène.

La Porte du Theil, François Jean Gabriel, Adamantios Koraes, Antoine Jean Letronne and Pascal François Joseph, Gosselin.  La géographie de Strabon.  4 vols.  Paris:  Imprimerie impériale, 1805-1819.  WCat 30, Mtl.

Laqueur, Richard.  *Magnus von Karrhae.+  RE 14 (1928) 491-493.

Larfeld, Wilhelm.  Griechische Epigraphik.  3rd, completely revised edition.  Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, I:5.  Munich:  C.H. Beck, 1914.  Roba CN 350 L3;  VUPT PA 25 H24.  Inscription of Protogenes?

Lassen, Christian.  Geschichte der griechischen und Indo-Skythischen Könige in Bactrien.  Bonn:  König, 1838.  DS 445 L37.

Lassen, Christian.  DS 436 L35.

Lasserre, François.  Strabon:  Géographie (Introduction générale – Livre I).  Vol I,1.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1969.  G 87 S86.  Wrote Introduction.

Lasserre, François, tr.  Strabon:  Géographie (Livre 11).  Vol 8.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1975.  G 87 S86.  Citations under Strabo.  Includes Proem as a footnote, page 38, using Soanas;  apparatus reads *Soanas Coray edd.:  Choanous δ+.  In his scheme, δ stands for majority of mss:  *Nota:  Lectio prototypi δ restituitur cum omnes uel plerique codices CDegsvWwxz consentiunt+ (viii).  *Soanes:  Peuplade caucasienne [...] dont le nom s’est perpétué chez les Svanètes de Géorgie…+ (174).

Lataix, Jean [Alfred Loisy].  *Un commentaire de saint Jérôme sur Daniel.+  Revue d’histoire et de littérature religieuses.  2 (1897) 164-173;  268-277.  BL 3 R35.  Includes many lost passages from Eusebius, Porphyry, Origen, exceptionally important for Porphyry, and four monarchies.

Lattimore, Owen.  Inner Asian Frontiers of China.  New York:  1951;  Boston:  Beacon, 1962.  DS 706.5 L3.  Great Wall Frontier, to the North Manchuria on the East, Mongolia, then Chinese Turkistan (53ff).

Lattimore, Owen.  Studies in Frontier History.  The Hague:  Mouton, 1962.  DS 786 L3.

Latyshev, Vasilii Vasilevich.  Inscriptiones Regni Bosporani graecae et latinae.  Vol 2 of Inscriptiones antiquae.  1890;  reprint Hildesheim:  Olms, 1965.  CN 1060 I5.

Latyshev, Vasilii Vasilevich.  Sbornik grecheskikh nadpisei khristianskikh vremen iz iuzhnoi Rossii.  St. Peterburg:  Imperial Academy, 1896.  CN 1060 S36.

Latyshev, Vasilii Vasilevich.  Scythica et Caucasica e veteribus scriptoribus graeces et latines.  2 vols.  St. Petersburg, 1901-1906.  PIMS mfm DK 34 S4 L32 1890a.

Latyshev, Vasilii Vasilievich.  Zhitiia sv episkopov khersonskikh.  Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg.  Sciences politiques, historico-philologiques, série 8, tome 8, fascicule 3.  St. Petersburg, 1906.  AS 262 A62752.  Biblio, edition of the Acts of the Martyrs.

Latyshev, Vasilii Vasilievich.  *Martyrs of Chersonese.+  Izvestiia Arkheologicheskoi Kommissii // Bulletin de la Commission impériale archéologique (St. Petersburg).  23 (…) 108‑.  Microform edition Zug:  Inter Documentation, 1985.  PIMS Mfc DK 30 A32 1985.

Lauer, Max, tr.  Des Faustus von Byzantium Geschichte Armeniens.  Cologne:  DuMont, 1879.  WCat 8:  LC, DO.

Laurand, Louis.  *Une réminiscence de Cicéron dans Orose.+  Recherches de Science Religieuse.  9 (1918) 252.  PIMS, Regis.  Orosius 3,8,4 = In Catilinam 1,13,31.

Lavarenne, , ed.  Prudence:  oeuvres.  Paris:  BL, 1951.  BQ 6196 A5 vol 4, Pims.

Lavrov, Pëtr Alexeievich.  *Zhitiia Khersonskikh Sviatykh v greko-slavianskoi pis’mennosti.+  In Pamiatniki khristianskago Chersonesa.  Ed:  DV Ainalov.  Moscow, 1911.  Vol 2, 1-153;  174-180.  WCat 4.  Martyrs of the Chersonese.

Lazar of Pharbi [fifth century].  History of the Armenians.  See Bedrosian, Langlois (Lazare de Pharbe).

Lèbe, Léon Lucien.  Saint Basile:  …  PIMS BR 65 B34 R414.

Lebeau, Charles.  Histoire du bas empire, en commençant à Constantin le Grand.  12 vols.  Paris:  chez l’auteur, 1757-1817.  Several editions, with various number of volumes, and different titles, WCat 30.  Ask DW Smith.

Lebediev, D.  Review of Schoo, Sozomenos.  VV 19,2 (1912) 1-34.  Check Bol’shaia for this scholar priest.

Le Bonniec, Henri.  Bibliographie de l’*Histoire naturelle+ de Pline.  Collection d’études latines, série scientifique, 21.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1946.  WCat 65, pamphlet.

Le Cour Grandmaison, M.  *Le pèlerinage au fumier de Job et la date de la Peregrinatio Aetheriae.  Recherches de Science Religieuse.  48 (1960) 460-465.  PIMS.  Date of Chrysostom, Statues.

Lécrivain, Ch.  *Les soldats privés au bas empire.+  MEFRA 10 (1890) 267-283.  Bucellarii, foederati.  Rufinus and his Hun bodyguard?

Lee, H. D. P., tr.  Aristotle, Vol 7:  Meteorologica.  Loeb Classical Library.  Cambridge, Mass.:  Harvard UP, 1952/1987.  PA 3897 M55.  HCopy.  Text under title record.

Legge, James, tr.  A Record of the Buddhistic Kingdoms.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1886;  New York:  Dover, 1965.  DS 6 F35.  Fa-hien.  Rev:  Giles.

Legrand, Philippe Ernest.  La poésie alexandrine.  Paris:  Payot, 1924.  PA 3084 P7 L43.  Claudian?

Legrand, Philippe Ernest, ed.  Hérodote.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1932.  PA 4004 A2.

Legrand, Philippe Ernest.  *Herodotea.+  REA 40 (1938).

Leidig, Julius.  Quaestiones Zosimeae.  PhD diss Munich.  Ansbach:  Brugel, 1900.  WCat 4.

Lehmann, Paul Georg Joachim.  *Ammianus.+  Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift.  36 (1916) 16.

Lehmann, Paul Georg Joachim.  Erforschung des Mittelalters:  ausgewählte Abhandlungen und Aufsätze.  5 vols.  Stuttgart:  Hiersemann, 1941-62.  Roba D 116 L45.  *Reste und Spuren antiker Gelehrsamkeit in mittelalterlichen Texten+ 2:29-37.  Also page 192 for cosmographies which include Orosius I,2.

Lehmann, Paul Georg Joachim.  Mittelalterliche Büchertitel.  Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, 4.  Munich, 1948.  AS 182 M823.

Lejay, Paul, ed.  M. Annaei Lucani de bello civili liber primus.  Paris:  Klincksieck, 1894.  Biblio.  Incudes edition of the life of Lucan by Vacca (undated commentator), xiv-xx.  Florus and Lucan, lxxv.  Appian, lxxvi.  Scholiasts, lxxvi et sqq.  *il y a dans la Pharsale une place considérable faite à la science proprement dite, à la philosophie physique+  (xlii).

Lenain de Tillemont, Sébastien.  Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire ecclésiastique des six premiers siècles.  16 vols.  Paris:  Charles Robustel, 1693-1712;  1701-1712.  Pims BQX 243 T57;  PIMS BR 161 L4.  Fink recommends vols 2 and 13 of the 1701 edition for Orosius.

Lenain de Tillemont, Sébastien.  Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire ecclésiastique des six premiers siècles.  Paris, 1707.  Pims BQX 243 T57.  Volume 12 for Jerome.

Lenain de Tillemont, Sébastien.  Histoires des Empereurs.  6 vols.  2nd edition.  Paris:  Charles Robustel, 1700-1738.  DG 270 L38 Roba.  Mixed set.  [Also Venice, 1732-1739.]

Lenain de Tillemont, Sébastien.  Depuis Valentinien I jusqu’à Honoré.  Vol 5 of Histoire des Empereurs.  Paris:  Robustel, 1701.  DG 270 L38 Roba.  Confuses Hephthalites with Huns, 5:224 and 6:135.

Lenain de Tillemont, Sébastien.  Depuis Théodose II jusqu’à Anastase.  Vol 6 of Histoire des Empereurs.  Paris:  Rollin fils, 1738.  Attila and the sources on the Huns, 133-179.  *Ammien raporte comment [les Huns] traverserent les Palus-Méotides, au-dela desquels ils habitoient;  comment ils se soumirent les Alains et les Gots vers l’an 376.  & comment s’étant emparés du Païs que les derniers occupoient, ils s’étendirent jusques sur les bords du Danube, (du côté de son embouchure, & encore beaucoup au-dessus.)  Du côté de l’Orient, ils s’étendoient jusques aux portes Caspiennes, qui terminoient l’Ibérie et le mont Taurus.  Car il y a là de vastes plaines qui vont jusques aux Palus-Méotides;  & c’est là qu’étoit, dit Procope, presque toute la nation des Huns.+  (134).

Lenain de Tillemont, Sébastien.  Colloque 1984.  BR 162.2 T46 Pims and Roba.

Lenormant, Charles.  *Les antiquités du Bosphore cimmérien.+  Mémoires de l’Institut de France:  Académie des Inscriptions.  24,1 (1861) 191-265.  AS 162 P318.  Kul-Oba.  *Le même aspect général rappelle celui qu’offrent les barbares sculptés sur la colonne Trajane, à tel point que nous pourrions choisir, parmi les nombreux estampages des têtes empruntées à ce monument [...] des types absolument identiques à ceux que présente le vase de Koul-Oba+ (261).  *les Scythes de l’armée de Satyrus étaient de la même race et presque de la même famille que les Germains, vaincus par Trajan et par Marc-Aurèle+ (264f).

Lenssen, Josephine.  *Persian Invasion.+  In The Late Roman World and its Historian:  Interpreting Ammianus Marcellinus.  Ed:  JW Drijvers and David Hunt.  London:  Routledge, 1999.  40-50.  DG 206 A4 L37.

Leppin, Hartmut, and Werner Portmann, trs.  Themistios:  Staatsreden.  Uebersetzung, Einführung und Erläuterungen.  Bibliothek der griechischen Literatur, 46.  Stuttgart:  A. Hiersemann, 1998.  PA 4441 T5 A2;  Pims PA 5174 G4 B5, vol. 46.

Leriche, P.  *Chronique:  L’Asie centrale dans l’antiquité.+  REA 75 (1973) 280-310, map.  Biblio of relevant periodicals, 286.  *les quelques deux cents inscriptions kouchanes que l’on possède en brahmi ou en kharoshti portent généralement une date, mais celle-ci se réfère soit au règne d’un roi particulier, soit à une ère qui n’est pas précisée+ (285).

Leroux, J. M.  *Les homélies sur les statues.+  Studia Patristica, 3.  Conf Oxford, 1959.  Berlin:  Akademie-Verlag, 1961.  233-239.  Pims BQ 25 T3 (vols 78-81).  Texte und Untersuchungen?

Letronne, Antoine Jean.  Co-editor of Strabo, see La Porte du Theil.

Leue, Gustav.  *Zeit und Heimath des Periegeten Dionysius.+  Philologus 42 (1884) 175-178.  PA 3 P5.  Dates him to Hadrien (117-138 AD).

Lévi, Sylvain, and Edouard Chavannes.  *Voyages des pélerins bouddhistes:  L’itinéraire d’Ou-k’ong (751-790), traduit et annoté.+  Journal asiatique.  9th series 6 (1895) 341-384.  *ses notes … révèlent enfin toute une domination turque, qu’on soupçonnait à peine, à la lisière de l’Inde et de l’Afghanistan+ (342).  Also 378ff.  Ouigur, Tou-kive, 354ff.  Khan, katun, 355 and note.  Hsiung-nu, 366n1.

Levy, Harry Louis.  The Invective *In Rufinum+ of Claudius Claudianus.  Geneva, NY:  Humphrey Press, 1935.  WCat 38.  Reprinted with corrections in his 1971.  Citations taken from reprint, with double pagination.  Rufinus, as Praetorian Prefect *had charge of the conscription of recruits for the army+ (13/231, argument supported by Cod Theod 7,13,10).  *the Eastern troops which Theodosius had led against Eugenius were still in Italy at the time of Theodosius’ death.  The Eastern provinces were thus left undefended+ (22/240).  *The rumor that Rufinus had invited the barbarians to attack the Empire out of sheer malice is, of course, absurd, but that it gained credence is a proof of Rufinus’ unpopularity+ (23/241).

Levy, Harry Louis.  *Two notes.+  AJPh  68 (1947) 64-73.  Claudian.

Levy, Harry Louis.  *Claudian’s In Rufinum and an Epistle of St. Jerome.+  AJPhil.  69 (1948) 62-68.  Date of Ammianus.  Convincing.

Levy, Harry Louis.  *Themes of Encomium and Invective in Claudian.+  TAPA 89 (1958) 336-347.

Levy, Harry Louis.  Claudian’s *In Rufinum+:  An Exegetical Commentary.  Philological Monographs of the American Philosophical Association, 30.  …. 1971.  PA 6372 I73 L4.  Biblio.  Includes corrected reprint of his 1935.

Libanius.  Biography:  Festugière, Petit.

Libanius.  Letters.  Ed:  Cabouret, Norman (Loeb), Seeck, Sievers.  Letter ‘1061 to Zeno re Rufinus.  Letter ‘1062 to Addaeus.  ‘1220, 1434, 1508 Julian.

Libanius.  Orationes.  Ed:  Foerster, Norman (Loeb).  lix,66ff:  material of war.  ’12, 13, 17, 18 Julian.  ‘ 19 to 23, on the Statues.

Libanius.  Lament over Julian.  Oration 17.  *I expected to see thunderbolts and fireballs and all the bolts of heaven descending on the Persians [...]  his death at the hands of the Assyrians+ (17,6).  *You should not then, my dear friend, have rejected the Persian embassy, when it asked for peace and was submissive to your will+ (17,19).

Liber de viris illustribus urbis Romae.  Text:  Teubner.  Ms and editions with Aurelius Victor.

Liberman, Gauthier.  Valérius Flaccus:  Argonautiques.  Paris:  BL, 1997.  PA 6791 V4 A36.  Biblio.

Liddell, Scott, Jones.  Dictionary of Greek.  Jerome *Anexíkakon+, earliest citation NT (2 Tim 2,24).

Liébaert, Jacques.  *L’évolution de la chrystologie de saint Cyrille d’Alexandrie à partir de la controverse nestorienne.+  Mélanges de science religieuse.  27 (1970) 27-48.  PIMS BR 50 L5.

Liébaert, Jacques.  *Saint Cyrille d’Alexandrie et l’unique prosopon du Christ.+  Universitas MSR.  Lille:  Faculté catholique, 1977.  49-62.  PIMS BR 50 L5.  Mélange de science religieuse.  34 (1977).  Volume anniversaire.

Liébaert, Jacques.  *Orose.+  In Catholicisme.  10 (1985) 272ff.

Liebeschuetz, John Hugo Wolfgang Gideon.  *The System Rejected: Lucan’s Pharsalia.+  149-155.  Reprinted in his 1979.

Liebeschuetz, John Hugo Wolfgang Gideon.  Continuity and Change in Roman Religion.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1979.  BL 802 L53, Roba, VUPT.

Liebeschuetz, John Hugo Wolfgang Gideon.  *The identity of Typhos in Synesius’ de Providentia.+  Latomus 46 (1987) 419-431.  Fall of Gainas.

Liebeschuetz, John Hugo Wolfgang Gideon.  *Ammianus, Julian and Divination.+  1988;  reprinted 1990.  Omens before Julian crosses the Khabur into Persia.

Liebeschuetz, John Hugo Wolfgang Gideon.  From Diocletian to the Arab Conquest:  Change in the Late Roman Empire.  Aldershot:  Variorum, 1990.  DG 311 L48.  Articles on Chrysostom, Pelagius.

Liebeschuetz, John Hugo Wolfgang Gideon.  Barbarians and Bishops:  Army, Church, and State in the Age of Arcadius and Chrysostom.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1990.  DF 543 L33.  *In summer 394 [...]  Rufinus raised a bodyguard of Huns for himself, presumably with Theodosius’ permission.  He is the first civilian known to have kept such a force.+  (90).  Rufinus and the Huns, 91.  For Goths and Foederati.

Lieu, Sam, ed.  Claudius Mamertinus:  Panegyricus Juliano Augusto.  Liverpool:  UP, 1986.  DG 315 E465.

Lindskog, Claes.  *Ueber die sogen. Attractio inuersa im lateinischen.+  Eranos 1 (1896) 48-56.  PA 9 E7.  Parataxis.

Lippold, Adolf.  *Orosius, christlicher Apologet und römischer Bürger.+  Philologus 113 (1969) 92-105.  Summary of Ph. D. dissertation.

Lippold, Adolf.  Die antike Welt in christlicher Sicht.  2 vols.  Zurich:  Artemis, 1985-1986.  D 17 B655 1985.  Orosius.

Livy.  Ed:  Bayet, Conway, Foster (Loeb), Weissenborn, Zingerle.  Mentions the Nervii only in fragments, no geographic or chronological context;  check out difference between Neuroi and Nervii.

Löfstedt, Einar.  Peregrinatio Aetheriae.  Lund, 1911;  Oxford, 1936.  BR 167 I863 L6.  Re:  Ammianus.

Löfstedt, Einar.  *Some Changes of Sense in Late and Mediaeval Latin.+  Eranos, FS Gunnar Rudberg.  44 (1946) 340-354.  PA 9 E7.  Pontificum, 343ff.

Löfstedt, Einar.  Later Latin.  Oslo:  Aschehoug, 1959.  Pims, Roba PA 2057 L6.

Loeschke, Gerhard.  *Das Syntagma des Gelasius Cyzicenus.+  RhM NS 60 (1905) 594-613.  History of the Holy Synods, and of the Arian controversy.

Loeschke, Gerhard, and Margaret Heinemann, eds.  Gelasius:  Kirchengeschichte.  Griechische Christliche Schriftssteller, 28.  Leipzig:  Hinrich, 1918.  BR 65 G35.  Scyths, index.

Löwe, Heinz.  *Die Herkunft der Bajuwaren.+  Zeitschrift für bayerische Landesgeschichte.  15 (1949) 5-67.  DD 801 B3124.

Loewe, Richard.  Books on Germanic philology, all in storage, check UTLink.

Loewe, Richard.  *Der gotische Kalender.+  Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum.  59 (1922) 245-290.  PF 3003 Z5.  St. Sabas Gothicus.

Loewe, Richard.  *Gotische Namen in hagiographischen Texten.+  Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache.  47 (1923) 407-433.  PF 3003 B5.

Loisy, Alfred.  Histoire critique du texte et des versions de la Bible.  2 vols.  Amiens, 1892-1893;  reprint Frankfurt/Main:  Minerva, 1971.  BS 500 L6, SMC BS 471 L65.  For Jerome:  Part 3 *Vulgate+.

Long, Jacqueline.  Claudian’s *In Eutropium+:  Or, How, When and Why to Slander a Eunuch.  Chapel Hill:  University of North Carolina Press, 1996.  PA 6372 I53 L66.  *Stilicho may well have envied Eutropius’s freedom to take the reward of a consulate for his success against the Huns in Armenia+ (237).

Lot, Ferdinand.  *Les migrations saxonnes en Gaule et en Grande-Bretagne du IIIe au Ve siècle.+  RH 119 (1915) 1-40.  Stilicho.  Also history of Old Saxon vocabulary.

Lot, Ferdinand.  *A quelle époque a-t-on cessé de parler latin?+  Bulletin Du Cange.  6 (1931) 91-159.

Lot, Ferdinand.  *La Notitia Dignitatum utriusque imperii.+  REA 38 (1936) 285-338.

Luetjohann, Christianus, ed.  Sidonius Apollinaris:  Epistulae.  In vol 8 of MGH AA.  Berlin, 1887.

Luetjohann, Christianus, ed.  Sidonius Apollinaris:  Panegyricus.  In vol 8 of MGH AA.  Berlin, 1887.

Lucanus, M. Annaeus.  Pharsalia.  Early editions by Bentley, Burmann, Cumberland, Farnaby, Grotius, Kortte, May, Oudendorp, Schrevel, Weber (for history see Housman).  Modern editions:  Barratt, Bourgery (BL), Duff (Loeb), Francken, Haskins, Housman, Lejay, Postgate, Shackleton Bailey.  Comm:  Endt, Gelsomino, Gotoff, Mooney, Pichon, Sandford, Usener, Werner.  Tr:  Brébeuf, Delatour;  Braund (Engl).  Incuna.bib for huge biblio, also ema.bib.

Lucan.  Verses 1:444-446 for Teutatis.  Elbe 2:52.  Does he mention Nervii?  For Scyths, see index.

Lucan.  For original, see Housman.  Mentions both the Alani and the Massagetae, but as separate peoples, see Eunapius.art.   Alans, 8:222ff, 10:454ff.  *when I marched towards the Caspian Gates and pursued the hardy Alans, ever at war, I suffered the Parthians to ride at will over the Persian plains+ (8:222-224).  *Alans, or Scythians or Moors who mock the stranger by fixing him as a target for their arrows+ (10:454-455).  *que l’Hister scythique n’emprisonne plus le Massagète+ (2,50).  *Les peuples de Scythie … que Bactros enferme de son gouffre gelé et l’Hyrcanie de ses vastes forêts+ (3,267-268).  Sarmatians … Phasis … Colchis … Halys … Tanais … Black Sea … *puis le courageux Arien et le Massagète qui apaise les longs jeûnes des guerres sarmates avec le cheval qui sert à sa fuite et les rapides Gélons+ (3,281-283).

Lucian.  Amber or the Swans.  Loeb 1:73-79.  See Krappe for commentary.

Lulofs, Hendrik Jan.  Strabo over Scythen:  Specimen van antieke anthropo-geographie.  Utrecht, 1929.  WCat?

Lumbroso, Giacomo [Baron], ed.  Expositio totius mundi et gentum annotata.  Atti della reale Accademia dei Lincei, 295, series quinta, Classe di scienza morali, storiche e filologiche (Memorie), vol 6, part 1.  Rome, 1898.  124-168.  AS 222 R645;  check Gerstein Q 54 A363;  Q 54 A 365.  per.bib.

Lumbroso, Giacomo [Baron], ed.  Expositio totius mundi et rerum.  Second edition Rome, 1903.  1-90.  Rev:  Wölfflin 1904.

Lundström, Vilhelm.  *Studien zu spätgriechischen und byzantinischen Chroniken.+  Eranos 1 (1896) 150-168.  Chronicon paschale, Marcellinus.  Lost and found manuscript.

Lutz, A.  *Die Chronologie des Esaias-Kommentars von Hieronymus.+  Wiener Studien.  26 (1904) 164-168.  PA 3 W5.  Dated before AD 410.

Lvov, N. I.  *Bor’ba za edinstvo rimskoi imperii i za preobladanie Rima proizvedeniiakh Klavdiia Klavdiana.+  VDI  65 (1958) 156-165.  D 51 A453.  Claudian, not much on the Huns.

Maas, Paul.  *Eustathios als Konjekturalkritiker.+  Byz Zeitschrift.  35 (1935) 299-307.

Maas, Paul.  *Leitfehler und stemmatische Typen.+  Byz Zeitschrift.  37 (1937) 289-294.  S/xerox.

Macartney, [Sir] George.  *Notices, from the Chinese Sources, on the Ancient Kingdom of Lau-lan or Shen-shen.+  Geographic Journal.  21 (1903) 260-265. Lou-lan, point of reference for ancient itineraries.  Small state between the two great kingdoms of the Chinese and the Hsiung-nu (262).

MacDowell, D. W., and W. Taddei.  *The pre-Muslim period.+  In The Archaeology of Afghanistan from Earliest Times to the Timurid Period.  Ed:  Raymond Allchin and Norman Hammond.  London:  Academic Press, 1978.  233-299.  DS 353 A72.  Summary of research.

Mackail, J. W.  *Ammianus Marcellinus.+  JRS 10 (1920) 103-118.  Flattering backgrounder.

Macler, Frédéric.  *Pseudo-Sebeos, texte arménien traduit et annoté.+  Journal asiatique.  10th series 6 (1905) 121-155.  Continues Agathangelos.  Starts with Sassanids, includes concordance of Persian and Roman rulers.  Kushans, 131.

Maenchen-Helfen, Otto.  *Huns and Hsiung-Nu.+  Byzantion 17 (1944/45) 222-243.  Claims *it is impossible to affiliate the Hsiung-nu language with one of the great linguistic families of Eurasia+ (224).  This is no longer true, see Bazin.

Maenchen-Helfen, Otto.  *The Yüeh-chih Problem Re-examined.+  Journal of American Oriental Society.  65 (1945) 71-81.  *The Kushanas spoke Saka.  The language of their coin-legends is pure Khotani Saka+ (73, based on Sten Konow).  Discusses Mamertinus, on Kushans, 75.  See Ammianus for more on Kushans, as established by author, 75.

Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J.  *Date of Ammianus Marcellinus’ Last Books.+  AJPhil.  76 (1955) 384-399.  *We may, I think, assume with a high degree of probability, that Ammianus Marcellinus finished his work in the winter of 392-393+ (399).  Not if Jerome alluded to him in the Ad Jov of Easter 393.  M-H’s chronology of Jerome’s works is upside down.

Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J.  *Pseudo-Huns.+  CAJ 1 (1955) 101-106. Cites Expositio from Riese 102-126.

Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J.  *The Ethnic Name Hun.+  In Studia serica Bernhard Karlgren dedicata.  Ed:  Soren Egerod and Else Glahn.  Copenhagen:  Munksgaard, 1959.  223-238.  PL 1026 K37.  Biblio.  Re Ghirshman 1948.

Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J.  *Archaistic Names of the Hsiung-nu.+  Central Asiatic Journal.  6 (1961) 249-261.  DS 785 A1 C4.

Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J.  *Iranian Names of the Huns.+  In W. B. Henning:  Memorial Volume.  Ed:  Mary Boyce and Ilya Gershevitch.  London:  Lund Humphries, 1970.  272-275.  DS 252.4 W17.

Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J.  The World of the Huns:  Studies in their History and Culture.  Ed:  Max Knight.  Berkeley:  U of Calif Press, 1973.  D 141 M33.  Armenian sources, 457f;  Syriac sources 51-59.  *Until the 1940’s, the identity of the European Huns with the Hsiung-nu on China’s borders was rarely questioned+ (367).  Untrue.  Discusses Bernshtam’s archaeological evidence, 367ff.  Language of the Huns, 376ff.

Magie, David.  Roman Rule in Asia Minor.  2 vols.  Princeton UP, 1950.  DS 155 M3.  Alani in AD 21, 1:575, cf Bosworth.

Magnus Episcopus [of Carrhae].  Chronology [Calendar] of 354.  Ed:  Mommsen MGH AA, 9, 1892;  Stern.  See Conybeare 1902;  Mommsen 1850;  Norman, Salzman.

Mahé, Annie, and Jean-Pierre Mahé, trs.  Histoire de l’Arménie par Moïse de Khorène.  D’après Victor Langlois.  L’aube des peuples.  Paris:  Gallimard, 1993.  DS 181 M7214.

Mai, Angelo [Cardinal], ed.  Petrus Patricius.  In his Scriptorum veterum nova collectio e vaticanis codicibus edita.  10 vols.  Rome, 1823-1838.  2:590-609.  BR 60 A6.  Persian wars.

Mai, Angelo [Cardinal], ed.  Classici auctores e codicibus vaticanus.  Rome:  Vatican Press, 1828-1838.  ROBA mfm PA M352.  See in particular 1833.  See also Expositio 3 (1928) 385, reprint of Godefroy.

Mai, Angelo [Cardinal], ed.  *Vita Artemii.+  In Spicilegum romanum.  Vol 4 or 5?  1840.  Pages 340ff.

Mai, Angelo [Cardinal], ed.  Nova patrum bibliotheca.  10 vols.  Rome, 1852-1905.  BR 60 A6.

Maisano, Riccardo.  *La critica filologica di Petau et Hardouin et l’edizione parigina del 1684 della Orazioni di Temistio.+  Archivum Historicum Societatis Jesu.  43 (1974) 267-300.  Regis PER.

Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra [check].  *The Date of Kalidasa.+  JRAS 1909:731-739.  Cf Bhitari inscription.

Malalas, John.  Chronicon.  Bonn Corpus, 1831, ed Dindorf;  Jeffreys-Scott, Stauffenberg, Thurn (CFHB 35).  Studies:  Beaucamp et al.  Julian’s Persian expedition.

Malavialle, Léon.  *Le littoral de l’Inde d’après Pomponius Méla (III:67).+  Revue de philologie.  24 (1900) 19-30.  Re:  Frick’s edition.  Location of Taprobane, compare with Orosius and Ammianus re *Eous oceanus+.  *Leur Océan Oriental, c’est le golfe du Bengale.  Seulement comme ils en ignoraient la courbure terminale, ils le prolongeaient hypothétiquement sur le Nord+ (21).  Argument based on actual geography, and also on Vaticanus 4929.  *Les premières éditions ayant été publiées en Italie, d’après ces manuscrits italiens, qui sont les plus récents et les moins bons, ceux de Milan, de Venise, de Florence, la leçon ab Indo y a naturellement figuré dès le début et depuis consacrée par l’imprimerie, elle est restée dans toutes les autres+ (25).  S/read Paropaniso instead of Caroparnaso, at III,69.

Malcovati, Enrica, tr, ed.  Plinio il Giovane:  Il Panegirico di Traiano.  Florence:  Sansoni, 1949.  PA 6639 I8 M38.  Important apparatus.

Malingrey, Anne-Marie, tr.  Palladios:  Dialogue sur la vie de Jean Chrysostome.  With Philippe Leclercq.  SC, 341, 342.  2 vols.  Paris:  Le Cerf, 1988.  BR 65 P3 D5314.

Mamertinus, Claudius.  Panegyricus Juliano Augusto.  Text:  Galletier, Gutzwiller, Lieu.  Studies:  Blockley.

Mamertinus.  Panegyricus genethliacus Maximiano Augusto (AD 269).  Ed:  Galletier.  See Maenchen-Helfen 1945:75 for Kushans.  *Ipsos Persas ipsumque regem adscitis Sacis et Ruffis [s/b Cussis] et Gelis petit frater Ormies+ (III:17,2).

Mandoul, J.  De Synesio Ptolemensi episcopo et Pentapoleos defensore.  Ph.D.  Paris:  Félix Alcan, 1899.  Pims BQ 1784 M27.  Unnigardae, 26.

Manitius, Maximilianus.  *Plinius der Aeltere.+  Philologus.  NS 3 (1890) 380-384.  Not Orosius.

Manitius, Maximilianus.  *Zu Plinius dem Aelteren und Orosius.+  Rheinisches Museum.  NS 48 (1893) 477-479.  More incuna.bib.  Re Orosius I,2,76:  Description of Britain taken from Pliny.

Mansi, Giovanni Domenico.  Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio.  53 vols.  Paris, 1903.  PIMS BQV 11 M2 folio;  Roba HEccl M Folio.

Mansion, Joseph.  *Les origines du christianisme chez les Gots.+  AnBoll 33 (1914) 5-30.

Manutius, Aldus [Aldo Manuzio].  [ca 1450-1515].  Strabonis geographica.  Editio princeps.  Check Choanes/Soanes/Thoanes, and compare with Casaubon.

Maraval, Pierre, ed.  Grégoire de Nysse:  Vie de sainte Macrine.  Paris:  Le Cerf, 1971.  BR 1720 M22 G714.

Maraval, Pierre, ed.  Grégoire de Nysse:  Lettres.  Paris:  Le Cerf, 1990.  BR 65 G74 F7.  This vol:  letters 1-30.  Letter 19 for Macrina.

Maraval, Pierre, ed.  Socrate.  2004-2005.  See Périchon.

Marcellinus Comes.  Ed. Mommsen MGH AA 11,2:37-104.  See Croke.  This chronicle starts in AD 370.  *Pannoniae, quae per quinquaginta annos ab Hunnis retinebantur, a Romanis receptae sunt+ (427,1).  Ad annum 421.4.  Cf See Jordanes Getica ‘166.  Those *Huns+ are the Goths, see Ausonius, who makes the same confusion;  but Jordanes makes the Goths expell the Huns!! The treaty was negotiated by Theodosius with the Goths.  Indirectly show the Huns were not in Pannonia when Olympiodorus went on his embassy.

Marchetta, Antonio.  *De Athaulfi verbis ab Orosio in capite XLIII Historiarum adversum paganos libri VII relatis.+  Latinitas 31 (1983) 83-87.  PA 9 L3.  Vatican publication, not very scholarly.

Marcian of Heracleia.  Periplus.  Text:  Miller, Mueller, Schoff.  Date:  see Schoff.  *The direct line of width, where it is the widest, extends from the Ethiopian sea to the island of Thule+ ‘I:6, Schoff 14).  *the people of the Sinae [beyond the Ganges], whose metropolis, which is called Thinae+ (‘I;16, Schoff).  *The region about the Borysthenes beyond the Alani is inhabited by the so-called European Chuni+ (II:39 Schoff).

Marcotte, Didier, ed.  Circuit de la terre:  Pseudo-Skymnos.  Vol 1 of Géographes grecs.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 2000.  G 87 A1 G46 2002.  History of editions of GGM, intro.

Marcovich, Miroslav.  *Note on Hippolytus’ Refutatio.+  JTS NS 15 (1964) 69-74.  VUEM, KNOX.  Contra Nautin.  Authenticity of Chronicon.

Maricq, André.  Recherches sur les *Res gestae divi Saporis+.  See Honigmann 1953.

Maricq, André.  *Edition des Res gestae divi Saporis.+  Syria 35 (1958) 295-360, plates.  DS 94.5 S8.  Cited Barnes.

Marié, Marie-Anne, ed, tr.  Ammien Marcellin:  Histoire (livres XXVI-XXVIII).  Vol 5.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1984.

Marquart, Josef.  Eransahr nach der Geographie des ps. Moses Xorenac’i:  Mit historisch-kritischem Kommentar und historischen und topographischen Exkursen.  Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Philos-historische Klasse, NS 3,2.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1901.  AS 182 G812.  Rev. BZ 16 (1907) 319.  Moses of Khoren.  *Der Osten+ 47-93.  Cites Agathangelos on the Kushans, 48.  Comments on Ammianus 16,9,4 (50).

Marquart, Josef [Markwart].  *Hippolytos Chronik.+  In Hippolytus’ Werke.  Ed:  G N Bonwetsch.  Appendix to Griechische Christliche Schriftsteller, 36.  Leipzig:  Hinrich, 1897‑.  Vol 4, 1929.  413-435.  PIMS BQ 605 G7 H6;  ROBA BR 65 H8 1897.  Re:  Hippolytus, Ananias of Shirak, chronology.

Marquart, Josef [Markwart].  Südarmenien und die Tigrisquellen nach griechischen und arabischen Geographen.  Studien zur armenischen Geschichte, 4.  Vienna:  Mechitharisten, 1930.  DS 199 S6 M3.  See incuna.bib for more.  Critiqued by Garsoian, mentions 4th century problems.

Marquart, Josef [Markwart].  *Die Entstehung der armenischen Bistümer.+  Oriens Christianus.  27,2.  1932.  DS 1 065 Apex.  Negative review in ABoll 51 (1933) 149-151.

Marquart, Josef [Markwart].  Wehrot und Arang:  Untersuchungen zur mythischen und geschichtlichen Landeskunde von Ostiran.  Posthumous edition by Hans Heinrich Schaeder.  Leiden:  Brill, 1938.  G 107 M37.  Biblio.

Marquart, Josef.  *La province de Parskahayk.+  Revue des études arméniennes.  3 (1966) 252-314.  DS 161 R3.

Marshall, Sir John Hubert.  Taxila.  3 vols.  Cambridge, 1931.  DS 392.2 T3 M37.  Kanishka in India.

Marrou, Henri Irénée.  *La ‘conversion’ de Synésios.+  REG 65 (1952) 476-484.

Marrou, Henri-Irénée.  *Saint Augustin, Orose et l’augustinisme historique.+  La Storiografia altomedievale.  Settimane, 17.  Spoleto, 1970.  59-87.  Important, with biblio.  *Renonçant au schéma, si cher à Augustin, des six âges du monde, Orose a préféré emprunter à Jérôme la théorie, qui avait derrière elle aussi une si longue histoire, des quatre empires universels, adaptée par les Chrétiens au commentaire du ch. VII du prophète Daniel, théorie à laquelle Augustin ne s’arrêta pas beaucoup+ (72).  *Augustin attendait d’Orose un supplément … de la Cité de Dieu+ (65).  *Orose a eu le mérite et la hardiesse de composer une histoire universelle+ (68).

Marti, Berthe M.  *Vacca in Lucanum.+  Speculum 25 (1950) 198-214.  Biblio.  Jerome mentions a commentary on Lucan (198).  Quote from Livy argues an early date for Vacca (203).  Vacca of paramount importance for geography;  has preserved many passages from Livy (211).

Martin, Annick, and Micheline Albert, eds, trs.  Histoire acéphale.  Paris:  Le Cerf, 1985.  BR 65 A8 A6814.  Rev:  Barnes 1986.

Martin, Annick.  *L’histoire ecclésiastique intéresse-t-elle Malalas?+  In Recherches sur la Chronique de Jean Malalas.  Ed:  Joëlle Beaucamp.  Vols?  Paris:  Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance, 2004.  1:85-102.  D 17 C657 2003.  Death of Julian.

Martin, M F C.  *Coins of the Kidara and the Kushans.+  JRAS Bengal.  Numismatic Supplement, 47.  1938:23-50, plate.  AS 472 A8.  Chyonitae.

Martin, Paulin [abbé].  Chronique de Josué le Stylite écrite vers l’an 515.  1876;  reprint Nendeln:  Kraus, 1966.  DS 276 J6.

Martin, Paulin [abbé].  *L’Hexaméron de Jacques d’Edesse.+  JA 8th series 11 (1888) 155-219;  401-490.  Seventh century polymath.

Martyrs of Chersonese, Seven.  See Basilius et socii.

*Martyrs of Chersonese.+  Zapiski Odesskogo obshchestva istoriii drevnostei.  7 ( . . . ) 120.  MICR DK Z364.

*Martyrs of Chersonese.+  Zapiski Odesskogo obshchestva istoriii drevnostei.  9 ( . . . ) 134.  MICR DK Z364.

*Martyrs of Chersonese.+  Zapiski Odesskogo obshchestva istoriii drevnostei.  10 ( . . . ) 139.  MICR DK Z364.

Martroye, François.  *Ammianus 27,7,5.+  Bulletin de la société nationale des antiquaires de France.  . . . (1922) 165-172.  DC 2 S73.

Marx, Friedrich.  *Die Beziehungen des Altlateins zum Spätlatein.+  Neue Jahrbücher.  23 (1909) 434-448.  PA 3 N664.  Vocabulary.

Masai, François.  *Nouveaux fragments du Paul Orose de Stavelot en écriture onciale.+  In Hommages à Léon Herrmann.  Collection Latomus, 44.  Brussels, 1960.  509-521.  DE 3 H66.  Ms utilisé par les relieurs au 16e siècle.  Original fin du 7e siècle.  Biblio des fragments.  Scythie, 517.  Stavelot = abbaye.

Maspéro, Henri.  La Chine antique.  1927/1955;  Paris:  PUF, 1985.  DS 735 A2 M3.  Mongols and Chinese share racial stock.

Maspéro, Henri.  Mélanges posthumes sur les religions et l’histoire de la Chine.  Paris:  Musée Guimet, 1950.  BL 1801 M36.

Maspéro, Henri, and Etienne Balazs.  Histoire et Institutions de la Chine ancienne des origines au XIIe siècle après J. C.  Paris:  PUF, 1967.  DS 745 M37.  HX maps, chronology.  *Le moyen-âge:  les six dynasties et les empires barbares+ 82-157.  The Jouan-Jouan, p. 149.  Have notes on the Wei, need notes on the Hsiung-nu.

Matranga, Pietro, ed.  Anecdota Graeca.  2 vols.  Rome:  Bertinelli, 1850.  PA 5171 M3 1850.  Index.  Includes John of Gaza.  Scholarship on Home.

Mattera, Lucia.  *Libanio, Or 17 e Gregorio di Nazianzo, Or 4.+  Koinonia 15 (1991) 139-146.  PA 9 K64.  Helps with date.

Matthews, John F.  *Olympiodorus of Thebes and the History of the West (AD 407-425).+  JRS 60 (1970) 79-97.  Zosimus and Olympiodorus for the end of Stilico’s career, 83ff.  *Olympiodorus’ .. favourable view of Stilicho, which is unique among writers of his time+ (90).  May explain his involvement in the assassination of King Donatus.

Matthews, John F.  *Ammianus’ Historical Evolution.+  In History and Historians in Late Antiquity.  Ed:  Brian Croke and Alanna M Emmett.  Sidney:  Pergamon Press, 1983.  30-41.  D 56 H5.

Matthews, John F.  *.+  In The Inheritance of Historiography, 350-900.  Ed:  C. Holdsworth and Timothy Peter Wiseman.  Exeter UP, 1986.  D 17 I54.

Matthews, John F.  The Roman Empire of Ammianus.  London:  Duckworth, 1989.  DG 316.7 M38.  Dates Ammianus AD 391, 17-27.

Maue, Dieter.  *Vorläufige Bemerkungen zu den Gutturalgraphemen in der alttürkischen Brahmi.+  Ural-altaïsche Jahrbücher.  NS 4 (1984) 90-96.

Maue, Dieter.  *A Tentative Stemma of the Varieties of Brahmi-Script Along the Northern Silk Road.+  In Languages and Scripts of Central Asia.  Ed:  Shirin Akiner and Nicholas Sims-Williams.  London UP, 1997.  1-15.  P 381 A753 L35.  Biblio;  see also Gabain.  For the problems of adapting scripts, in this case Brahmi, to Türki phonemes, in particular /ü/ and the fricative velar gutturals, both voiceless and voiced, p. 4ff.

Mayer, Roland.  *Geography and Roman Poets.+  Greece and Rome.  33 (1986) 47-54.  *The new geographical knowledge, at least so far as a name of tribe or river, was not scorned by the Roman poets as it had largely been by their Alexandrian models, Empire was too glamorous to resist [...] Lucan’s excesses are well known+ (54).

Mayhoff, Karl Friedrich Theodor, ed.  Pliny:  HN.  6 vols.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1892-1909.  With index from edition by L. Jan.  He corrected Comani to Choamani on the basis of Mela (6,47).

Mazières, Jean-Pierre.  *Un principe d’organisation pour le recueil des Lettres d’Ambroise de Milan.+  In Ambroise de Milan:  XVIe Centenaire de son élection épiscopale.  Ed:  Yves-Marie Duval.  Paris:  Etudes Augustiniennes, 1974.  199-218.  Roba BR 1720 A5 D88.  Letters to emperors re: Goths.

Mazzarino, Santo.  *Shabur:  l’impero romano.+  Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.  19 (1971) 59-82.  CC 1 A19.  Zonaras.

McCauley, Leo P., and Anthony A. Stephenson, trs.  The Works of Saint Cyril of Jerusalem.  Washington, 1969-.  BR 60 A62 F3.  Vols, 61, 64.  Huns?  Bishops of Crimea?

McCracken, George, et al, eds.  Saint Augustine:  The City of God Against the Pagans.  7 vols.  Loeb.  1957‑.  BR 65 A64 1957.

McCrindle, John Watson, tr.  The Christian Topography of Cosmas, an Egyptian monk.  1897;  reprint New York:  Franklin, 1967.  G 91 C673.  Original by Montfaucon, reprinted in PG 88.

McCrindle, John Watson, tr.  Ancient India as Described by Ptolemy.  Calcutta:  Thacker, Spink, 1885.  G 87 P83 M27.  Reprinted from the Indian Antiquary, 1884.

McCrindle, John Watson, tr.  Ancient India as Described by Ptolemy.  1885;  reprinted with introduction, references and appendices by Ramchandra Jain. New Delhi:  Today & Tomorrow’s Printers, 1974.  G 87 P83 M27 1974.  Book on India includes Scythia.  Paropanisos = Hindu Kush.  Paropanisadai, Ch 18, with Kabul, Ghazna.  Arakhôsia with Kandahar, ch 20.  Note:  *The Tapouroi appear to be the same as the Tapyroi mentioned by Strabo as occupying the country between the Hyrkanoi and the Areioi.  Their position, however, varied at various times+ (267).  *The towns of Baktrianê towards the river Oxos are the following … Khoana …+ (VI,C,11 = 2,7, page 269).  *Skythia beyond Mount Imaös is bounded in the West by Scythia within Imaös, and the Sakoi along the whole curvature of the mountains towards the north, and on the north by the unknown land, and in the east by Serike in a straight line where the extremities lie in 150o 63o and 160o 35o and in the south by a part of India beyond the Ganges…+ (VI,C,15 = 15,1, page 292f).  Book 7, ch 1, ‘1:  *India within the river Ganges is bounded on the west by the Paropanisadai and Arakhôsia and Gedrosia along their eastern sides already indicated;  on the north by Mount Imaôs along the Sogdiaioi and the Sakai lying above it+.

McEnerney, John L., tr.  St. Cyril of Alexandria:  Letters.  Fathers of the Church, 76-77.  Washington, 1987.  BR 60…

McGovern, William Montgomery.  The Early Empires of Central Asia:  A Study of the Scythians and the Huns and the part they played in world history.  Chapel Hill:  University of North Carolina, 1939.  DS 785 M32.  Bird’s eyeview of Central Asiatic history, v.  *in accuracy and in comprehensiveness the Chinese sources far outweigh all the other sources put together.+ (vif).  *It would be far better, in the present state of our information, to call the dialect spoken in Kucha (the so-called Tocharian B) by the name of Kuchani, and the dialect prevalent in Turfan (the so-called Tocharian A) by the name of Turfani+ (483).

McGuckin, John A.  St. Cyril of Alexandria:  That the Christ is One.  New York:  SVS Press, 1994.  BR 65 C953 H6813.

McGuckin, John A.  St. Cyril of Alexandria:  The Christological Controversy.  Leiden:  Brill, 1994.  BT 198 M3994, HF.

McHugh, Michael P.  *Observations on the Seres in Latin Literature.+  In Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History, 4.  Ed:  Carl Deroux.  Latomus, 196.  Brussels, 1986.  341-344.  PA 6011 S78.  Summarizes pithily *Mention of the Seres is not rare … but the most that can be affirmed of them with any certainty is that they are remote easterners+ (341).

Meillet, Antoine.  *Remarques sur le texte de l’historien arménien Agathange.+  JA 10th series 16 (1910) 460-481.  *Le texte n’est pas renouvelé d’une manière essentielle au point de vue historique, et les traductions qui ont été faites ne perdent pas leur utilité+ (480).

Meineke, Augustus, ed.  Pseudo-Skymnos.  1846.  Demonstrated that the prose Scymnus and the poet were two different writers.

Meineke, Augustus, ed.  Stephan von Byzanz:  Ethnika.  Berlin:  Remer, 1841;  reprint Graz:  Ak, 1958.  Roba, Pims PA 4435 S6.  See index for Scyths.

Meineke, Augustus, ed.  Strabonis geographica.  3 vols.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1866;  reprint 1952.  G 87 S86 1866.

Mela, Pomponius [AD 44].  De Chorographia.  PA 6512 A2;  PA 6169 A62.  Latest edition by Silberman.  Text:  Barbaro, Berry, Francini, Frick, Gronovius, Herold, Huot & Nisard, Parroni, Parthey.  Studies:  Ranstrand, Reynolds, Silberman, Tzschucke, Vossius.  See Authors file, text, Silberman.  Incunabula;  Malavielle for the value of incunabula.

Mendell, Clarence W.  *Lucan’s Rivers.+  Yale Classical Studies.  8 (1941) 1-22.  PA 25 Y3.  Lucan uses river names lyrically, i.e. the Nile for Aegypt (11).  *The Albis stands for Germany, the Rhine for Germany…+ (11).

Mendelssohn, Ludwig, ed.  Zosimi comitis et exadvocatii fisci Historia Nova.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1887.  PA 4500 Z6 1887.  Rev by Bury.  Important intro.

Mendelssohn, Ludwig.  *De Zosimi aetate disputatio.+  Rheinisches Museum.  NS 42 (1887) 525-530.  Reprinted in intro, above.  Dates it to AD 450-500;  for resolution, see Rühl, Mommsen.

Mendelssohn, Ludwig.  *Zu Zosimus.+  Wochenschrift für klassische Philologie.  8 (1891) 525.

Menges, Karl Heinrich.  The Turkic Languages and Peoples:  An Introduction to Turkic Studies.  Wiesbaden:  Harrassowitz, 1968.  PL 23 M4.

Menologium Graecum.   Urbino, 1727.  Martyrs of Chersonese.  Part III, March 8.

Meredith, A.  *Porphyry and Julian Against the Christians.+  Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt.  2:23,2 (1980) 1119-1149.  PIMS DG 209 T36.

Méridier, Louis.  Le philosophe Thémistios devant l’opinion de ses contemporains.  Paris:  Hachette, 1906.  PIMS PA 4441 T5 M4.

Merrill, NW.  Cicero and Early Roman Invective.  Unpublished PhD diss U of Cincinnati, 1975.  DA 36 (1976) 4469A.  WCat 3, mfm.

Merx, Adalbert.  Describes Jerome’s commentary on Isaiah as *eine flüssige, elegante, aber principlose Compilation+.  Cited Cheyne Prophecies of Isaiah.  1888 2:270.  Bible Comment (OT) Isaiah C, B2.

Merx, Adalbert.  Die Prophetie des Joels.  Halle, 1879.

Mesk, Josef.  *Die Ueberarbeitung des plinianischen Panegyricus auf Traian.+  Wiener Studien.  32 (1910) 239-.  PA 3 W5.

Mesk, Josef.  *Plinian.+  Wiener Studien.  33 (1911) 71.

Mesk, Josef.  *Zur Technik der lateinischen Panegyriker.+  RhM NS 67 (1912) 569-590.  Nothing for Julian.

Meyer, Robert T.  Palladius:  Dialogue on the Life of St. John Chrysostom.  Ancient Christian Writers, 45.  New York:  Newmann Press, 1985.  BR 65 D 5313.

Michael Syrus [Michael of Syria], Patriarch of Antioch, 1126-1191.  Chronicle.  See Brooks, Chabot, Dulaurier, Langlois, Nau.  Persian wars.  Signatures at CPL 381:  1:313-320 = 4:158-161.

Michael, Hugo.  Die verlorenen Bücher des Ammianus Marcellinus.  Breslau:  Maruschke & Berendt, 1880.  PA 6205 M53.

Mierow, Charles, tr.  Jordanes:  The Origins and Deeds of the Goths.  Princeton UP, 1908;  1960.  D 137 J9.  *Now this country of the Suavi has on the east the Baiovari, on the west the Franks, on the south the Burgondians and in the north the Thuringians+ (‘280/55).  Varni, ‘233/44.

Miles, George C.  Excavation coins from the Persepolis region. Numismatic Notes and Monographs, 143.  ……., 1959.  CJ 1841 N4.  Sassanian, Hephthalites, 30.

Millar, Fergus.  A Study of Cassius Dio.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1964.  PA 3947 Z5 M5.  Rev:  Bowersock.  Date important for the Alans, before AD 220, after 197.  Alans, 69f.

Millar, Fergus.  *P. Herennus Dexippus:  The Greek World and the Third Century Invasions.+  JRS 59 (1969) 12-29.  Responses by Blockley 1971 and Matthews 1970.

Miller, Emmanuel, ed.  Périple de Marcien d’Héraclée, Epitomé d’Artémidore, Isidore de Charax, etc.  Paris:  Imprimerie royale, 1839.  PA 3487 G3 M5 1839.  Includes Scymnus of Chios, Minor geographers.

Miller, Friedhelm L., ed, tr.  Eutropii Breviarium ab urbe condita.  Palingenesia, 56.  Stuttgart:  Steiner, 1995.  PA 6384 A45.

Miller, Julius.  *Ammianus.+  Jahresbericht 247 (1935) 52-62.  Covers 1925-1932.  Gerstein?

Miller, Julius.  *Ammianus.+  Jahresbericht 254 (1942) 278.  Covers 1933-1937.

Miller, Vsevolod.  Ossetian Studies.  Moscow, 1887.

Mills, Watson E.  Isaiah.  Vol 17 of Bibliographies for Biblical Research, Old Testament Series.  Lewiston, NY:  The Edwin Mellen Press, 2002.  Z 7772 A1 B56.  Abbreviations of periodicals.

Minns, Ellis H.  *The Scythians and Northern Nomads.+  Chapter 9 of The Assyrian Empire.  Vol 3 of The Cambridge Ancient History.  Cambridge:  UP, 1925.  187-205, map.  D 57 C25.  *for the ordinary Greek, Scyth was anybody from the steppe region+ (194).  *North of this steppe-belt is a land of forest and tundra mostly inhabited by Finno-Ugrian tribes, who can scarcely be said to come into ancient history:  their part has mostly been passive, to be pressed back or assimilated by their southern neighbours+ (187).  Notes in text.

Minns, Ellis H.  Scythians and Greeks.  Cambridge UP, 1913.  DK 509 M5.  Totally scrambled ethnology ruins this book.  *For most Greeks a Scythian, Skythês, was any northern barbarian from the east of Europe, just as a Galatês was any such from the West+ (35).  HX 530f, *Chersonese+.  Mission under Diocletian by Hermon, Bishop of Jerusalem.  See Martyrs of Chersonese.  *Olbia+ 451-489, biblio.  *Olbia … could control the trade routes of the Hypanis [Bug] and Borysthenes [Dniepr] and beome the chief emporium of the North West Euxine+ (455).  Protogenes, 460f.

Minorsky, Vladimir Fëdorovich.  *Bibliography of Markwart.+  JA 217 (1930) 313-324.

Minorsky, Vladimir Fëdorovich.  *Roman and Byzantine campaigns in Atropatene.+  Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies.  11,2 (1944) 258-51.  Pages???

Mirashi, Vasudev Vishnu.  *Recent Theories on the Date of Kalidasa.+  Journal of World History.  6 (1960/61) 303-328.  Gerstein.  Dates him to AD 400 (328).  Rejects Hunas (315).  *The description of the Hunas in [the Raghuvamsa] is too vague to be useful for exact chronological calculation+ (315).

Mirchandani, B. D.  *Sind and the White Huns and Identification of Hiuen Tsiang’s Sin-tu Kingdom.+  Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay.  39-40 (1964/65) 61-93.  AS 472 A85.  Re:  Sanskrit inscriptions.  Cosmas and the White Huns *Gollas is identified with Mihirakula, whose name on some of his coins appears as Mihiragula+ (65).  *based on our meagre available sources, it does not appear that the Hûnas had made their way into the valley of the Lower Indus+ (66f).  Coins, 78ff.  Re Specht 1901:  *The charaters have only now been successfully identified.  They are Kushan Greek+ (78).

Miscellaneous Chronicle.  Chronicon Miscellaneum ad Annum Domini 724 pertinens.  Ed:  Brooks and Chabot.  See Authors file.

Mitterwallner, Gritli von.  Münzen der Späten Kusanas, des Hunnen Kirada/Kidara und des frühen Guptas.  Munich:  Tuduv, 1983.  CJ 1391 M64.

Mockler, E.  *On the Identification of Places in the Makrân Coast Mentioned by Arrian, Ptolemy, and Marcian.+  JRAS 11 (1879) 129-154.  Baluchistan.

Modi, Jivanji Jamshedji.  *The Early History of the Huns and their Inroads in India and Persia.+  Journal of the Bombay Branch of the RAS.  24 (1915/1917) 539-595.  AS A853 mfm, per.bib.

Modi, Jivanji Jamshedji.  Asiatic Papers (1905-1929).  DS 3 M6.

Mohr, Paulus, ed.  Sidonius Apollinaris. . .  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1895.  PA 6694 S7.

Momigliano, Arnaldo.  *Pagan and Christian Historiography in the Fourth Century AD.+  In The Conflict between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth Century.  Ed: Arnaldo Momigliano.  London, 1963.  79-99.  BR 205 M64.  *providential economy of history+ 82.  *unlike pagan chronology, Christian chronology was also a philosophy of history+ 83.

Momigliano, Arnaldo.  *Daniele e la teoria greca della successione degli imperi.+  Accademia dei Lincei.  Rendiconti.  35 (1980) 157-162.  AS 222 R645.

Momigliano, Arnaldo.  Problèmes d’historiographie ancienne et moderne.  Paris, 1983.  DE 8 M65?

Mommsen Theodor.  *Ueber die Quellen der Chronik des Hieronymus.+  1850.  Reprinted 1909, 7:606-632.

Mommsen, Theodor.  *Die Chronik des Cassiodorus vom Jahre 519 nach den Handschriften herausg….+  Abhandlungen der sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen.  8 (1861) 547-696.  AS 182 S213.  Bulgarians, cf Jordanes.

Mommsen, Theodor.  *Ueber den Chronographen vom J. 354.+  1850.  Reprinted 1909, 7:536-579.  Magnus of Carrhae.

Mommsen, Theodor.  *Bruchstücke des Johannes von Antiochia und des Johannes Malalas.+  Hermes 6 (1872) 323-383.  Reprinted 1909, 7:710-750.

Mommsen, Theodor.  *Apparat zum Ammian.+  Hermes 6 (1872) 231-242.  Reprinted 1909, 7:xx.

Mommsen, Theodor.  *Weiteres über den Apparat zum Ammian.+  Hermes 7 (1873) 91-101.  Reprinted 1909, 7:xx.

Mommsen, Theodor.  *Ueber die Ammianhandschrift des Accursius.+  Hermes 7 (1873) 171-175.  Reprinted 1909, 7:xx.

Mommsen, Theodor.  *Zu Ammian.+  Hermes 15 (1880) 244-246.  Reprinted 1909, 7:xx.

Mommsen, Theodor.  *Ammians Geographica.+  Hermes 16 (1881) 602-636.  Reprinted 1909, 7:xx.  See Gardthausen, Brok.

Mommsen, Theodor.  *Apparat zum Ammian.+  Hermes 17 (1882) 165.  Reprinted 1909, 7:xx.

Mommsen, Theodor.  *Zu Ammian und Ennodius.+  Hermes 24 (1889) 153-154.  Reprinted 1909, 7:xx.

Mommsen, Theodor.  *Bemerkungen zu einzelnen Stellen Ammians.+  Hermes 24 (1889) 252.  Reprinted 1909, 7:xx.

Mommsen Theodor.  *Die älteste Handschrift der Chronik des Hieronymus.+  Hermes 24 (1889) 393-401;  649.  Reprinted 1909, 7:xx.

Mommsen, Theodor, ed.  Chronographer von 354.  MGH AA 9:…  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1892.  Magnus of Carrhae.

Mommsen, Theodor, ed.  Chronica minora saec. IV. V. VI. VII.  MGH AA 9:615-666.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1892.  ii, 64, 395.4:  Rufinus and the Huns.  Prosper of Aquitaine

Mommsen, Theodor, ed.  Chronica minora saec. IV. V. VI. VII.  MGH AA 9:95ff.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1892.  Diamerismos.

Mommsen, Theodor, ed.  Chronica minora saec. IV. V. VI. VII.  MGH AA 9:….  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1892.  Anonymous Valesianus.

Mommsen, Theodor, ed.  Hydatii Lemici continuatio Chronicorum Hieronyminianorum.  In Chronica minora saec. IV. V. VI. VII.  MGH AA 9:13-36, 244.  Second edition.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1892.  See emendations by Nautin, tr Burgess, Tranoy.

Mommsen, Theodor, ed.  Consularia Constantinopolitana ad A.  CCCXCV cum additamento Hydatii ad A.  CCCCLXVII;  accedunt Consularia chronici Paschali.  MGH AA 9:197-247.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1892.

Mommsen, Theodor, ed.  Chronica gallica:  A. CCCCLII et DXI.  In Chronica minora saec. IV. V. VI. VII.  MGH AA 9:615-666.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1892.  See Authors file, part I, p. 650, ‘ 34).

Mommsen, Theodor, ed.  Isidore of Seville:  Exordia Scytica.  In Chronica minora saec. IV. V. VI. VII.  MGH AA 11:308-322.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1894.

Mommsen, Theodor, ed.  Marcellinus Comes, Marius, etc.  In vol 12 of MGH AA.  Berlin, 1894.

Mommsen, Theodor.  *Zosimus.+  BZ 12 (1903) 533.  Reprinted 7:699.  Note on Mendelssohn’s edition.  Unaware of Rühl’s article.

Mommsen, Theodor.  *Stilicho und Alarich.+  Hermes 38 (1903) 101-115.  Reprinted 1906, 4:516-530.

Mommsen, Theodor, ed.  Rufinus:  HE.  In Eusebius’ Werke.  2,1-3.  GCS, 9.  Leipzig:  Hinrichs, 1903-1909.  BR 160 E37.

Mommsen, Theodor, ed.  Theodosiani libri xvi cum constitutionibus Sirmondianis.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1905.  ROBA KJA 452.2;  PIMS K C669 T39.  Check out newer editions.

Mommsen, Theodor.  Gesammelte Schriften.  7 vols.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1905-1909.  Roba DG 15 M64.  HX contents.  Vol 7 for Ammianus, Ennodius, Eutropius, Vegetius, etc.

Mommsen, Theodor.  Epigraphische und numismatische Schriften.  Vol 8 of Gesammelte Schriften.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1913.  Roba DG 15 M64.

Mommsen, Theodor Ernst.  *Orosius and Augustine.+  In his Mediaeval and Renaissance Studies.  Ed:  Eugene F. Rice, Jr.  Ithaca, NY:  Cornell UP, 1959.  Pims, Pratt D 7 M77.

Monod, Gabriel.  *Sur un passage de Paul Orose.+  In Mélanges Paul Fabre.  Paris:  Picard, 1902.  17-22.  Pims D 119 M52.  Re Orosius VII,40, Stilicho, Jerome’s letter to Agerochia, ca 406.

Montfaucon, Bernard de, ed.  Acta Synodi Constantinopolitanaea.  Paris, 1715.

Montfaucon, Bernard de, ed.  Cosmas Indicopleustes:  Christian Topography.  PG 88.

Montfaucon, Bernard de, ed.  Sancti Ioannis Chrysostomi Opera Omnia.  13 vols.  Original date?  Second edition, revised and enlarged, by Th. Fix.  Paris:  Gaume, 1835-39.  HXp, Roba and Regis BR 65 C4.  Roba copy is mixed set.

Mooney, George William.  Index to the *Pharsalia+ of Lucan.  Hermathena, Supplement, 44.  Dublin:  Hodges, Figgis, 1927.  Pims PA 6480 M6;  Roba AS 121 H52, no 1.  Index completed from Heitland-Postgate.

Moreau, Jacques, ed.  Excerpta Valesiana.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1961.  PA 6140 A6.  Biblio.  Constantine.

Moreau, Jacques, ed.  Excerpta Valesiana.  1961.  2nd edition revised by Velizar Velkov.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1968.  PA 6140 A6.  Biblio.  Constantine.

Moreau, Jean.  *Constantinus II, Constantius II, Constans.+  Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum.  2 (1959) 158-184.  BR 128 A2 J3.  Nachträge zum RAC.  Pages out of order, Biblio.  Constantius II, 162-179, essential for sources.

Moreschini, C., ed.  S. Hieronymi Presbyteri Opera:  Dialogus Adversus Pelagianos.  CCSL, 80.  Turnhout:  Brepols, 1990.  BR 60 C49, Red Apex.

Morford, Mark P. O.  The Poet Lucan:  Studies in Rhetorical Epic.  New York:  Barnes & Noble, 1967.  PA 6480 M6.

Moser, Arthur Hurst.  *The relative importance of Historical Facts in Breviaria.+  Transactions of the American Philological Association.  Abstract.  62 (1931) xxxviii.  *From the tables compiled and from the study of words the following deductions may be made:  1.  Warfare is, by far, the predominant interest.+

Moses of Khoren.  History of the Armenians.  Tr:  Langlois, Mahé, Thomson.  See Coneybeare, Haase, Marquardt, Sarkissian.  Coalition of Vasudeva king of the Kushans with Khosroes I of Armenia against Ardashir, the Sassanid ruler, ca AD 230.  *Noune was a female apostle and preached beginning from the Klargi at the Gates of the Alani+ ’86.  Huns, 2,85.  Persian wars.

Moss, H. S.  *The Economic Consequences of the Barbarian Invasions.+  Economic History Review.  7 (1936/37) 209-217.  HC 10 E4 O2.

Mosshammer, Alden A.  The Chronicle of Eusebius and Greek Chronographic Tradition.  Lewisburg:  Bucknell UP, 1979.  D 17 E13 M67.

Moureaux, José Michel.  *D’Argens éditeur de Julien.+  Studies on Voltaire 267 (1989) 139-198.  PQ 2097 S7.

Moureaux, José Michel.  *D’Argens éditeur de l’empereur Julien.+  In Colloque international de 1988:  Le marquis d’Argens.  Ed:  Jean-Louis Vissière.  Aix-en-Provence, 1990.  159-166.  PQ 1954 A54 Z73.

Moureaux, José Michel.  Voltaire:  Discours de l’empereur Julien contre les chrétiens.  Studies on Voltaire, 322.  Oxford UP, 1994.  PQ 2097 S7.  Loaned by DW Smith.

Müller, B. A.  *Zu Stephanos Byzantios.+  Hermes 53 (1918) 337-357.

Müller, Karl Otfried, and Friedrich Dübner, eds.  Strabonis geographica.  Paris:  Didot, 1853.  WCat 10.

Müller, Karl Otfried, ed.  Geographi Graeci Minores.  2 vols.  Paris:  Firmin Didot, 1882.  G 87 A1.  Expositio, 2:513-528.

Müller, Karl, and Theodor Müller, eds.  Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum.  Paris:  Didot, 1878-1885.  PA 3490 M84.  Includes Agathangelos, Olympiodorus, Eunapius, Faustus.

Müllenhoff, Karl.  *Griechische Inschriften aus Südrussland.+  Hermes 3 (1868) 439-446.  Inscription from Olbia [Odessa].  *Respendial hiess nach Renatus Profuturus Frigeridus bei Gregor von Tours 2,9 der Anführer der Alanen, der sich den Vandalen in Gallien mit den Seinigen anschloss+ (441).  Dated ca 403.

Müllenhoff, Karl.  *Ueber die römische Weltkarte.+  Hermes 9 (1874) 182-195.

Muhlberger, Steven.  The Fifth-Century Chroniclers:  Prosper, Hydatius and the Gallic Chronicler of 452.  Leeds:  Cairns, 1990.  PIMS, ROBA D 116 M83.

Mulder, Henri Adolf.  Phaenomenologische philologische Studiën over Orosius’ HAP.  PhD diss Amsterdam, Vrije Univ, 1926.  Schiedam:  Wijchers, 1926.  WCat 17, incl McMaster.

Muller, Henri François.  *A Chronology of Vulgar Latin.+  Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie.  Beiheft 78.  1929.  PC 3 Z52.

Murphy, Francis Xavier.  *St. Jerome as an Historian.+  In A Monument to St. Jerome:  Essays on some Aspects of his Life, Works, and Influence.  Ed:  Francis Xavier Murphy.  New York:  Sheed and Ward, 1952.  115-141.  PIMS BQ 6049 M97.  Thinks of Jerome as competent at historiography:  *On the whole, he manifests a critical eye and an ability to evaluate [historical] data that are well beyond the stature of his age+ (124).  Mentions that Jerome *had promised himself and posterity that he would get around to writing a first-class history of the Christian era+ (115).  He cites the opening chapter of the Life of Malchus and the closing of Jerome’s translation of the Chronicle of Eusebius of Caesaria.  *Despite his good intentions, however, this projected history never saw the light of day+ (127).

Mynors, [Sir] Roger AB, ed.  XII Panegyrici latini.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1964.  PA 6138 P3 1964.

Myres, [Sir] John Linton.  *An Attempt to Recontruct the Maps Used by Herodotus.+  Geographical Journal.  8 (1896) 605-629.  G 7 G45.  Rivers.  *Milesian traders knew the Caspian sea was a closed one, but geographers needed symmetry in their maps+ (609).  Scyths?

Nadel, B.  *Le royaume du Bosphore, un millénaire de civilisation grecque en pays scythe.+  Revue historique de droit français et étranger.  53 (1975) 258-267.  PIMS PER, per.bib.  Re: Gaidukevich.

Namatianus, Claudius Rutilius, early fifth cent.  De reditu suo.  Duff & Duff (Loeb).  See Keene and Savage-Armstrong;  Nisard, Pichon, Schissel, Vessereau-Préchac.  Trip dated to Fall 416, poem shortly after.  Should compare with Paulinus of Nola for difficulties of travel after invasions.  For sea travel, 42.  Four Monarchies, Stilicho, (see Duff).

Namitok, Aytek.  Origines des Circassiens.  Paris:  Paul Geuthner, 1939.  HRus N1742ny, retr.  In BC Crimea there was a nation known variously as Toretai, Torkoi, Torkhoi.  The name of Taurus is related.  These Torks, already known to Pliny are still mentioned in Medieval Russian chronicles.  The name Tourkoi given the Magyars by Porph. may be related to this nation and have nothing to do with the Altaic people we known as the Turks.  40ff with extensive bib of ancient sources, 112f ditto for Russian sources.

Nandargikar, Gopal Ragunath, ed.  The Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa.  With Commentary by Mallinatha.  3rd edition Bombay, 1897.  WCat, many editions.

Narang, Satya Pal.  Kalidasa bibliography.  New Delhi:  Heritage, 1976.  Z 8459.29 N37.  Hûnas, see index.

Nau, François Nicolas.  *Chronique de Michel le Syrien.+  Journal of the S As.  9th series 8 ( . . . ) 523.  Persian wars?

Nau, François Nicolas.  *Récits du moine Anastase.+  Oriens Christianus.  2 (1902) 81ff.  DS 1 065 Yellow Apex, starts in 1906.  Pilgrims in Holy Land.

Nau, François Nicolas.  *Euphémie.+  Revue de l’orient chrétien.  15 (1910) 66-72;  173-181;  82-191.  BR 140 R48, Red Apex.  French translation.

Naudé, Ch P Th.  *The Date of the Later Books of Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Am J of Ancient History.  9 (1984) 70-94.  DE 1 A 365.  *compelling case+ Barnes 1998:10n.

Naudé, Ch P Th.  *Merobaudes and the Death of Theodosius.+  Studies in Honour of W Richards.  1986.  388-401.  Check AnPhil 58-09925, mistake?  Re:  Jerome’s Chronicle.

Nautin, Pierre.  *Trois autres fragments du livre de Porphyre, Contre les Chrétiens.+  Rbib 57 (1950) 409-416.

Nautin, Pierre.  *L’excommunication de S. Jérôme.+  Annuaire de l’Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes.  Ve section (sciences religieuses), 80/81. (1972/73) 7-37.  PIMS PER.  Also offprint at Pims BQ 6049 N38.

Nautin, Pierre.  *Etudes de chronologie hiéronymienne (393-397).+  Revue des études augustiniennes.  18 (1972) 209-218;  19 (1973) 69-86, 213-239.  PIMS.  John of Jerusalem, passim.

Nautin, Pierre.  *Etudes de chronologie hiéronymienne (393-397).+  Revue des études augustiniennes.  20 (1974) 251-284.  *L’Adu. Iouinianum ne peut pas être antérieur à 393 pour deux raisons:  1) il est postérieur au De uiris inlustribus composé en 393;  2) il est nommé dans l’In Ionam [prologue] comme l’un des ouvrages composés au cours des trois années précédentes;  comme l’In Ionam est de 396, l’Adu. Iouinianum ne peut pas avoir été écrit avant 393+ (254).

Nautin, Pierre.  *L’activité littéraire de Jérome de 387 à 392.+  Revue de théologie et de philosophie.  30 (1983) 247-259.  Regis Per 1 (1951)-present.

Nautin, Pierre.  *L’introduction d’Hydace à sa continuation de la Chronique d’Eusèbe et Jérôme.+  Revue d’histoire des textes.  14/15 (1984/85) 143-153.  Emendation of Mommsen’s edition.

Nawijn, Wopke.  Cassii Dionis Cocceiani Historiarum Romanarum Index Gracitatis.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1931.  PA 3947 A2.

Nenci, Giuseppe, and Olivier Reverdin, eds.  Hérodote et les peuples non grecs.  Entretiens de la Fondation Hardt, 35.  Vandoeuvres-Genève, 1990.  D 56.52 H45 H47.

Nesbitt, John W.  *A Geographical and Chronological Guide to Greek Saints’ Lives.+  Orientalia Christiana Periodica.  35 (1969) 443-489.  BX 100 073 RED APEX.  Re BHG organized by region.

Nestle, Eberhard.  Iuliani imperatores librorum contra christianos quae supersunt.  Scriptorum graecorum quae christianos impugnaverunt relgionem, 3.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1880.  WCat 40.  Julian, Cyril of Alexandria.

Nesselhauf, Herbert.  Die spätrömische Verwaltung der gallo-germanischen Länder.  Abhandlungen der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil-hist Kl.  Berlin, 1938, fasc 2. AS 182 B34.  Prefect moves to Arles in 395.

Nesselrath, Heinz Günther.  *Herodotus und die Ende der Erde.+  Museum Helveticum.  52 (1995) 20-44.  PA 3 M73.

Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopoulos [1256-1335].  History of the Church.  PG 145-147 (reproduces princeps).  WCat:  many early editions and translations, but few copies of each.  Ask DW Smith.  Studies:  Astruc, Jeep;  Gentz in TU, 98, Pims BQ 25 T3, vol 98;  Roba BX 300 N52 G4.  Julian the Apostate, in Bk 10, PG 146:89.

Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopoulos.  Ecclesiasticae Historiae libri decem et octo…  Ed:  Johann Lange [1503-1567].  Basel:  per Ioannes Oporinum & Hervagium, 1560.  Princeps, reprinted in PG.  WCat 1, Yale.

Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopoulos.  L’histoire ecclésiastique nommée en douze livres.  Paris:  Guillaume Linocier, 1587.  WCat 1.

Niebuhr, Barthold Georg, ed.  Petrus Petricius.  Corpus scriptorum byzantinae historiae, 1.  Bonn:  Weber, 1828.  Wars with Persia.

Niebuhr, Barthold Georg, ed.  Dexippus.  Corpus scriptorum byzantinae historiae, 1.  Bonn:  Weber, 1828.

Niebuhr, Barthold Georg, ed.  Agathias.  Corpus scriptorum byzantinae historiae, 2.  Bonn:  Weber, 1828.  Wars with Persia, 224ff and 330ff.

Niedermann, Max.  *Le lieu de naissance de Saint Jérôme.+  Juznoslovenski filolog.  5 (1925) 226-229.  HX.

Niedermann, Max.  *Zur altillyrischen Toponomastik.+  Zeitschrift für Ortsnamenforschung.  7 (1931) 3-8.  *Stridonae+ 4-8.  HX.

Nielsen, .  *Rose des vents.+  Classica et Mediaevalia.  7 (1945) 1-113

Niese, Benedictus [1849-1910].  Grundriss der römischen Geschichte nebst Quellenkunde.  5th edition.  Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, …  Munich:  C.H. Beck, 1923.  Roba DG 209 N7.

Nikitin, Alexander.  *Notes on the Chronology of the Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom.+  In Coins, Art and Chronology:  Essays on the pre-Islamic History of the Indo-Iranian Borderlands.  Ed:  Michael Alram and Deborah E. Klimburg-Salter.  Vienna:  1999.  259-263.  CJ 60 A783 C65.  *In his monumental inscriptions Shapur I (240-273) enumerates “the upper” (i.e. eastern) provinces under his rule in the following order:  “Karman, Turestan, Magaran, Peradan, Hindustan and Kushanshahr up to Peshawar”.+ (259)  *The Kushano-Sasanian kingdom continued until the end of the 4th century+ (261).

Nisbet, Robin George Murdoch.  *App. VI:  The In Pisonem as an Invective.+  In M. Tulli Ciceronis in L. Calpurnium Pisonem Oratio.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1961.  192-197.  PA 6281 P4.

Nisbet, Robin George Murdoch.  Collected Papers on Latin Literature.  Ed:  S. J. Harrison.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1995.  PA 6004 N57.  *The details of this scene seem to be instances of the fibs (mendaciuncula) that Cicero regards as permissible in invective (De Oratore 2.241)+ (368).

Nixon, CEV.  *Aurelius Victor and Julian.+  Classical Philology.  86 (1991) 113-125.

Nobbe, Karl Friedrich Augustus, ed.  Claudii Ptolemaei Geographia.  Leipzig:  Tauchnitz, 1843-1845;  reprint 1966.  Roba G 87 P8 N6.  HXp.  *dont on ne peut déplorer que le peu de valeur critique+ (Marcotte viii).

Nock, Arthur Darby.  *The Proem of Lucan.+  Cl Review.  40 (1926) 17-18.

Nock, Arthur Darby.  *The Emperor’s Divine Comes.+  Journal of Roman Studies.  37 (1947) 102-116.

Nock, Arthur Darby.  *The Praise of Antioch.+  Journal of Egyptian Archaeology.  40 (1954) 76-82.  DT 57 J64.

Nock, Arthur Darby.  *Deification and Julian.+  JRS 47 (1957) 114-123.

Nock, Arthur Darby.  Essays on Religion and the Ancient World.  Ed:  Zeph Stewart.  2 vols.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1972.  BL 785 N6.

Nodet, Etienne, ed.  Flavius Josèphe:  Les antiquités juives.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1992‑‑.  Up to, incl Bk 9.  Roba DS 116 J7414.

Nöldeke, Theodor.  *Zur orientalischen Geographie.+  Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft.  NS 28 (1874) 93-102.  PJ 5 D4.  Vologesias by Babylon, Media.

Nöldeke, Theodor.  Die von Guidi herausgeschriebene syrische Chronik übersetzt und commentiert.  Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, 128,9.  Vienna:  Alfred Hölder, 1893.  AS 142 A53.

Nordberg, Henrik.  Athanasiana.  Societas Scientiarum Fennica, 30,2.  Helsinki, 1962.  P 9 F5, per.bib.

Nordberg, Henrik.  Athanasius and the Emperor.  Societas Scientiarum Fennica, 30,3.  Helsinki, 1963.  P 9 F5.

Norman, Albert Francis.  *Magnus in Ammianus, Eunapius, and Zosimus:  New Evidence.+  Classical Quarterly.  NS 7 (1957) 129-133.

Norman, Albert Francis.  Libanius:  The Julianic Orations.  Loeb.  Cambridge:  Harvard UP, 1969.  Threnos 1:278-487.  PA 4227 A25.

Norman, Albert Francis.  Libanius:  Selected Orations.  Loeb.  Cambridge:  Harvard UP, 1977.  PA 4227 A25.

Norman, Albert Francis.  Libanius:  Autobiography and Selected Letters.  Loeb.  2 vols.  Cambridge:  Harvard UP, 1992.  PA 4227 E6.  Biblio.  Based on Foerster’s edition.

Novák, Rob.  *Curae Ammianeae.+  Archiv Lat 9 (……) 618.

Novák, Rob.  *Kritische Nachlese zu Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Wiener Studien.  33 (1911) 101;  293-322.  Re the Gelani at 17,5,2.  See Baehrens for summary and comment.  Check adjacent vols of WS.

Oennerfors, A.  Pliniana.  Uppsala, Almqvist, 1956.

Oldfather, William Abbott.  Studies in the Text Tradition of St. Jerome’s *Vitae Patrum+.  Urbana:  University of Illinois Press, 1943.  PIMS BQ 6041.5 O4.

Olivar, Alejandro [Alexandre], ed.  Peter Chrysologus:  Collectio Sermonum.  CCSL 24, 24A, 24B.  Turnhout:  Brepols, 1975-82.

Olivetti, A.  *Osservazioni sui capitoli 45-53 del libro II di Zosimo e sulla loro probabile fonte.+  Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica.  43 (1915) 321-333.  PA 9 R55.

Olmstead, A. T.  *The Mid-Third Century of the Christian Era.+  Classical Philology.  37 (1942) 241-262;  398-420.  Oriental material, especially RGD Saporis (SKZ).  Oracula Sibyllina, 249ff, cf Charles, Daniel.  *The ruling family in Armenia was also Arsacid, and this fact automatically made its king Chosrhoes the bitterest of enemies to the Sassanids, and friend to the Romans+ (252).

Olympiodorus, ca. 380-ca. 425.  See Photius, Bibliotheca for fragments.  Müller FHG IV, 69 and V 24.  See Blockley, Henry (Photius).  Embassy to the Huns in AD 412-413;  for voyage see fr 14.  Three silver statues facing north:  Goths, Huns, and Sarmatians, frag 27.  See note under Jordanes, who unwittingly proves, with Marcellinus, that the Huns could not have been in Pannonia when Olympiodorus visited them.

Oost, Stewart Irwin.  *Galla Placidia and the Law.+  CPh 63 (1968) 114-121.

Opelt, Ilona.  156 hits on Année Phil.

Opelt, Ilona.  *Das Nationalitätenproblem bei Eunapius von Sardes.+  Wiener Studien 3 (1969) 28-36.

Opelt, Ilona.  *Hieronymus’ Leistung als Literaturhistoriker in der Schrift de viris illustribus.+  Orpheus NS 1 (1980) 52-75.  PA 9 O76.  Biblio.  See main title record.

Opelt, Ilona.  *Schimpfwörter bei Claudian.+  Glotta 60 (1982) 130-135.  PA 3 G5.  Vocabulary studies.

Opelt, Ilona.  Review of Divjak.  Gymnasium 89 (1982) 347ff.  L 31 G85.

Opelt, Ilona.  *Aug. Epist. 27* Divjak:  Ein Schreiben des Hieronymus an Bischof Aurelius von Karthago.+  In Collectanea Augustiniana:  Mélanges T. J. van Bavel.  Ed:  Bruning, Lamberigts, van Houten.  2 vols.  Louvain:  PU, 1990.  1:19-25.  Roba BR 65 A9 C645.  Letter dated AD 392/393.

Opitz, Hans Georg, ed.  Urkunden zur Geschichte des arianischen Streites.  Vol 3,1 of Athanasius’ Werke.  PIMS BQ 1102 K5.  Check if anything about Armenia, oriental affairs.

Oracula Sibyllina.  Charles (Daniel), Geffcken, Olmstead, Terry, Thiel.  Date?  Wide range of attribution.

Origo Constantini (Valesianus I).  Ed:  König, also with Ammianus in the Loeb.  Moreau and Velkov.

Origo gentis romana.  Text:  Pichlmayr and Gruendel (Teubner).  Ms and editions with Aurelius Victor.

Orne, J.  *Transliteration of Modern Russian.+  The Library Journal.  88 (1963).  Z 671 L69?

Orosius, Paulus.  Commonitorium.  Text:  PL 31:…  Daur.  Studies:  Spät.

Orosius, Paulus.  Historiae adversus paganos.  Text:  PL 31:635-1302 (date?  whose edition? …);  Arnaud-Lindet, Deferrari, Raymond, Zangemeister.  Rufinus and the Huns, vii,37.  Julian and the Persian war?

Orosius, Paulus.  Liber apologeticus.  PL 31:1173-1212.  Ed:  Zangemeister.  See also Daur.  Sits at the feet of Jerome, 3,2.

Orta Nadal, Ricardo.  *La concepción cristiana de la historia en la Edad Media.+  Anales de historia antigua y medieval.  (1950)
86ff.  D 51 A53.  Four monarchies, 102.

Oudendorp, Franciscus, ed.  M. Annaei Lucani Pharsalia sive de bello civili libri X.  Leiden, 1728.  2 copies at RBSC D-10 O1765.  Annotations on Lucan.

Ou-k’ong [fl 751-790].  Buddhist Pilgrim.  Text:  Lévi and Chavannes.

Oulton, JEL.  *Rufinus Translator of the Church History of Eusebius.+  JTS 30 (1929) 154-174.  VUEM, KNOX.

Owen, S. G.  *Notes on Ausonius.+  Classical Quarterly.  27 (1933) 178-181;  28 (1934) 44-45.  *Peiper’s convenient Teubner text (1886) which however cannot be regarded as an advance upon the scholarly edition of K. Schenkl (1883), on account of the editor’s complicated and unconvincing theory regarding the history of the text+ (178).

Paassen, Christian van.  The Classical Tradition of Geography.  Groningen:  JB Wolters, 1957.  DE 29 P313.

Pacatus Drepanius, Latinius.  In Panegyrica, ’12.  Text:  Galletier.  St:  Kaufmann.  Danubian wars, see Authors file.  ’29 for Priscillian.

Pais, Ettore.  *Straboniana.+  Rivista di filologia.  15 (1887) 97-240.  PA 9 R55.  Administration.

Palanque, Jean-Rémy.  *Famines à Rome à la fin du IVe siècle.+  REAnciennes.  33 (1931) 346-356.  Chronology.

Palanque, Jean-Rémy.  *La date du transfert de la préfecture des Gaules de Trèves à Arles.+  REA 36 (1934) 359-365.  PA 2 R4.  *La frontière rhénane est restée inviolée et tranquille jusqu’en 406, et ce n’est qu’arbitrairement qu’on imagine des menaces sur la Gaule du Nord avant cette date+ (364).

Palanque, Jean-Rémy.  *St. Jerome and the Barbarians.+  In A Monument to St. Jerome:  Essays on Some Aspects of his Life, Works, and Influence.  Ed:  Francis Xavier Murphy.  New York:  Sheed and Ward, 1952.  173-199.  PIMS BQ 6049 M97.  *Herodotus informs me that this people [the Huns] had held the East in captivity for 20 years under Darius, King of the Medes+ (Jerome, Letter 77,8 cited 1952:180).  Palanque comments:  *Jerome’s account is in need of certain qualifications.  These Mongolian Huns [...] were certainly not the descendants of the Scythian tribes who had invaded western Asia in the seventh century B.C.+ (181).

Palladas Alexandrinus.  Anthologia Palatina.  See Cameron.  AnPhil 42 hits.  Contemporary with Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria.

Palladios of Helenopolis.  India.  See Coleman-Norton.

Palladios.  Dialogue on the Life of St John Chrysostom.  Ed:  Malingrey;  tr:  Meyer.  Written in AD 408.  Rufinus and Synod of the Oak, ‘8/154.  Eutropius, ‘5/54.  No mention of Goths, Huns.

Palmerius, Iacobus [Jacques Le Paulmier].  *Apologia.+  In M. Annaei Lucani Pharsalia sive de bello civili libri X.  Ed:  Fr Oudendorp.  Leiden, 1728.  911-945.  2 copies at RBSC D-10 O1765.  Concerning Lucan’s astronomy and geography.

Pando, José Carlos.  The Life and Times of Synesius of Cyrene as Revealed in his Works.  Catholic University of America, Patristic Studies, 63.  Washington:  CUA Press, 1940.  Old Class.  Biblio.

Pargoire, Jules.  *Les homélies de saint Jean Chrysostome en juillet 399.+  Echos d’Orient.  3 (1900) 151-162.  PIMS.

Parker, Edward Harper.  A Thousand Years of the Tartars.  1895;  2nd revised edition London:  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1924.  DS 25 P37 1924.  Book I *The Empire of the Hiung-nu+ (1-79).  *Whether the Hiung-nu of China are to be etymologically connected … with the Huns of the west is a question which is scarcely susceptible of positive proof either one way or the other+ (1f).  Inspite of this warning, Parker treats the question as settled for.  *whether the Chinese word Tung-hu or “Eastern Tartars” … has any etymological connection with the European word Tungusic or Tunguz … they both serve in Russian and Chinese respectively to indicate exactly the same idea+ (5).  Ca BC 210 the Yüeh-chï, rivals of the Hiung-nu, dwelt in Kan-su by the Yellow River, 8f.  Baghdur, the Hiung-nu Alexander.  *It was during the reign of Kayuk [BC 172 and following] that the Yüeh-chï were finally driven from their ancient seat between Lob-nor and Koko-nor … they seeem to have walked their way past Issekul and Tashkent to the sea of Aral.  Turning south east, they appropriated the realm of the Tocharoi.  For some time their capital is distinctly stated by the Chinese to have been north of the Oxus+ (20f).  The Yüeh-chï *gradually extended their empire down to the Pamir, Kashmir, and the Punjaub, and, abandoning their nomadic habits, soon formed a powerful state, known to the West, as the Empire of the … Hephthalites+ (21).  BC 49 The Hiung-nu *undertook to defend the whole frontier line westwards from Shen Si to Lob-nor — the main road in fact to the West+ (44).  Not helpful about the events of AD 300 and beyond, pages 72ff.

Parmentier, Léon, ed.  Theodorets Kirchengeschichte.  CGS, 19.  Leipzig, 1911.  See Bidez.

Parmentier, Léon, and Felix Schneidweiler, eds.  Theodorets Kirchengeschichte.  CGS, 19.  2nd ed Berlin, 1954.

Parroni, Piergiorgio.  *Il proemio della Chorographia di Pomponio Mela.+  Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica.  96 (1968) 184-197.

Parroni, Piergiorgio.  *Per il testo e l’esegesi della Chorographia di Pomponio Mela.+  Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica.  103 (1975) 157-182.  PA 9 R55.

Parroni, Piergiorgio.  *Il contributi dei codici umanistici al testo di Pomponio Mela.+  Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica.  107 (1979) 157-179.  PA 9 R55.

Parroni, Piergiorgio.  *Animadversiones in Pomponium Melam.+  Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica.  109 (1981) 424-432.  PA 9 R55.

Parroni, Piergiorgio, ed, cm.  Pomponii Melae de Chorographia libri tres.  Storia e letteratura, 160.  Rome, 1984.  PA 6512 A2.  Consult for biblio, history of mss.

Parthey, Gustav, ed.  Pomponius Mela De Chorographia libri tres.  Berlin:  in aedibus Friderici Nicolai, 1867;  reprint Graz:  Akademie-Verlag, 1969.  Roba PA 6512 A2 1987.

Paruck, Furdoonjee DJ.  Sassanian Coins.  Bombay 1924;  New Delhi:  Indological Institute, 1976.  WCat 51.

Paruck, Furdoonjee DJ.  *Mint Marks on Sasanian and Arabo-Sasanian Coins.+  Journal of the Numismatic Society of India.  6 (De 1944) 2:79-151.  CJ 3530 N8, holdings start in 1966, do we have mfm?  per.bib.

Paschoud, François.  Roma Aeterna:  Etudes sur le patriotisme romain dans l’Occident latin à l’époque des grandes invasions.  Bibliotheca Helvetica Romana, 7.  Rome, 1967.  DG 312 P37.  Dates Orosius to AD 416-417, p. 276-292.

Paschoud, François, ed., tr.  Zosime:  Histoire nouvelle.  Collection des universités de France.  3 vols in 15;  maps.  Paris:  Les Belles Lettres, 1971-1989.  PA 4500 Z6 1971.  See intro for Zosimus’ date, ca AD 500 under Anastasius.

Paschoud, François.  *Influence et écho des conceptions historiographiques de Polybe dans l’Antiquité tardive.+  In Polybe.  Entretiens de la Fondation Hardt, 20.  Vandoeuvres-Genève, 1973.  303-337.  PA 4393 P6.  Zosimus (decadence of Rome), Book of Daniel.

Paschoud, François.  Cinq études sur Zosime.  Collection d’études anciennes.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1975.  DG 206 Z67 P37.

Paschoud, François.  *La polemica providenzialistica di Orosio.+  In La storiografia eclesiastica nella tarda antichità.  Ed:  …  Messena:  UP, 1980.  113-133.  BR 138 S8.  From Ferreiro, ‘7542.

Paschoud, François.  *Trois livres récents sur l’empereur Julien.+  REL 58 (1980) 107-123.

Paschoud, François.  *Valentinien travesti, ou De la Malignité d’Ammien.+  In Cognitio Gestorum:  The Historiographic Art of Ammianus Marcellinus.  Ed:  Boeft, Hengst and Teitler.  Verhandlingen van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Letterkunde, 148.  Amsterdam, 1992.  67-84.  AS 244 A53.

Paschoud, François.  Bleckmann, review.  Antiquité tardive.  2 (1994) 71-82.  D 51 A68.

Paschoud, François.  Rev Ammianus by Barnes.  Antiquité tardive.  7 (1999) 353-363.  D 51 A68.

Paschoud, François.  *Chronique ammianienne.+  Antiquité tardive.  10 (2002) 417-425.  D 51 A68.

Paschoud, François.  *Jovien ou Julien?  A propos du fragment 40 Müller de l’oeuvre historique d’Eunape.+  Regards sur le monde antique:  Hommages à Guy Sabbah.  Lyon:  PU, 2002.  215-221.  WCat 4.  Have summary.

Pasquali, Giorgio.  *Die Composition der Vita Constantini des Eusebius.+  Hermes 46 (1910) 369-386.  *Pasquali’s central thesis [that Eusebius died in May 338, before he had time to prepare the Life properly for publication] was never refuted, merely misrepresented or ignored.  It cannot be refuted, for it corresponds to and explains the observable phenomena.+  (Barnes 1989:98).

Passio sanctorum Bonosi et Maximiliani.  September 20, 362.  AASS Aug 4:430-437.

Pathak, K. B.  *On the date of Kalidasa.+  Journal of the Bombay Branch of the RAS.  19 (1895/97) 35-43;  23 (1908/13) 187.  Micr AS A 853;  starting in 21 (1945) AS 472 A85.

Pathak, K. B.  *Kalidasa and the Hunas of the Oxus Valley.+  The Indian Antiquary.  41 (1912) 265-267.  DS 401 I3 part reprint.  Linguistic argument to show *that Kalidasa composed the verses quoted above when the Hûnas were still in the Oxus valley and shortly before they invaded the Gupta empire in AD 455+ (267).  *It is thus plain that the Vanku or Vankshu river is the Oxus river.  It is interesting to note here that the famous Chinese traveller Yuan Chwang calls this river Pochu or Fochu+ (266).

Patkanian, Kerobe Petrovich [also Patkanov, Patkanjan].  Check Vestnik arkhivov Armenii.  1 (1970) 175-188.  per.bib.

Patkanian, M. K.  *Essai d’une histoire de la dynastie des Sassanides d’après les renseignements fournis par les historiens arméniens.+  Tr:  Evariste Prud’homme.  JA 6th series 7 (1866) 101-238.  Starts in third cent.  Shahpur?

Patsch, Carl L.  *Arrians Periplus Ponti Euxeni.+  Klio 4 (1904) 68-75.  Crimea, Tauroscyths.

Paucker, Carl.  *De latinitate Claudianii poetae observationes.+  RhM NS 35 (1880) 586-606.

Paucker, Carl.  *Letters by Jerome.+  Zeitschrift für österreichischen Gymnasien.  (1881) 891-895.  Check out in WSt;  see Old Class P LG Z;  check PA 3 Z4;  history for per.bib.

Paucker, Carl.  *De particularum quarundam in latinitate Hieronymi usu observationes.+  RhM NS 37 (1882) 556-566.  Style.

Paucker, Carl.  Vorarbeiten zur lateinischen Sprachgeschichte.  Ed:  Hermann Rönsch.  3 vols in 1.  Berlin:  Calvary, 1884.  LaL Gr P3233v, recat.  *Orosius+ 24-64.  Long lists, no conclusions.  Compares Orosius with Jerome, Rufinus.

Paverd, Frans van de.  Saint John Chrysotom:  The Homilies on the Statues.  Rome:  Institute of Oriental Studies, 1991.  Pims BR 65 C46 1991.

Payne Smith, Robert, tr.  The Third Part of the Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus.  Oxford UP, 1860.  PIMS BQ 3969 O34A;  Roba BR 160 J6 P39.

Peake, Harold, and Herbert John Fleure.  The Way of the Sea.  The Corridors of Time, 6.  New Haven:  Yale UP, 1929.  CB 311 P43.  The Beaker culture is older than the Celtic empire.  *the last three of four centuries of the third millennium BC … may be [contemporary] with the second city of Hissarlik during the third and last phase of its existence+ (53).  *… the beaker culture decayed on the European continent as the knowledge of bronze spread early in the second millennium BC, and soon afterwards vanished everywhere.  This, to our mind, suggests that some organisation or aspect of life, extending over large areas, was profoundly altered+ (54).  Ends by 1660 BC (165).

Pearson, Lionel.  *Herodotus on the source of the Danube.+  Classical Philology.  29 (1934) 328-337.

Pearson, Lionel.  The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great.  New York:  American Philological Association, 1960.  DF 234 A1 P4.  Rev:  Badian Gnomon 33 (1961) 660-667.  Re: Fragmentary geographers.

Pédech, Paul.  *L’analyse géographique chez Posidonius.+  In Littérature gréco-romaine et géographie historique:  Mélanges offerts à Roger Dion.  Ed:  Raymond Chevallier.  Paris:  Picard, 1974.  31-43.  Roba PA 26 L58.  Posidonius *est avant tout … un penseur et un savant+ (31).

Pédech, Paul.  La géographie des Grecs.  Paris:  PUF, 1976.  G 84 P4.  No notes, no index.

Peeters, Paul.  *Le début de la persécution de Sapor.+  Revue des études arméniennes.  1 (1920) 15-33.

Peeters, Paul.  *Julien, martyrs.+  AnBoll 42 (1924) 77-.  Pims.

Peeters, Paul.  *L’intervention politique de Constance II dans la Grande Arménie en 338.+  Bulletin de la Classe des lettres et des sciences morales et politiques:  Académie royale de Belgique.  5th series 17 (1931) 10-46.  AS 242 B312.  Re Julian’s Panegyric of Constantius II.

Peeters, Paul.  *Les débuts du christianisme en Géorgie.+  An Boll.  50 (1932) 5-58.  Gelasius.

Peeters, Paul.  *A propos de la version arménienne de l’historien Socrate.+  Annuaire International de Philologie et d’Histoire orientales.  Mélanges Bidez.  2 (1934) 655-657.  PJ 4 B7, check title, per.bib.

Peeters, Paul.  *S. Grégoire l’Illuminateur dans le calendrier lapidaire de Naples.+  Analecta Bollandiana.  60 (1942) 91-130.  PIMS.  Re:  Agathangelos.  Traduction grecque par un lettré arménien, oeuvre de propagande (94).  Date de Grégoire conjecturale (101);  *artificiellement enlacée+ aux saintes Rhipsimiennes (102).  Historiographie arménienne refuse de reconnaître le fait de la domination romaine (106).  Persécution de Maximin Daïa en 311-312 (106).  Ananias, calendrier (111).  Commémoraton de la vision de Grégoire (113f).  *vicariat de mission dépendant de Césarée+ (128).  Mezezius (128).

Peiper, Rudolf, ed.  Alcimi Ecdici Aviti Viennensis episcopi Opera quae supersunt.  MGH AA, 6,2.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1883.  Table of contents, lxxvii.

Peiper, Rudolf, ed.  Ausonii Epistolae.  Leipzig, Teubner, 1886.  PA 6221 A25.  See Owen.

Pelham, Henry Francis.  *Arrian as Legate of Cappadocia.+  English Historical Review.  11 (1896) 625-640.

Pelletier, André, ed, tr.  Flavius Josèphe:  Guerre des Juifs.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1975‑‑.  Up to, incl Bk 5.

Pelletier, André, ed, tr.  Flavius Josèphe:  Autobiographie.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1983.  PA 4222 V5 1983.  Chronology of his works, intro.

Pelliot, Paul, biblio.  Paul Pelliot (1878-1945):  Bibliography.  By Hartmut Walravens.  Bloomington, IN:  UP, 2001.  Z 3101 W26.

Pelliot, Paul.  Review of Chavannes Tou-kiue.  BEFEO 4 (1904) 479-483.  See reprint of Chavannes.

Pelliot, Paul.  *L’origine de T’ou-kiue, nom chinois des Turcs.+  T’oung Pao.  16 (1915) 687-689.  *il n’y avait pas en chinois ancien de forme mouillée correspondant à *dwith non mouillé;  mais la mouillure du second caractère de transcription fait foi pour l’ensemble.  Les Chinois ont donc rendu de leur mieux ce qu’ils croyaient entendre *Dürküt, pour un original *Türküt+ (687).

Pelliot, Paul.  *A propos des Comans.+  JA 11th series 15 (1920) 125-185.  Review of Osttürkische Dialektstudien, by Willy Bang and Josef Marquart (Igor.bib, Boris.bib).  Biblio, discusses palatalisation, Avars.  Does not refer to the Choamani also mentioned in Mela and Pliny.  *au milieu du XIe siècle … les Petchénègues unis aux Ouz sont pour la première fois désignés par les écrivains byzantins sous le nom inexpliqué de Komanoi+ (133).  *au XIIe siècle, Edrisi parle des Qoman … aussi Michel le Syrien+ (133).

Pelliot, Paul.  *Note sur les T’ou-yu-houen et les Sou-p’i.+  T’oung Pao.  NS 20 (1921) 323-331.  *Au début du IVe de notre ère, les T’ou-yu-houen avaient fondé dans la région du Koukou-nor, au milieu de populations K’iang (tibétaines), un royaume qui ne fut détruit par l’empire tibétain proprement dit qu’en 663+ (323).  Vocabulary includes Qagan, 328.  *les T’ou-yu-houen installés au Koukou-nor … étaient eux-mêmes de langue mongole+ (330).

Pelliot, Paul.  Review of Reichert.  T’oung Pao.  NS 28 (1931) 457-463.  Sogdian Ancient Letters.  Place names.  Bagpur = farfur.  Uigur words in Letters (461).  *dans srgh, je suis bien tenté de reconnaître le nom de Srg = Sarag sous lequel les gens d’Asie Centrale, jusque sous les T’ang, ont toujours désigné Lo-yang+ (458).

Pelliot, Paul.  La Haute Asie.  Paris:  Edition artistique Goudard, 1931.  DS 785 P4.  Excellent synthesis, pamphlet, with ills but no biblio.  Haute Asie = Mongolie, Turkestan chinois, Tibet (1).  *Les Chinois, chez qui le lion n’a jamais existé…+ (8).

Penella, Robert J.  *Julian the Persecutor in Fifth Century Church Historians.+  Ancient World.  24 (1993) 31-43.  D 51 A55.  Rufinus, Philostorgius, Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret.

Peregrinatio Aetheriae.  Ed:  Pétré.  Studies:  Loefsted.

Périchon, Pierre, and Pierre Maraval, eds.  Socrate de Constantinople:  Histoire ecclésiastique.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 2004-2005.  BR 160 S…  Only the first 3 books.

Pernot, Laurent.  La rhétorique de l’éloge dans le monde gréco-romain.  2 vols.  Paris:  Institut d’Etudes augustiniennes, 1993.  PA 3265 P44.  Anything useful for Julian?

Perry, Edward Delavan, tr.  A Sanskrit Primer.  Translation of Leitfaden für den Elementarcursus des Sanskrit by Georg Bühler.  Boston:  Ginn, 1885;  New York:  Columbia UP, [1936].  PK 666 P47.  *Visarga:  h.  The h appears to be merely a surd breathing, a final h‑ sound (in the European sense of h), utttered in the articulating position of the preceding vowel.  The visarga is not original, but always a new substitute for final s or r+ (11).  For the written form of /kh/, see chart on page 1.

Peter, Hermann.  Die geschichtliche Literatur über die römischen Kaiserzeit bis Theodosius I und ihre Quellen.  2 vols.  Leipzig, 1897.

Peter, Hermann.  Der Brief in der römischen Litteratur.  Abhandlungen der königlich sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, phil-hist. Kl., 20,3.  Leipzig, 1901.  AS 182 S213.  Jerome.

Petersen, K. [Chr].  *Die Cosmographie des Kaisers Augustus und die Commentarien des Agrippa, I.+  RhM 8 (1853) 161-210;  377-403.  Its place in later authors, such as Mela and Aethicus.

Petersen, K. [Chr].  *Die Cosmographie des Kaisers Augustus und die Commentarien des Agrippa, II.+  Rheinisches Museum.  9 (1854) 85-106; 422-442.

Petit, Paul.  Libanios et la vie municipale à Antioche.  Paris:  Geuthner, 1955.  DS 99 A6 P4.  Statues, 234-245.

Petit, Paul.  *Recherches sur la publication et la diffusion des discours de Libanius.+  Historia 5 (1956) 281-282;  479-509.

Petit, Paul.  Les étudiants de Libanius.  Paris:  Nouvelles éditions latines, 1956.  PA 4228 P4.  Julian?  Ammianus.

Petit, Paul.  *L’Empereur Julien vu par le sophiste Libanios.+  In L’Empereur Julien:  de l’histoire à la légende (331-1715).  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1978.  67-87.  DG 317 E46.

Pétré, Hélène, ed.  Journal de voyage:  Ethérie.  Paris:  Le Cerf, 1948.  Pims BQ 6174 A2 P49.

Petrus Patricius.  In Müller, FHG, 4:186-8.  Ed:  Niebuhr, Mai.  Frag 8, 9 on Persian war.  See Haury for identity.  His source was Dio’s Continuator, he is the source of Zonaras.

Petschenig, M.  *Zu Ammian.+  Philologus 52 (1894) 117;  218;  317;  421;  495.  Several in Book 31.  Barbarian intrusions, xxvi,4,5 (495).

Pfister, Friedrich.  *Die Hodoiporia und die Legende von Alexanders Zug nach dem Paradies.+  RhM 66 (1911) 458-468.  Expositio.

Pfister, Friedrich.  *Collation du manuscrit du Vatican de l’Hodoiporia.+  RhM 66 (1911) 469-470.

Pfister, Friedrich.  *Vulgärlatein und vulgärgriechisch.+  Rheinisches Museum.  67 (1912) 195-208.

Pflaum, Hans Georg.  *Une crux dans l’ektaxis kat’ Alanôn de Flavius Arrianus.+  Bulletin de la société nationale des antiquaires de France.  1976:34-39.  DC 2 S73.  Aplanois = Apamênoi.

Pharr, Clyde, tr.  The Theodosian Code and Novels and the Sirmondian Constitutions.  Princeton UP, 1952.  PIMS K C669 T37;  ROBA K C6695 T413 1952.  HX  With comm, biblio.

Philipp, Hans, tr.  Die Geographie des Erdkreises von Pomponius Mela.  2 vols.  Leipzig:  Voigtländer, 1911-1918.  WCat 11.

Philipp, Hans.  Die historisch-geographischen Quellen in den etymologiae des Isidorus von Sevilla.  Quellen und Forschungen zur alten Geschichte und Geographie, 25 and 26.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1912-13.  WCat 25.

Philippart, L.  *A propos d’un prétendu discours perdu de Thémistius.+  In Serta Leodiensia.  Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l’Université de Liège, 44.  Liège and Paris, 1930.  269-276.  BX 4705 M324 H3.  See Seeck, Croissant, Bouyges.

Philostorgius.  Historia ecclesiastica.  Text:  PG?  Bidez.  Revised edition by Winkelmann, in CGS:  check relationship between editions.  Any translations?  Studies:  Batiffol, Bidez, Heseler.  Covers AD 300-425.  Western and Eastern Huns;  Rhipaean mountains, see Authors file.  Rufinus, xi,3.  The Huns, xi,8.  Earthquake and comet xi,7 (see Cameron 1987:352).  Phison river, p. 39, (3,10).  Killing of Gainas 11,8, page 139, lines 18ff.  Claims the Arab who killed Julian was a Persian missionary (…).  Reports that Constantius II sent Valentinian to Armenia;  should be Valens, according to Woods 1998:478 (8,16?).

Photius.  Bibliothèque.  See Freese, Henry.  For the fragments of Olympiodorus.

Pianazella, E.  *Au delà des frontières du monde.+  REL  . . . (198) 192.

Picard, Ch.  *Les voies terrestres du commerce halstattien.+  Latomus 19 (1960) 409-424, plates.  The Sigynnai (Hdt 5:9-10) dwell beyond the Danube and are neighbours of the Enetae of the Adriatic region;  they handle the trade with Celtica by way of Trebenishte.  Land routes sfer than sea routes, which are plagued by pirates (415).  Amber route, passim.

Piccirilli, L.  *Una notizia di Trogo in Giustino e in Orosio.+  Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa.  1 (1971) 301-306. AS 222 P58.

Pichlmayr, Franz.  Sexti Aurelii Victoris liber de Caesaribus.  1911.  Revised by R. Gruendel.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1961.  2nd edition, corrected 1966.  PA 6966 A2.  Includes Origo gentis romana, Epitome de Caesaribus and Liber de viris illustribus.

Pichon, René.  Les derniers écrivains profanes:  les panégyristes, Ausone, le *Querolus+, Rutilius Namatianus.  Etudes sur l’histoire de la littérature latine dans les Gaules.  Paris:  Leroux, 1906.  PA 6043 P53.  Education.

Pichon, René.  Les sources de Lucain.  Paris:  Leroux, 1912.  PA 6480 P48.

Piganiol, André.  *Les peuples mixtes dans l’antiquité.+  1932.  reprinted 1:7-13.  *définir le sens des mots composés du type Celtibères ou Libyphéniciens+ (7).  Arrien, Scythotaures (Périple 19) = Eustathe Tauroscythes (GGM 2:246).

Piganiol, André.  *La couronne de Julien César.+  Byzantion 13 (1938) 243-248.  Reprinted 3:258-263.

Piganiol, André.  *Le problème de l’or au ive siècle.+  Annales 7 (1945) 33-46.  HB 3 A58.  Reprinted.

Piganiol, André.  Scripta varia.  Latomus, 131-133.  3 vols.  Brussels, 1973.  Vol 1:  Généralités.  Vol 3:  L’Empire.  DG 15 P53.

Piggott, Stuart.  Ancient Europe from the Beginnings of Agriculture to Classical Antiquity.  Edinburgh at UP, 1965.  D 65 P54.

Pighi, Giovanni Battista.  Studia Ammianea.  Pubblicazioni del Sacro Cuero, filologiche, 18.  Milan:  Vita e pensiero, 1935.  WCat 20.  Pims?

Pilgrims, Chinese, Buddhist.  Fa-hsien fl 399-413, Hiuen Tsiang.  General ref:  Couling 437f.  Ou-k’ong (fl 751-790), see Lévi and Chavannes.

Platnauer, Maurice, ed, tr.  Claudian.  2 vols.  Loeb.  London:  Heinemann, 1922.  PA 6372 A2.  Vol 1 most useful.

Plinius Secundus, C.  [Pliny the Elder].  Naturae historiarum.  PA 6611 A2.  Text:  for his Geographica, books 1-6;  books 1 and 2 by Beaujeu and Ernout, theory of geography.  Book 3, notes on Dalmatia and Pannonia, see Zehnacker (with citation).  Book 6, for Commani, Choamani, 6,47 see André and Filliozat.  Rackham (Loeb);  Detlefsen.  Studies:  Beaujeu, Le Bonniec, Mayhoff, Oennerfors,  Detlefsen, Lévi, Sallmann.  For Torks.  Scythians:  4,25;  6,14;  6,19.

Plinius Caecilius Secundus, C.  [Plinius minor].  Traiani Panegyricus.  Durry (Budé).  Also Epistulae.

Poinsotte, Jean-Michel.  *Les Romains et la Chine.+  MEFR 91 (1979) 431-479.

Polaschek, Erich.  *Ptolemy’s Geographia in a New Light.+  Imago Mundi.  14 (1959) 17-37.  MAPL GA 101 I45.

Poliakova, S., and I. Felenkovskaia.  *Anonimyi geograficheskii traktat…+  VV 8 (1956) 277-305.  Expositio.

Porphyry.  Against the Christians.  Text:  Altheim, Berchman, Benoît, Hagendorn, Harnack, Hoffmann, BR 160.3 R6713.  Studies:  Anastos, Barnes, Binder, Boer, Cameron, Casey, Dörrie, Hargis, Meredith, especially Lataix.  Daniel, four monarchies.

Posidonius Apameius Rhodius [BC 130-51].  Peri okeanou.  PA 4399 P2.  Ed:  Theiler.  Studies:  Zimmerman, used by Strabo;  Arnold, Aujac, Capelle, Diller 1934, Laffranque, Pédech.  AnPhil has extensive biblio on his philosophy, but little on geography.

Posidonov, A. V.  *A Study on Certain Ancient Geographical Concepts.+  Vestnik drevnei istorii.  147 (1979) 147-165.  D 51 A424.

Postgate, John Percival.  *A Supplement to the Apparatus Criticus of Claudian.+  Journal of Philology.  23 (1895) 202-204.  Old Class.  Re Birt’s edition of the Carmina minore, incl the Laus Serenae.

Postgate, John Percival, ed.  Lucan.  Vol 2 of Corpus poetarum latinorum.  Ed:  …  William Emerton Heitland.  Cam?  1900.  TRIN 871 Aa cor, 2 vols storage.

Postgate, John Percival.  *Vindiciae Propertianae.+  CR 15 (1901) 40-44;  406-413.  Rivers.

Postgate, John Percival.  *On Manilius III:590-617.+  Classical Quarterly.  2 (1908) 182-183.  Numbers.

Postgate, John Percival.  *Emendations of Claudian.+  Classical Quarterly.  4 (1910) 257-262.  Important.

Pothecary, Sarah.  *Strabo, Polybios, and the Stade.+  Phoenix 49 (1995) 49-67.  *8:1 is the correct conversion rate from Roman miles to stades of 185 m, which is the stade used by geographical writers+ (67).

Pothecary, Sarah.  *The Expression Our Times in Strabo’s Geography.+  Classical Philology.  92 (1997) 235-46.  HX.  Also Pontic Kingdoms.

Pothecary, Sarah.  Strabo the Geographer.  Online <http://members.aol.com/pothecary&gt; Nov 6, 2006.

Pothecary, Sarah, rev.  Radt, Strabons Geographika, 2002‑.  Bryn Mawr Classical Review.  2003.07.08.  Online.

Powell, J E.  A Lexicon to Herodotus.  Hildesheim:  Olms, 1960.  PA 4007 Z8.

Praetorius, Franz.  *Zum chronicon Edessenum.+  ZDMG 67 (…) 570.  Emendations.  Check citation.

Prete, Serafino.  *Un episodio del sacco gotico di Roma del 410 (Hieron. Ep. 127,3 — Orosii Historia VII,39.+  In Storiografica e storia:  Studi in onore Eugenio Dupré Theseider.  2 vols.  Rome, 1974.  2:529-540.  DG 470 S83 V2.

Prete, Sesto.  Ricerche sulla storia del testo di Ausonio.  Temi e testi, 7.  Rome:  Storia e letteratura, 1960.  PA 6223 P7.  Biblio.

Prete, Sesto, ed.  Decimi Magni Ausonii Burdigalensis Opuscula.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1978.  PA 6221 A2 1978.

Prinz, Karl.  *Zu Properz.+  In Wiener Eranos.  Congress held in Graz 1909.  Vienna:  Hölder, 1909.  164-174.  PA 26 V38.  Arethusa, 167-171.

Prisca canonum interpretatio latina.  PL 56:810-815.  CPL 381.

Priscianus Caesariensis.  Translator of Dionysius Periegetes.  Frequently edited with the original by Dionysius.  Incunab.bib for large number of editions, 20 before 1500.  Eds:  Bernhardy, Twaites, Krehl, Woestijne.

Pritchard, J. P.  *Fragments of the Geography of Strabo in the Commentary of Eustathius.+  Classical Philology.  29 (1934) 63-65.

Procopius of Caesaria.  See Dewing.  *The Romans and their Hunnish allies were nearly all hippotoxotai+ BP i,I,15.  Leukoi Hounnoi, where?

Prosper of Aquitaine.  Chronica minora.  Mommsen in MGH AA, 9.  PL 51.  *Basso et Ablabio. a. 331.  Hieronymus nascitur.+ (ix.451)  and *Theodosio viii et Constantio iii a. 420.  Hieronymus presbyter moritur anno aetatis suae xci prid. kal. Octobris.+ (ix.469).

Propertius.  Elegies.  Ed:  Goold (Loeb).  Studies:  Butrica, Grimal, Shackleton Bailey, Sullivan.  Articles Plessis, Postgate, Prinz.  Biblio:  Harrauer.

Propertius.  Arethusa, 4,3.  Scyths, line 47.

Protogenes, Inscription at Olbia.  CIG.

Prudentius, Aurelius … Clemens [born AD 349].  Opera.  Text: Thackeray 1890;  Lavarenne, Cunningham.  For Theodosius.

Prudentius.  Peristephanon.

Prudentius.  Contra oratiomen Symmachi.

Ptolemaeus, Claudius.  Geographia.  Text:  Cuntz (incomplete), Nobbe (bad text, good index).  Rylands consider the Donis and Angiolo edition the best.  See Bagrow-Skelton for history of incunabula editions, 1985:77-97.  First translation into Latin by Emanuel Chrysoloras and his pupil Jacopo d’Angiolo (Jacobus Angelus), finished in 1406 (77).

Claudii Ptolemaei Geographia.  Bibliotheca graecorum scriptorum.  2 vols.  Paris:  Didot, 1883-1901.  Where is it?

Ptolemaeus, Claudius.  Geographia.  AD 172.  The earliest mention of the Huns by name in the historical record is in Ptolemy 3,5,25;  they lived between the Bastarnae and the Roxolani, that is just north of the Crimea.  For distortion in maps and shrunken Scythia, see 8,1.  *Sarmatia … is bounded by the Tanais river, and by the line which extends from the sources of the Tanais river toward the unknown land as far as the indicated terminus+ (Ptolemy 3,5,10, page 79 of Stevenson’s translation).   *a fontibus Tanais fluvii terram versus incognitam usque ad indicatum terminum ductum est++ (page 199 of Wilberg’s translation).  Ptolemy must have believed that the Rhipaean mountains existed in the real world since he provides latitude and longitude for them:  63o and 57o 30′ (page 79 of Stevenson).  *Serica is terminated on the West by Scythia beyond the Imaeus mountains … on the north is unknown land+ (6,16,1).  (Geographia 3,5,25);   *metaxy de Basternôn kai Rhoxolanôn, Khounoi kai hypo ta idia orê Amadokoi, kai Nauaroi.  Para men tên Bykên limnên Torekkadai;  para de ton Akhilleôs dromon hoi Tauroskythai;  hypo de tous Basternas pros tê Dakia Tagroi, kai hyp’ autous Tyraggetai+ (3,5,25).  *between the Basternae and the Rhoxolani are the Chuni, and below the mountains named from these are the Amadoci and the Navari+ (page 80 in Stevenson).

Pugliese Carratelli, Giovanni.  *Res gestae divi Saporis.+  Parola del passato.  5 (1947) 209-239.

Pulleyblank, Edwin G.  *A Sogdian colony in Inner Mongolia.+  T’oung Pao.  41 (1952) 317-356.  One of the Tribes *were the Sa-ko… The chiefs are called by the Chinese title tu-tu, evidence that the “tribes” were constituted as “protected” prefectures under Chinese administration…  There cannot be the slightest doubt that we have here to do with Sogdians.+  343-4.

Pulleyblank, Edwin G.  *Gentry Society:  Some remarks on recent work by W. Eberhard.+  BSOAS 15 (1953) 588-597.  Very critical, but not of the Toba Wei part of the work.  Of the Sha-t’o confederacy, he writes:  *as long ago as 1926 the Japanese sinologist Kuwabara had noticed the presence of many Sogdians among the Sha-t’o.+  (1953:596).

Pulleyblank, Edwin G.  *Chinese and Indo-Europeans.+  JRAS 1966:9-39.  Biblio.  Rebuts Haloun who equates the Scyths with the Yüeh-chih, and the Hsien-yün with the Cimmerians (29f).

Pusey, Philip Edward, ed.  Cyril of Alexandria:  Opera.  5 vols.  Oxford UP, 1868-1872.  Roba BR 65 C95.

Quasten, Johannes.  Patrology.  2 vols.  Westminster, ML:  The Newman Press, and Utrecht:  Spectrum Publishing, 1951-53.  BR 67 Q37.

Rackham, Harris, ed, tr.  Pliny:  Natural History.  Loeb.  1938-1942.  PA 6611 A2 1938.  Vol 1-2 for geography (books 1-10, preface).

Radt, Stefan L.  *… nominis proprii bei Strabon.+  Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigrafik.  71 (1988) 35-40.  CN 1 Z3.

Radt, Stefan L.  *Eine neue Strabon-Ausgabe.+  Mnemosyne 44 (1991) 305-326.

Radt, Stefan L.  *Eustathio-Straboniana.+  In Polyphonia Byzantina:  FS W J Aerts.  Groningen:  Egbert Forsten, 1993.  21-28.  DF 521 P665.

Radt, Stefan L., ed.  Strabons Geographika.  4 vols.  Göttingen:  Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2002‑.  G 87 S8852 R34.  Vol 3:  2004.  Rev:  S Pothecary.  Proem of Book 11 has reference to Choanes (S Pothecary).

Ranstrand, Gunnar, ed.  Pomponius Mela:  De Chorographia.  Studia Graeca et latina Gothoburgensia, 28.  Stockholm, 1971.  PIMS PA 6512 A2.  Also Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.

Ranstrand, Gunnar.  Textkritische Beiträge zu Pomponius Mela.  Studia Graeca et latina Gothoburgensia, 29.  Stockholm:  Almqvist & Wiksell, 1971.  WCat 81.

Rappaport, B.  *Hat Zosimus I, c. 1-46 die Chronik des Dexippus benutzt?+  Klio 1 (1901) 427-442.  D 51 K6.

Ratti, Stéphane.  *La lecture chrétienne du Bréviaire d’Eutrope (9,2-5) par Jérôme et Orose.+  Latomus 56 (1997) 264-278.  PA 2002 L3.  Both Jerome and Orosius dependent upon Eutropius.

Raymond, Irving Woodsworth, tr.  Paulus Orosius:  Seven Books of History Against the Pagans.  New York:  Columbia University Press, 1936.

Rau, Reinhold.  *Zur Geschichte des pannonisch-dalmatischen Krieges der Jahre 6-9 n Chr.+  Klio 19 (1925) 313-346.  Velleius.  Quondam?

Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum.  GenR BR 131 R42.  RAC.

Regenbogen, O.  *Theophrast-Studien.+  Hermes 69 (1934) 75-105;  190-203.

Reinach, Théodore, general editor.  Oeuvres complètes de Flavius Josèphe.  Paris:  Leroux, 1900‑‑.  DS 116 J674 1900.

Reinaud, Joseph Toussaint.  Relations politiques et commerciales de l’Empire romain avec l’Asie orientale.  Osnabrück:  Otto Zeiller, 1966.  DG 271 R36.  Reprint of JA Sixth series 1 (1863) 93-234;  297-441.  Orosius, Scyths, etc.

Reinhold, Meyer.  Marcus Agrippa:  A Biography.  Geneva, NY:  Humphrey Press, 1933.  DG 291.7 A3 R4.  Geography 142-148.

Reinhold, Meyer.  From Republic to Principate:  A Historical Commentary on Cassius Dio’s Roman History.  Atlanta:  Scholars’ Press, 1988.  DG 207 C373 R45.  66-68:  Illyrian war.

Reitemeier, John-Frederick [Joh Friedrich], ed.  Zosimi Historiae.  Leipzig, 1784;  re-edited by Immanuel Bekker in Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, 50.  Bonn:  Weber, 1837.  Roba DF 500…

Reiter, Siegfried, ed.  Hieronymus:  Commentaria in Jeremiah.  CSEL, 59.  Vienna, 1913.

Reitzenstein, R.  *Die geographischen Bücher Varros.+  Hermes 20 (1885) 514-551.  Fragments everywhere, including Vegetus, Solinus.  Wrote on winds.

Rémy, Edmond.  *Du groupement des peuples en états d’après le De Officiis de Cicéron.+  In Mélanges Paul Thomas.  Bruges:  Imprimerie Sainte-Catherine, 1930.  585-593.  PA 26 T5 1930.  Tauroscyths not mentioned, but useful studies.  Re:  gens, natio, civitas.

Rémusat, Abel, tr.  Foe koue ki:  ou Relation des Royaumes bouddhiques, Voyage dans la Tartarie, dans l’Afghanistan et dans l’Inde, exécuté à la fin du IVe siècle par Chy Fa hian.  Posthumous work revised by Julius von Klaproth and C. Landresse.  Paris:  Imprimerie royale, 1836.  DS 6 F36 1836.  Fa-hien.  Map useless, authors interested in religion, not topography.

Renda, Chiara.  *Pisonis supercilium:  tratti e ritratti nella Pro Sestio di Cicerone.+  Bollettino di Studi latini.  32 (2002) 395-405, with summary 404.  PA 2004 B7.  Invective.

Renou, Louis, tr.  Kalidasa:  Le Raghuvamça (la lignée des fils du Soleil).  Les joyaux de l’Orient, 6.  Paris:  Geuthner, 1928.  PK 3796 R33.

Res gestae divi Augusti.  Shipley.  Dalmatia and Pannonia, ’30.

Res gestae divi Saporis.  SKZ.  Christensen, Ensslin, Honigmann, Huyse, Maricq, Sprengling.  See Frye, Ghirshman, Olmstead, Rostovtzeff for date and interpretation.

Reuss, Friedrich.  *Zu Arrians Periplus Ponti Euxeni.+  RhM 56 (1901) 367-391.

Revue de comptes rendus d’ouvrages relatifs à l’antiquité classique.  Ed:  Marouzeau.  1-16 (1910-1925).  PA 2 R38.  Cf AnPhil.

Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique:  Bibliographie.  Robarts GenR Z 7837 R4.

Reynolds, Robert L., and Robert S. Lopez.  *Odoacer:  German or Hun?+  American Historical Review.  53 (1946/47) 36-53.  E 171 A57.  *Germanisation+ of Northern Barbarians, 36f.  Notes in text.

Rich, J. W.  Declaring War in the Roman Republic in the Period of Transmarine Expansion.  Latomus, 149.  Brussels, 1976.  DG 241.2 R5.  Cassius Dio.

Richard, Marcel.  *Les traités de Cyrille d’Alexandrie contre Diodore et Théodore.+  In Mélanges dédiés à la mémoire de Félix Grat.  2 vols.  Paris:  1946-1949.  1:99-116.  Roba CB 5 M35;  SMC DC 73 G34.

Richardson, Ernest Cushing, tr.  Eusebius:  Church History, Life of Constantine the Great, and Oration in Praise of Constantine.  A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, 1.  Grand Rapids, 1982.

Richardson, Ernest Cushing.  Hieronymus de viris illustribus.  Texte und Untersuchungen, 14,1.  Leipzig:  Hinrichs, 1896.  PIMS.

Richmond, J.  *The Sarmatae Veteranorum.+  JRS 35 (1945) 15-29.

Richter, Will.  *Die Darstellung der Hunnen bei Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Historia 23 (1974) 343-377.  Emendations, important.  Claudian, Zosimus, Jerome.  Ritual scarification.

Ridley, Ronald T.  *The Fourth and Fifth Century Civil and Military Hierarchy in Zosimus.+  Byzantion 40 (1970) 91-104.

Ridley, Ronald T.  *Zosimus the Historian.+  ByzZ 65 (1972) 277-302.  Date, sources, etc.

Ridley, Ronald T.  *Notes on Julian’s Persian Expedition (363).+  Historia 22 (1973) 317-330.  Deals with Zosimus.  Has chart of sources, but not Armenian authors.

Ridley, Ronald T, ed.  Zosimus:  New History.  Canberra, 1982.  DG 207 Z89 R5.

Riek, Gustav, and H. J. Hundt.  Der Hohmichele:  Ein Fürstengrabhügel der späteren Hallstattzeit  bei der Heuneburg.  Berlin:  de Gruyter, 1962.  GN 796 G3 R54.  No index or typology of finds.

Riese, Alexander, ed.  Geographici Latini Minores.  1878;  reprint Hildesheim:  G. Olms, 1964.  G 87 A1 R5.  Orosius 56-70;  Aethicus 71-103.  HX Sequester, Divisio orbis terrarum, qv.

Rinkefeil, Walter.  De Adnotationibus super Lucanum.  Dresden:  Ramming, 1917.  Old Class Pamph LL. L.B. R, Karl.

Roberts, Alexander, and J. Donaldson, trs.  Hippolytus of Rome.  Ante-Nicene Christian Library, 6.  Chronicle?

Robertson, Archibald, tr.  History of the Arians.  In Select Writings and Letters of Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria.  NPNF second series, 4.  Oxford:  Parker and Co., and New York:  The Christian Literature Co., 1892.  266-302.  Citation under Athanasius.

Robertson, Archibald, tr.  Defense before Constantius.  In Select Writings and Letters of Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria.  NPNF second series, 4.  Oxford:  Parker and Co., and New York:  The Christian Literature Co., 1892.  238-253.

Rochefort, Gabriel, ed.  Discours de Julien Empereur.  Vol 2,1 of Julien:  Oeuvres complètes.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1963.

Rochefort, Gabriel.  *Une méthode de datation des manuscrits.+  In La paléographie grecque et byzantine.  Paris:  CRNS, 1977.  Pims Z 113.8 F7.

Roddaz, Jean-Michel.  Marcus Agrippa.  BEFAR, 253.  Paris and Rome, 1984.  DG 291.7 A3 R63.  Geography 573-591.

Rönsch, Hermann.  *Latinität … Hegesippus.+  Romanische Forschungen.  1 (1883) 256-321.  P 3 R5, off UTLink, per.bib.  Based on Weber’s edition.

Roesler, E. Robert.  *Die Geten und ihre Nachbarn.+  Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte.  1863.  AS 142 A53.

Roesler, E. Robert.  *Die vorroemische Dacien.+  Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte.  1864.  AS 142 A53.

Roesler, E. Robert.  *Dacien und Romanen.+  Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte.  1866.  AS 142 A53.

Rolfe, John Carew, ed, tr.  Ammianus Marcellinus.  3 volumes.  London, Heinemann, 1935-1939.  PA 6203 A2.

Rollinger, Robert, and Martin Korenjak, eds.  Pseudo-Scymnus of Chios:  Periegesis.   AnPhl 74-05647.

Romano, Antonino.  *Ricerche sulla Anonymi totius orbis descriptio.+  Rivista di storia antica.  FS Mommsen.  NS 8 (1904) 1-14.  PArchaeol & Philol R.  Ms study, cf Amm M.

Romer, Frank E., tr.  Pomponius Mela’s *Description of the World+.  Ann Arbor:  University of Michigan Press, 1998.  PA 6512 E5.  Rev:  Romm.

Romm, James S.  Review of Mela by Romer.  Bryn Mawr Classical Review.  1988.  11.20.  Online.  Hx.

Romm, James S.  *Herodotus and Mythic Geography.+  TAPA 119 (1989) 97-113.

Romm, James S.  The Edges of the Earth in Ancient Thought.  Princeton University Press, 1992.  PA 3015 G4 R65.

Roos, Anton Gerard, ed.  Flavii Arriani quae extant omnia.  2 vols.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1908?-1928.  Vol 2 (Scripta minora et fragmenta) includes Ectaxis.  Rev of vol 2 in Bulletin de l’Association Guillaume Budé, Supplément critique.  1 (1929) 116-119.  PA 12 A6.

Roos, Anton Gerard, ed.  Flavii Arriani quae extant omnia.  Ed:  Gerhard Wirth.  2 vols.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1967.  PA 3935 A2.

Rosen, Klaus.  Studien zur Darstellungskunst und Glaubwürdigkeit des Ammianus Marcellinus.  PhD Heidelberg, 1968.  Bonn:  Habelt, 1970.  PA 6205 R58.  See Austin.

Rosen, Klaus.  Ammianus Marcellinus.  Darmstadt:  Wissenschaftliche Buchgt, 1982.  PA 6205 R62.

Rosen, Klaus.  *Gothenpolitik in Ammianus’ 31. Buch.+  In Cognitio Gestorum:  The Historiographic Art of Ammianus Marcellinus.  Ed:  Jan den Boeft, Daniël den Hengst and Hans C. Teitler.  Verhandlingen van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Letterkunde, 148.  Amsterdam, 1992.  85-90.  AS 244 A53.

Rosenstein, J.  *Kritische Untersuchungen über das Verhältniss zwischen Olympiodor, Zosimus und Sozomenus.+  Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte.  1 (1862) 165-204.  DD 3 F73.

Ross, David John Athole.  *Illustrated Manuscripts of Orosius.+  Scriptorium 9 (1955) 35-56, facsimiles on plates 11-15.  Z 108 S35.  Not significant for history of text, though it contains detailed description of four mss.  Missed 8th cent Albi mss with only geography, see Janvier 11n10.

Rostovtzeff, Michael Ivanovich.  *Martyrs of Chersonese.+  Izviestiia Arkheologicheskoi Kommissii // Bulletin de la Commission impériale archéologique (St. Petersburg).  23 (…) 5‑.  PIMS Mfc DK 30 A32 1985.

Rostovtzeff, Michael Ivanovich.  *Pontus, Bythinia and the Bosphorus.+  Annual of the British School at Athens.  22 (1916/17) 1-22.  DF 11 B6.

Rostovtzeff, Michael Ivanovich.  Iranians and Greeks in South Russia.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1922.  DK 509 R6.  *It has become customary to speak of the whole of South Russia as peopled by Scythian tribes.  Nothing could be further from the truth.  [...]  the Scythians were no more than a group of Iranian tribes, mixed with Mongolians and constituting the ruling aristocracy+ (42f).  For the archaeo­logical evidence on the Cimmerian/Scythian transition, 35ff.  When they established themselves in the Pontic belt, the Scythians did not obliterate the older population (whether they were called Cimmerians or something else).  The Great Goddess who had been worshipped by the natives maintained her prominence over the Scythian deities (107).  According to Herodotus she was called Tabiti, and this name does not appear to have been Indo-European.  *The only gods whom they propitiate by worship are these:  Hestia in especial, and secondly Zeus and Earth [...]  In the Scythian tongue Hestia is called Tabiti+ (IV,59).  This goddess was known to the Greeks as Taurian Artemis, to whom unlucky travellers were sacrificed.

Rostovtzeff, Michael Ivanovich.  Skythien und der Bosporus.  Berlin:  Schoetz, 1931.  DK 509 R63.  Pre-Christian, hard to relate to LRE evidence.  Toxaris, 98-99.

Rostovtzeff, Michael.  *Doura-Europos, son importance en histoire.+  RH 180 (1937) 229.

Rostovtzeff, Michael Ivanovich.  *Res gestae divi Saporis and Dura.+  Berytus 8 (1943) 17-60.  DS 41 B4, inc, ROMU & MICR D5 B479 for complete.

Rougé, Jean.  Expositio totius mundi et gentium:  Introduction, texte critique, traduction, notes et commentaire.  SC, 124.  Paris:  Le Cerf, 1966.  G 87 E923.  Biblio.  Notes under title.

Rougé, Jean.  *Une version gauloise de la Descriptio totius mundi.+  Scriptorium 27 (1973) 308-316.  *Il semble que le copiste … ait assez systématiquement corrigé l’orthographe.  C’est ainsi que le /h/ a presque partout disparu devant le verbe abundare et ses composés+ (312).

Rougé, Jean.  *Conceptions antiques sur la mer.+  In Littérature gréco-romaine et géographie historique:  Mélanges offerts à Roger Dion.  Ed:  Raymond Chevallier.  Paris:  Picard, 1974.  275-283.  PA 26 L58.  Literary.

Rougé, Jean.  *Néron à la fin du IVe et au début du Ve siècle.+  Latomus 37 (1978) 73-87.  Apocrypha, source of Chrysostom.

Routh, Martin Joseph, ed.  Reliquiae sacrae.  5 vols.  Oxford:  UP, 1846-1848.  B2 LGr.C.R, Karl.  Gregory Thaum, Hegesippus, Julius Africanus.

Rowley, Harold Henry.  *The Early Prophecies of Jeremiah in their Setting.+  Bulletin of the John Rylands Library.  45 (1962/63) 198-234.  Z 921 M3 J7.  Biblio.  Herodotus 1,105ff and Scythian invasions.  Does not refer to Jerome’s commentary on Jeremiah, and its reference to the Huns.

Rozental, NN.  *Religiozno-politicheskaia ideologiia Zosima.+  In Drevnii mir:  Sbornik statei akademiku Vasiliu Vasilievichu Struve.  Ed:  NV Pigulevskaia.  Moscow:  Akademiia Nauk, 1962.  611-617.  D 53 A2169.

Rudberg, Stig Y.  Etudes sur la traduction manuscrite de saint Basile.  Lund:  H. Ohlssons, 1953.  BR 65 B364 R8.

Rühl, Franz.  *Zu Zosimos.+  RhM NS 27 (1872) 159.  Re:  Kiessling, Title and number of books.

Rühl, Franz, ed.  Justin:  Epitome.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1886.  Only copy VUPT storage PA 60 J985eR.  Includes history of manuscripts, which is still accepted today.  Second edition by Seel.

Rühl, Franz.  *Wann schrieb Zosimos?+  RhM NS 46 (1891) 146-147.

Ruether, Rosemary Radford.  Gregory of Nazianzus:  Rhetor and Philosopher.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1969.  BR 1720 G7 R8  HFile, notes Nevsky.bib.  Julian.

Rufinus of Aquileia.  History of the Church.  PL?  Mommsen (GCS);  Simonetti (CCSL);  NPNF, second series, 3, 1892.  Amidon BR 160 R8 E54.  See Paucker, Thélamon.

Rufinus of Aquileia.  Greek HE.  See Paul van den Ven.

Ruge, W.  *Eusene.+  PW.  1909.  6:1445-1446.  Cites Arrien, Ptolemy, TPeut, but not Ammianus.  Contra Galletier.  Check version by latest edition of PW.

Rylands, Thomas Glazebrook.  The Geography of Ptolemy Elucidated.  Dublin:  UP, 1893.  G 87 P83 R8.  Recommends the incunabulum by Nicolaus de Donis.  British isles mostly.

Rzach, Aloysius.  *Zu A. von Gutschmid’s Sibyllenstudien.+  In Mélanges Jules Nicole.  Geneva:  Kündig, 1905.  489-501.  PA 26 N54.

Rzach, Aloysius, ed.  The Sibylline Oracles.  Tr:  Terry.

Saba, Acts of the Martyr St.  Died April 15, 372.  BHG ??  AASS April, vol 2, pages 966-968 (edited 1675).  Ed:  Delehaye.  St:  Heather (w/tr), Follieri, Zuckerman.  Text from Sozomen, partial history from Basil of Caesaria.

Sabbah, Guy, ed, tr.  Ammien Marcellin:  Histoire (livres XVII-XIX).  Vol 2.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1970.

Sabbah, Guy.  La méthode d’Ammien Marcellin:  Recherches sur la construction du discours historique dans les *Res Gestae+.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1978.  DG 207 A5 S25.  Huns 210n174.

Sabbah, Guy, ed, tr.  Sozomen:  Histoire ecclésiastique.  Paris:  Le Cerf, 1983-1996.  BR 160 S8 F7.

Sabbah, Guy, ed, tr.  Ammien Marcellin:  Histoire (livres XXIX-XXXI).  With notes by Laurent Angliviel de la Beaumelle.  Vol 6.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1999.

Safranskaia, N.  *O Miksellenakh.+  VDI 3 (1956) 37-48.

Sahi, M. D. N.  *Early Huna Invasions of Peshawar in the Light of Fa-hien’s Account and its Significance.+  Journal of Indian History.  52 (1974) 89-99.  DS 401 J7 O2.  Biblio.  Coins of Ephthalites.  On the basis of Fa-hien, Faustus and Ammianus, would date arrival of Ephthalites in Peshawar AD 359-363.  Does he mention Expositio?

Sahi, M. D. N.  Aspects of Indian Archaeology.  1994.  Copy at Berkeley.  On sale Internet.

Saint-Loup, Aude de.  Misopogon.  2003.  See Lacombrade.

Saint-Martin, MJ.  *Notice sur la vie et les écrits de Moïse de Khorène.+  JA 2 (1823) 321-346.

Sallmann, Klaus Günther.  Die Geographie des älteren Plinius in ihrem Verhältniss zu Varro.  Berlin, 1971.  PA 6614 S2.

Salzman, Michele Renée.  On Roman Time:  The Codex Calendar of 354 and the Rhythms of Urban Life in Late Antiquity.  Berkeley and Los Angeles:  U of California, 1990.  CE 46 S25.  Magnus of Carrhae.

Sanford, Eva Matthews.  *Lucan and his Roman Critics.+  Classical Philology.  26 (1931) 233-257.  Biblio.

Sanford, Eva Matthews.  *Lucan and Civil War.+  Classical Philology.  28 (1933) 121-127.  *Did any classical writers before Orosius suggest the reverse side of victories in externa bella?+ (127).

Sanford, Eva Matthews.  *Quotes from Lucan.+  AJPh 57 (1934).  Anyting on Sidonius?

Sanford, Eva Matthews.  *Contrasting Views of the Roman Empire.+  AJPh 58 (1937) 437-451.  Appian, Trogus, etc.

Sanford, Eva Matthews.  *Nero and the East.+  Harvard Studies in Classical Philology.  48 (1947) 75-103.  Biblio.  Lots on Lucan, Scyths, Alans, Caspian Gates.

Santini, Carlo.  *L’Adversum paganos di Orosio e la tradizione manoscritta del Breviarium di Eutropio.+  Giornale italiano di filologia.  31 / NS 9 (1978) 79-91.  PC 1001 G4.  Eutropius has survived embedded in Paulus Diaconus;  check out if Orosius preserves older, non-germanic elements.

Santini, Carlo, ed.  Evtropii Breviarium ab urbe condita.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1979.  PA 6384 A2.

Sarkissian, Arshag Ohan.  *On the Authenticity of Moses of Khoren’s History.+  Journal of the American Oriental Society.  60 (1940) 73-81.  Roba PJ 2 A5;  PER VUPT.  Biblio.

Sauer, Joseph.  *Die christlichen Denkmäler im Gotengebiet der Krim.+  Or Chr.  FS Anton Baumstark.  3rd series 7 (1932) 188-202.  Re Ainalov.

Savile, Henry, ed.  Iohannis Chrysostomi Opera.  8 vols???  Editio Etoniana.  1613.  Trinity 281.4 CHR 1-8 fol.  Venitian edition in 13 vols:  SMR BR 65 C41734.

Savon, Hervé.  *Les homélies festales d’Hésychius de Jérusalem.+  RHR 197 (1980) 429-450.  Anything on Scythia by this author?

Savon, Hervé.  *Pseudothyrum et Faeculentia dans une lettre du prêtre Eutrope (Ps Jérome Epist 19).+  Rphil 55 (1981) 91-110.  Ferreiro ‘7564.

Scaliger, Joseph Juste.  *Prolegomena+.  In his Manilius.  Paris:  Estienne, 1579.  VUCR PA 6500 M4 1579.  Attacks Lucan’s geography and astronomy.

Scavone, Daniel Carl.  *Zosimus and Historical Models.+  GRBS 11 (1970) 57-67.

Schaank, Simon Hartwich.  *Ancient Chinese Phonetics.+  TP NS 8 (1897) 361-377;  457-486;  9 (1898) 28-97.

Schäfer, Heinrich Wilhelm.  Die astronomische Geographie der Griechen bis auf Eratosthenes.  Berlin:  Calvary, 1873.  WCat 5.  CR:  Bursians 1 (1873) 518-522;  687.

Schäfer, Oskar.  Die beiden Panegyrici des Mamertinus und die Geschichte des Kaisers Maximianus Herculius.  Strassburg:  Schauberg, 1914.  Pamph LL. H S Karl.  Praised by Baehrens 1925:110.

Schaff, Philip, and Henry Wace, trs.  The Seven Ecumenical Councils.  NPNF Second series, 14.  New York:  Ch Scribner’s Sons, 1900.  BR 60 S46.  Disappointing for Chersonese.

Schamp, Jacques.  *Gélase ou Rufin:  un fait nouveau sur des fragments oubliés de Gélase de Césarée (CPG ‘ 3521).+  Byzantion 57 (1987) 360-390.  With edition of fragments from Photius.

Schanz, Martin von, and Carl Hosius.  Geschichte der römischen Literatur.  Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft.  Munich, 1920-1935.  Roba PA 6007 S3.  Germanicus, Manilius, Mela, Lucan.

Scheidweiler, Felix.  *Die Kirchengeschichte des Gelasios von Kaisareia.+  BZ 46 (1953) 277-301.  For rebuttal, see van den Ven.

Scheidweiler, Felix.  *Zur neuen Ausgabe des Athanasius.+  BZ 47 (1954) 73-94.

Scheidweiler, Felix, ed.  Theodorets Kirchengeschichte.  1954.  See Parmentier.

Scheidweiler, Felix.  *Zu Porphyrios Kata Khristianos.+  Philologus 99 (1954/55) 304-312.

Schenkl, Karl, ed.  Ausonii opuscula.  MGH AA 1883.  V,2:55-71.

Schenkl, Karl, and Glanville Downey, eds. Themistii Orationes quae supersunt.  Vols?  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1965.  PA 4441 T5.

Schlegel, Gustave [Gustaaf].  *On the extended use of the Peking System of Orthography for the Chinese Language.+  T’oung Pao.  6 (1895) 499-508.  DS 501 T45.

Schlegel, Gustave.  *The Secret of the Chinese Method of Transcribing Foreign Sounds.+  TP NS 1 (1900) 1-32;  93-124;  219-253.

Schlumberger, David.  *Le temple de Surkh Kotal en Bactriane, I.+  JA 240 (1952) 433-453, plates.  Coins of the Kushans, dated to the Great Kushans before Sassanid invasions.  Conquête pacifique du bouddhisme, à partir de Kanishka et des Kouchans, de l’Inde, par l’Afghanistan, vers l’Asie centrale et l’Extrême-Orient aux confins de la Chine, 433.

Schlumberger, David.  *Le temple de Surkh Kotal en Bactriane, II.+  JA 242 (1954) 161-295, plates.

Schlumberger, David.  *Le temple de Surkh Kotal en Bactriane, III.+  JA 243 (1955) 269-279, plates.

Schlumberger, Jörg.  Untersuchungen zur heidnischen Geschichtschreibung des 4. Jahrhundert n. Chr.  Munich:  Beck, 1974.  DG 205 S325.  Rev:  Barnes 1976.

Schlutter, Otto B.  *Le style d’Orose.+  Archiv  (1896).  Old Class.  Rev:  RPhil 21 (1987) 9;  23 (1898) 5.

Schlutter, Otto B.  *Beiträge zur lateinischen Glossographie, III.+  Archiv 10 (1898)  361-366.  Orosius, ballistae, etc.

Schmidt, Ludwig.  Geschichte der deutschen Stämme bis zum Ausgang der Völkerwanderung.  Quellen und Forschungen zur alten Geschichte und Geographie, 7.  Berlin:  Sieglin, 1904.  Cited Gajdukevich for Borani.  See second edition.

Schmidt, Ludwig.  Geschichte der deutschen Stämme bis zum Ausgang der Völkerwanderung.  Quellen und Forschungen zur alten Geschichte und Geographie, 7.  1904.  Second edition by Erich Zölner.  Munich:  Beck, 1970.  DD 801 B465 Z58.

Schmidt, Ludwig.  Review of Schroff.  PhW 47 (1927) 1036.

Schmidt, Maria Gabriela.  Die Nebenüberlieferung des 6. Buchs der *Geographie+ des Ptolemaios:  Griechische, lateinische, syrischen, armenische und arabische Texte.  Wiesbaden:  Reichert, 1999.  G 87 P85 S36.

Schmidt, WAS.  *Das olbische Psephisma zu Ehren des Protogenes.+  RhM 4 (1836) 357-;  571-.

Schmidt, Wilhelm Adolf.  *Ueber die Quellen des Zonaras.+  In vol 6 of Ioannis Zonarae Epitome historiarum.  Ed:  L Dindorf.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1875.  i-lx.  VUPT PA 3404 Z7;  Roba PA 5395 Z67.

Schnabel, Paul.  Die Entstehungsgeschichte des kartographischen Erdbildes des Klaudios Ptolemaios.  Berlin:  Verlag der Akademie, 1930.  Offprint from Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos-hist Klasse.  AS 182 B343.

Schnabel, Paul.  *Die Weltkarte des Agrippa.+  Philologus 19 (1935) 405-440.

Schnabel, Paul.  Text und Karten des Ptolemäus.  Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte der Geographie und Völkerkunde, 2.  Ed:  A. Herrmann.  Leipzig:  Koehlers Antiquarium, 1938.  WCat 26.

Schnabel, Paul.  Bibliographic search needed on this author.

Schneider, Hugo, ed., tr.  Die 34. Rede des Themistios (peri tês archês):  Einleitung, Uebersetzung und Kommentar.  Winterthur:  P.G. Keller, 1966.  Roba PA 4441 T5.

Schöne, Alfred, ed.  Die Weltchronik des Eusebius in ihrer Bearbeitung durch Hieronymus.  2 vols.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1900/1967.  BR 160 E4 C4.

Schöne, Alfred, ed.  Eusebii Chronicorum libri duo.  Die Griechische Christliche Schriftsteller, 2.  Berlin:  Akademie Verlag, 1866/1967.  Roba BR 160 E4 C4, vo 2.

Schoff, Wilfred Harvey, ed.  Marcian of Heracleia:  Periplus of the Outer Sea.  1927.  G 87 M32 S33.  Marcian follower of Ptolemy, 6.  Date:  earlier than Stephen of Byzantium, may be the Marcian in Synesius, Ep 100, to Pylaemenes, 9.  Editions of Marcian, 9.  Elbe, Vistula, Viadus, Sarmatia, Venedic Gulf, 40.

Scholtz, Otto.  Die Hegesippus-Ambrosius-Frage.  Königshütte:  Gärtner, 1913.  B2 Pamph LL H, Karl.

Schoo, Georg.  Die Quellen des Kirchenhistorikers Sozomen.  Berlin 1911;  reprint Aalen:  Scientia, 1972.  BR 65 S62 S4.  Rev:  Lebediev.  No index, material organized by chapter and verse of author.

Schroff, Helmut.  Claudians Gedicht vom Gotenkrieg.  Berlin:  Ebering, 1927.  Ph D diss.  LL C6153dS, retrieved.  Rev:  Hosius, Schmidt.  Edition of the Carmen de bello Pollentini, sive Gothico, with notes.

*… hic validam gentem, quam dura nivosis
educat Ursa plagis, non Chaonas atque Molossos,
quos Epirus alit+ (134-136).
*… sublimis in Arcton
prominet Hercyniae confinis Raetia silvae,
quae se Danuvii iactat Rhenique parentem+ (329-331)

Schubart, Wilhelm.  Griechische Palaeographie.  Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, I:4,1.  Munich:  C. H. Beck, 1966.  Z 105 S33 Roba;  VUPT PA 25 H24.

Schulte, Joseph.  Theodoret von Cyrus.  Theologische Studien der Leo-Gesellschaft, 10.  Vienna:  Mayer, 1904.  Regis BR 45 T5, vol. 10.  Biblio?

Schulthess, Friedrich.  *Die syrischen Kanones der Synoden von Nicaea bis Chalcedon.+  Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Phil-Hist. Kl., 10,2:113-120.  Berlin, 1908.  AS 182 G812.  CPL 381.

Schwartz, Eduard, ed.  See Acta conciliorum oecumenicorum.  1914‑.

Schwartz, Eduard.  *Zur Kirchengeschichte des 4. Jhs.+  ZNW 34 (1935) 129-213.  VUEM.

Schweder, E.  *Ueber die gemeinsame Quelle der geographischen Darstellung des Mela und des Plinius.+  Philologus 46 (1888) 276-321.  Agrippa.  Check Choamani.

Schweder, E.  *Plinius, Mela.+  Geographisches Jahrbuch.  14 (1891) 155.  P Geog P;  G 1 G43 [33 (1910) - 60 (1950)], per.bib.

Schweder, E.  *Die römische Chorographie als Hauptquelle der Geographieen des Mela und des Plinius, I.+  Philologus 54 (1895) 528-559.  Discusses Pliny 3,1/17 for Agrippa.

Schweder, E.  *Die römische Chorographie als Hauptquelle der Geographieen des Mela und des Plinius, II.+  Philologus 56 (1897) 130-162.  Varronian hypothesis, 143ff.  Scyths, 156ff.

Scukin, M. B.  *Probleme der Cernjakhov-Kultur in der Sowjetischer archäologischen Literatur.+  Zeitschrift für Archäologie.  9 (1975) 25-41.  CC 5 Z45.  Biblio.  For mapping of the Goths.

Scymnus of Chios, Pseudo.  Periegesis.  Text:  Princeps in Augsburg in 1600, originally attributed to Marcianus of Heraclea;  Meineke, Rollinger and Korenjak, Marcotte.  Edited with Latin translation in Müller *Anonymi (vulgo Scymni Chii) orbis Descriptio+ 1:196-237, with introduction lxxiv-lxxvii.  Studies:  Hoefer, Windberg;  emabib;  Diller 1952.  Two authors wrote a Periegesis, one in prose (Scymnus), another in verse, anonymous.  The poet wrote for King Nicomedes of Pergamon.  *Les Indiens habitent entre les levants d’été et d’hiver; les Celtes inversement, sont du côté du couchant d’équinoxe et d’été+ (170ff).  Poem has many references to the Scyths, the Neuri;  Scyths mostly in fragments, need to know who preserved them.  Dioscurias, Fragment 20 + note + comm (Marcotte 255f).

Seeck, Otto, ed.  Q. Aurelianii Symmachi oper quae supersunt.  MGH AA 6,1.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1883.  85ff

Seeck, Otto.  *Studien zur Geschichte Diocletians und Constantins, II:  Idacius und die Chronik von Constantinopels.+  Neue Jahrbücher für classische Philologie und Pädagogik.  139 (1889) 601-635.  PA 3 N65, 12th Apex.  Anon Vales.

Seeck, Otto.  *Studien zu Synesios.+  Philologus 52 (1894) 442-483.  Osiris.  Letters.

Seeck, Otto.  *Zur Chronologie und Quellenkritik des Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Hermes 41 (1906) 481-539.  Mursa.

Seeck, Otto.  *Eine verlorene Rede des Themistius.+  Rheinisches Museum.  61 (1906) 554.

Seeck, Otto.  Briefe des Libanius, zeitlich geordnet.  Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur, n. f. 15,1.  Leipzig, 1906;  reprint Olms, 1966.  PA 4229 Z7 S4.

Seeck, Otto.  Regesten der Kaiser und Päpste für die Jahre 311 bis 476 n. Chr.  Stuttgart, 1919;  reprint FFM:  Minerva, 1964.  DG 311 A254.  Addaeus, 282.

Seel, Otto.  *Die justinischen Handschriftenklassen und ihr Verhältnis zu Orosius.+  Studi Italiani di Filologia Classica.  11 (1934) 255-288.  PA 9 S7.  Part I.

Seel, Otto.  *Die justinischen Handschriftenklassen und ihr Verhältnis zu Orosius.+  Studi Italiani di Filologia Classica.  12 (1935) 5-40.  PA 9 S7.  Part II.  *Orosius hat den Iustin ausgiebig benutzt+ (5).  Zangemeister, 693ff, for concordance.

Seel, Otto.  Die Praefatio des Pompeius Trogus.  Erlanger Forschungen, 3.  Erlangen:  UP, 1955.  Old Class LL J968 .Yse, retr.

Seel, Otto, ed.  Pompeii Trogi Fragmenta.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1956.  Old Class LL J968 SP, retr.  Justinus.

Seel, Otto.  *Trogus, Caesar und Livius bei Polyainos.+  RhM 103 (1960) 230-271.

Seel, Otto.  *Rev:  Moreau.+  Gnomon 35 (1963) 184-192.

Seel, Otto, ed.  M. Iuniani Iustini Epitoma Historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi.  2nd edition 1915;  Stuttgart:  Teubner, 1972.  VUPT PA 6104 J8 1972;  ROBA PA 6445 J58.  Edition based on Rühl;  re-evaluates mss history in Rühl.

Seel, Otto.  Eine römische Weltgeschichte:  Studien zum Text der Epitome des Iustinus und zur Historik des Pompejus Trogus.  Erlanger Beiträge, 39.  Nurnberg:  Hans Carl, 1972.  PA 6445 J8 S4.  *Justin und Orosius.+  11-44.  *Kentniss der Parallelüberlieferung+ 12.

Seiler, Eva-Maria.  Konstantios II. bei Libanios:  Eine kritische Untersuchung des überlieferten Herrscherbildes.  Frankfurt am Main:  P. Lang, 1998.  PA 4228 S43.

Semple, William Hugh.  *Claudian:  In Rufinum.+  CR 51 (1937) 167.  Emendation.

Semple, Williiam Hugh.  *Observations on the First Book of Lucan by Mr. R. J. Getty (CQ April 1936).  A Reply.+  CQ 31 (1937) 16-17.  Points of the compass.

Semple, William Hugh.  *Some letters of St. Augustine.+  Bulletin of the John Rylands Library.  33 (1950) 111-130.  VUPT, Roba Z 921 M3 J7.  *If Ambrose was the statesman of the Latin Church, and Augustine the thinker and teacher, Jerome was unquestionably the scholar+ (113f).

Serruys, Daniel.  *Apo phônês.+  Revue de philologie.  (1911) 71-74.  L’expression désigne non l’auteur, mais l’intermédiaire.

Setton, Kenneth M.  Christian Attitude Towards the Emperor in the Fourth Century.  New York, 1941.

Seyfarth, Wolfgang.  Der Codex Fuldensis und der Codex E des Ammianus Marcellinus.  Abhandlungen der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil-hist Kl, 2.  Berlin, 1962.  AS 182 B34.

Seyfarth, Wolfgang, ed.  Ammiani Marcellini Rerum gestarum libri qui supersunt.  2 vols.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1978.  PA 6203 A2 1978.

Shackleton Bailey, David Roy.  Propertiana.  Cambridge UP, 1956.  PA 6646 B3.

Shackleton Bailey, David Roy.  *On Valerius Flaccus.+  Harvard… 81 (1977) 199-215.

Shackleton Bailey, David Roy.  *Mumpsimus redivivus.+  Philologus 121 (1977) 241-243.  *dogged conservatism … must be carefully distinguished from that respect for the paradosis, the transmitted text, that was the legacy of the scholars of Alexandria to Rome and thence to the monastic scriptoria+ (243).

Shackleton Bailey, David Roy, ed.  M. Annaei Lucani de bello civili libri x.  Stuttgart:  Teubner, 1988.  PA 6478 A2 1988.  With biblio of emendations.

Shafer, Robert.  *Linguistic and History.+  JAOS 67 (1947) 296-305.  Critique of Maenchen-Helfen.  Yüeh-chih not the Kushans.

Shelov, DB.  *The Romans in the Northern Black Sea…+  VDI 158 (1981) 52-63.

Sherk, R. K.  *Roman Geographic Exploration and Military Maps.+  Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt.  2,1 (1974) 550.  PIMS DG 209 T36.

Shestakov, S. P.  *The Beginnings of Christianity in Cherson.+  In Serta Borysthenica.  FS Iulian Andreievich Kulakovsky.  Kiev:  Meinander, 1911.  WCat 1 (Cornell);  mfm (Illinois).

Shestakov, S. P.  Anything?  Sbornik otdeleniia russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  PG 2013 A65.

Shestakov, S. P.  Anything?  Izvestiia otdeleniia russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoi akademii nauk.  P LaSlav A.

Shestakov, S. P.  *Christianity in Cherson.+  In Pamiatniki khristianskago Chersonesa.  Ed:  DV Ainalov.  Moscow, 1908.  Part III.  WCat 4.

Shestakov, S. P.  Ocherki po istorii Khersonesa v vi-x vekov.

Shipley, Frederick William, ed, tr.  Velleius Paterculus:  Compendium of Roman History, with the Res Gestae Divi Augusti.  Loeb.  Original date?  1961.  PA 6798 A2.

Shipley, Frederick William.  Certain Sources of Corruption in Latin Manuscripts.  A Study based upon two manuscripts of Livy:  Codex Puteanus (fifth century), and its copy Codex reginensis 762 (ninth century).  New York:  Macmillan, 1904.  Old Class LL.H S5574c, retr.  *The letters liable to confusion in uncial writing of the fifth century may be arranged in groups, on the basis of some common element of similarity among them [...]  These groups are [...] (2) C E G O U+ (34).  *(C E).  Here confusion is very common;  the only difference between the letters is the horizontal stroke of the E, which was usually written quite high.+ (39).  Ammianus:  Eusenos = Cusenos.

Shiratori, Kurakichi.  *Sur l’origine des Hiong-nou.+  JA 202 (1923) 71-81.  Linguistic remains a mixture of Mongol and Tunguz, see Constantine.

Sidonius, C. Sollius Modestus Apollinaris.  See Loyen Roba PA 6694 S7, Luetjohann (vol 8 of MGH AA), Mohr (Teubner).  Carmina.  Carmen II:  *Anthemius+, 243-268 for the Huns.  2:364 *Vandalicas turmas et iuncti Martis Alanos+ imitation of Lucan.

Siebenkees, Johann Philip, and Karl Heinrich Tzschucke, eds.  Strabo.  6 vols.  Leipzig:  Weidmann, 1796.  G 87 S86.  Check out for ethnic names.

Sievers, Gottfried Reinhold.  Das Leben des Libanius.  Berlin:  Weidmann, 1868;  reprint Amsterdam:  Rhodopi, 1969.  PA 4229 S54.  Ammianus 271-273.

Sihler, .  *La langue d’Orose.+  RPhil 13 (1889) 240.

Silberman, Alain.  *Le périple d’Arrien.+  Revue des études grecques.  91 (1978) 158-164.

Silberman, Alain.  *Les emplois de frons et de latus dans la Chorographie de Pomponius Méla et le Promontoire scythique (III,12).+  Revue de philologie.  57 (1983) 99-105.  PA 2 R34.

Silberman, Alain.  *Les sources de date romaine dans la Chorographie de Pomponius Méla.+  Revue de philologie.  60 (1986) 239-254.  PA 2 R34.

Silberman, Alain, ed.  La Chorographie de Pomponius Méla.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1988.  PA 6512 F7.  See authors file, article.  *C’est Frick qui fut le premier à donner une édition de la Chorographie s’appuyant exclusivement sur la lecture du Vat Lat 4929, le seul manuscrit qui désormais doive être pris en considération+ (lii).  *Gandari, et Pariani, et Bactri… Choamani (1,2,11).  Choamani:  *Peuple de Bactriane (cf Pline VI,47):  Commani, Comani, Choamani), entre les Chomarae et les Propanisadae;  il n’est pas autrement connu+ (107n7).

Silberman, Alain.  *Le premier ouvrage latin de géographie:  la Chorographie de Pomponius Méla et ses sources grecques.+  Klio 71 (1989) 571-581.  D 51 K6.

Silberman, Alain.  *Arrien, Périple du Pont-Euxin:  Essai d’interprétation et d’évaluation des données historiques et géographiques.+  Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt.  2:34,1 (1993) 276-311.  PIMS DG 209 T36.  Biblio.  Ms unique (277n1).  Ecrit en début de carrière (285) après la mort de Cotys II en 131/132 (284).

Silberman, Alain, ed.  Arrien:  Le périple du Pont-Euxin.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1995.  PA 3935 F7 P47.  Text history, biblio.  See incuna.bib for more.

Silvanus, Tib. Plautius.  Inscription at Tivoli.  CIL 14:3608.  Dessau ILS 986.  Studies:  Belin, Halkin.  Dated ca AD 58 (under Nero).

Sima-Qian.  See Ssïma-Ts’ien.

Simard, Georges.  *La querelle de deux saints, saint Jérôme et saint Augustin.+  Revue de l’Université d’Ottawa.  12 (1942) 15-38.  SMC PER;  ROBA AP 21 R37.

Simonetti, Manlio.  Rufinus Aquileiensis:  Opera.  CCSL, 20.  Turnhout:  Brepols, 1962.  Rev:  Courcelle Latomus 21 (1962) 216-217.  Waszink VCh 16 (1962) 106-108.

Simonetti, Manlio.  *Sulle fonti del Commento a Isaia di Girolamo.+  Augustinianum 24 (1984) 451-469.  #per.bib.

Simonetti, Manlio.  Review of Jay, Exégèse de Jérôme… Isaïe.  Rivista di storia e letteratura religiosa.  23 (1987) 482-486.  BL 5 R4.

Sims-Williams, Nicholas.  *The Sogdian Sound-System and the Origins of the Uyghur Script.+  JA 269 (1981) 347-360;  unpaginated errata.  *In Sogdian [the letter cheth] never indicates a plosive but only the fricative /x/ (and occasionally [h]). …  these two sounds [[q] and [gamma]] form a contrasting pair (voiceless v. voiced) in Turkish just as /x/ and /gamma/ do in Sogdian.  Thirdly it is probable that Sogd. /x/ and /gamma/ were pronounced with the tongue in a more retracted position than for /k/+ (355).

Sims-Williams, Nicholas.  Sogdian and Other Iranian Inscriptions of the Upper Indus.  Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, II:iii.  2 vols.  London:  Society of Oriental and African Studies, 1989-1992.  Roba and Rom PK 6081 C67.  Vol 2 for Xwn but they are mere fragments, graffiti.

Sinko, Thaddaeus.  *Die Descriptio orbis terrae:  eine Handelsgeographie aus den IV. Jahrhundert.+  Archiv für lateinische Lexikographie und Grammatik.  13 (1904) 530-571.  Old Class P LaCl A;  VUPT.  With edition.  See Wölfflin.  Cf Rougé’s version.

post hanc gens sic appellanda Ioneum (546:86f)
———
87 Ioneum A:  Choneum, B, utrumque corruptum

Skeat, T. C.  *The Use of Dictation.+  Proceedings of the British Academy.  38 (1952) 179-208.  AS 122 L5.  Cf. Dain.

Slavin, Lazar Moiseiovich.  *Les périodes de l’histoire d’Olbia.+  In Problèmes d’histoire du littoral nord de la Mer noire.  Moscow:  1959.  86-107.  Covers conquest of Olbia by Goths.

Slusser, Michael.  Gregory Thaumaturgus:  Life and Works.  Fathers of the Church, 98.  Washington:  Cath Univ of Am Press, 1998.  PIMS BR 60 F3 G74;  Roba?

Smith, Rowland.  *Julian Imp.+  In The Late Roman World and its Historian:  Interpreting Ammianus Marcellinus.  Ed:  JW Drijvers and David Hunt.  London:  Routledge, 1999.  193-206.  DG 206 A4 L37.

Smith, Vincent Arthur [Sir].  *White Hun (Ephthalite) Coins from the Panjab.+  JRAS 1907:91-97, plate.

Smith, Vincent Arthur [Sir].  *”White Hun” Coin of Vyaghramukha of the Chapa (Gurjara) Dynasty of Bhinmal.+  JRAS 1907:923-928.

Socrates Scholasticus.  Ecclesiastical History, AD 324—.  Text:  PG 67 reprints Valesius;  Hussey, Thomson, Zenos (NPNF).  Paris:  Le Cerf, 2000.  BR 160 S6 F8.  Studies:  biblio needed.  Authors file.  War between the Goths, the Huns and the Alans 4,34.  Julian bk 3.  Rufinus and the Huns, vi,i,7;  vi,2.  War in Persia helped the Huns, 7,18,20.  St. Saba Gothicus.

Soffray, Marius.  Recherches sur la syntaxe de saint Jean Chrysostome d’après les homélies sur les statues.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1939.  B2 LGr Chry B S (262 pages, pamphlet).

Sohoni, Shankar Vinayak.  *Notes and Queries on Bithari Pillar Inscriptions of Skandagupta.+  Journal of Bihar Research Society.  53 (1967) 105.  DS 401 B5.

Solignac, Aimé.  *Orose.+  Dictionnaire de spiritualité.  11 (1982) 965-969.

Souter, Alexander.  *Greek and Hebrew used in Jerome’s Commentary on St. Matthew’s Gospel.+  Harvard TR.  … (1935) 1-4.  Yellow Apex.

Souter, Alexander.  *Lexical Notes in the Writings of Synesius of Cyrene.+  JTS 36 (1935) 176-178.  VUEM, Knox.  PG 66 reprint of Petavius, but full of mistakes.

Souter, Alexander.  A Glossary of Later Latin to 600 AD.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1949/1957.  Pims, Roba PA 2308 S67.  *Ludus+.

Sozomen.  Ecclesiastical History.  Text:  Bidez (GCS);  Grillet and Sabbah (Budé);  Valesius;  Hartranft (NPNF).  Translation by Festugière?  Studies:  Batiffol, Bidez, Harries, Lebediev, Penella, Rosenstein, Schoo.  Authors file.  Gainas 8,4,20.  Rufinus and the Huns:  5,4;  8,1,2.  St Saba Gothicus, 6,37 (derived from Socrates, with additions).  Julian bks 5 & 6.  Statues 7,23 (GCS 50:336-337).

Spät, Eszter.  *The Commonitorium of Orosius on the Teachings of the Priscillanists.+  Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.  38 (1998) 357-379.  CC 1 A19.  Invective.  Priscillian of Avila decapitated in 385 on charges of black magic.

Spanheim, Ezechiel, ed.  Cyrilli Patriarchae Alexandriae Adversus Julianum imperatorem libri decem.  Leipzig:  1676.

Specht, Edouard.  *Du déchiffrement des monnaies sindo-ephthalites.+  JA 9th series 17 (1901) 487-523.  *La dénomination de scythique ou irano-scythique employée jusqu’ici ne peut guère s’appliquer à cet alphabet qui n’a pas été usité dans le pays des Scythes.  Il vaudrait mieux l’appeler sindo-ephthalite, ce qui aurait, en tout cas, l’avantage d’indiquer à la fois la région et les peuples auxquels il appartient+ (489).  *Uludj me paraît venir du turc oriental ouloudjeh … Oberer, Vorgesetzter+ (490).  *le mot uludj “seigneur”+ (497).  *le titre de khan qui se trouve placé après le nom du souverain+ (503).  Coins of Shahi Tigin = Turkish onomastic (504).  *Le mot chad se rencontre dans les inscriptions turques trouvées en Sibérie … celui qui était à la tête des troupes+ (505).

Spiegel, Friedrich von.  Eranische Alterthumskunde.  5 vols.  Leipzig:  Engelmann, 1871-1878;  reprint in 3 vols Amsterdam:  Oriental Press, 1971.  DS 275 S75.  Excellent for Caucasian history, not so good for the Chionitae, does not fit Ammianus into the text.  *Als Julian seinen persischen Feldzug unternahm, hielt Arshak treu zu ihm und leistete ihm Hülfe nicht nur mit dem armenischen Heere, sondern auch noch mit einem geworbenen Heere, das aus Alanen und Hunnen bestand+ (3:316).  *Diese Hunnen, welche Faustus hier erwähnt, sind wol dieselben, von welchen auch Mos Khor. spricht (2,85) und die im Norden des Kaukasus gewohnt haben müssen+ (3:316n2).  Arshak and the Huns, 3:340.  See Igor.bib for later material.

Spiro, Friedrich.  *Ein Leser des Pausanias.+  In Festschrift Johannes Vahlen zum siebzigsten Geburtstag.  Berlin:  Reimer, 1900.  129-138.  PA 26 V3.  Re:  Strabo, Arethas.

Sprengling, Martin.  *Zur Parsik Inschrift an der Kaabah von Zoroaster.+  ZDMG 91 (1937) 652.

Sprengling, Martin.  *Shahpuhr I the Great on the Kaabah of Zoroaster.+  American Journal of Semitic Language.  54 (1937) 126;  57 (1940) 341-420;  58 (1941) 169-171.  PJ 3001 A6.  Re:  Res gestae divi Saporis.

Ssïma Tsi’én [also Ssu-ma Ch'ien, Sima Qian, Sematsien on Google].  Se-ki [also Shih chi, Records of the Historian].  The Herodotus of China, completed his work in BC 99 (Hirth 1917:91).  See Brosset, Chavannes, de Groot, Du and Horvath, Hirth, Kingsmill, Watson, Wylie.  Original had 130 chapters, Chavannes only translated the first 47, see Watson for the rest.  The important ones are ‘110, Hsiung-nu;  ‘116 South-West Barbarians;  ‘123 Inner Asia.  Solar eclipses mentioned.

Stadter, Philip A.  *Flavius Arrianus:  The New Xenophon.+  GRBS 8 (1967) 155-161.

Stadter, Philip A.  *The Ars Tactica of Arrian:  Tradition and Originality.+  CPh 73 (1978) 117-128.

Stadter, Philip A.  Arrian of Nicomedia.  Chapel Hill:  U of Carolina Press, 1980.  DF 212 A77 S7.  Biblio in footnotes.  Ectaxis, 45-49.  Single ms found *immediately following the Tactica+ (46).

Stal, I. V.  *L’invective comme source d’histoire de la pensée sociale et politique.+  VDI 84 (1963) 141-152.

Starostin, Boris Anatolievich.  Transkriptsiia sobstvennykh imen.  Moscow:  Nauka, 1965.  Roba PG 2154 S83.  For Oriental languages.

Starr, Chester G.  *Aurelius Victor, Historian of Empire.+  American History Review.  61 (1955/56) 574-586.

Stauffenberg, Alexander Schenk Grav von.  Die römische KG bei Malalas:  Griechischer Text der Bücher IX-XII und Untersuchungen.  Stuttgart:  Kohlhammer, 1931.  D 17 M252 S34.  Anything on Julian’s expedition?

Stead, George Christopher.  *Rhetorical Method in Athanasius.+  Vigiliae Christianae.  30 (1976) 121-137.  HX.  Reprinted 1985.  *From the rhetorician’s point of view, most writings on Christian doctrine belong to deliberative, rather than to forensic or to epideictic, oratory (to use Aristotle’s division)+ (122).

Stead, George Christopher.  Substance and Illusion in the Christian Fathers.  London: Variorum Reprints, 1985.  PIMS BR 67 S75;  ROBA BR 160 A1 S84.

Steele, Robert B.  *Quintus Curtius Rufus.+  Am J Phil 36 (1915) 402-423.  Rev;  RPhil 40 (1916) 13.  Orosius, 420ff.

Stegmann de Pritzwald, Kurt.  C. Vellei Paterculi ex historiae Romae libris duas quae supersunt.  Post C. Halmium.  Stuttgart:  Teubner, 1965.  PA 6798 A2.  Biblio.

Stegmann de Pritzwald, Kurt.  C. Vellei Paterculi ex historiae Romae libris duas quae supersunt.  Second edition by HD Blume.  Stuttgart:  Teubner, 1968.  PA 6798 A2.

Stein, Aurel [Sir].  Serindia.  4 vols.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1921.  RBSC E-10 01530.

Stein, Aurel [Sir].  Innermost Asia.  3 vols.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1928.  RBSC E-10 01531.

Stein, Ernst [Ernest].  Bio needed.  History of this text needed, Anti-Nazi?  Translation normally used, where is name is Ernest.  History of translation also, several editions?  Book reviews.

Stein, Ernst.  Geschichte des spätrömischen Reiches.  Vienna, 1928.  DG 311 S8.  1:292-299 for the settlement of the Goths in Pannonia.

Stein, Ernest.  *Une nouvelle histoire de l’Eglise.+  Revue belge.  17 (1938) 1024-1044.  Review of Fliche and Martin, with important corrections.  Armenian history, 1030.

Stein, Ernest.  Histoire du Bas-Empire.  Vol 1:  De l’Etat romain à l’Etat byzantin (284-476).  Tr:  Jean-Rémy Palanque.  Fascicle I:  Texte.  Fascicle II:  Notes et cartes.  Paris:  Desclée de Brouwer, 1959.

Stein, Ernest.  Histoire du Bas-Empire.  Vol 2:  De la disparition de l’Empire d’Occident à la mort de Justinien, 476-565.  Tr:  Jean-Rémy Palanque.  Paris:  Desclée de Brouwer, 1959.  DG 311 S8.

Stein, Franz Josef.  Dexippus et Herodianus rerum scriptores quatenus Thucydidem secuti sint.  Bonn:  UP, 1957. PA 3965 D123 Z7.

Stenger, Jean.  *Réflexion sur le manuscrit unique.+  Scriptorium 40 (1986) 54-80.  Tacitus, Mela;  Biblio.

Stephanos of Byzantium.  Ethnika.  Text;  Meineke.

Stephens, William Richard Wood.  Saint John Chrysostom:  His Life and Times.  London:  Murray, 1872.  VUEM storage GM3 C469s.

Stephens, William Richard Wood, tr.  *Two Homilies on Eutropius.+  In St. John Chrysostom.  NPNF, 9:245-265.  New York:  Christian Literature, 1889.  BR 60 S46.  See Cameron, second homily not on Eutropius.

Stephens, William Richard Wood, tr.  *The Homilies on the Statues to the People of Antioch.+  In St. John Chrysostom.  NPNF, 9:317-489.  New York:  Christian Literature, 1889.  BR 60 S46.

Stern, Ernst von.  *Bemerkungen zu Strabons Geographie der taurischen Chersonesos.+  Hermes 52 (1917) 1-38.  Periplus, not much about the nations.

Stern, Henri.  *Date et destinataire de l’Histoire Auguste et la date des Caesares d’Aurélius Victor.+  REL 30 (1952) 251-284.

Stern, Henri, ed.  Le calendrier de 354:  Etude sur son texte et ses illustrations.  Paris:  Imprimerie nationale, 1953.  DG 316.7 S8.  Biblio.  Magnus of Carrhae.  History of editions.

Stertz, Stephen A.  *Ammianus Marcellinus’ Attitudes toward Earlier Emperors.+  Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History, 2.  Collection Latomus, 168.  Brussels, 1980.  487-514.  PA 6011 S78.

Stevens, S.  Heuneburg DD 901 H659 S54

Stevenson, Edward Luther, tr.  The Geography:  Claudius Ptolemy.  New York:  New York Public Library, 1932;  reprint Mineola, NY:  Dover Reprints, 1991.  G 1005 1991.  Based on the text of Nicolaus Donis.

Strabo.  Geography.  See Aujac, Lasserre, Baladié (Budé);  Jones (Loeb).  Corais/Korais, Siebenkees and Tzschucke, Kramer, Meineke (Teubner).  Princeps by Manutius, re-edited by Casaubon.  Authors.file.  Gloss in Strabo Urgi = Turki, 3,221 (Loeb).  Book 7 (vol 4, ed Baladié) dated to AD 17/18 (page 8).  Book 7 places the sources of the Danube amongst the Suebi in the Germanic mountain and the Hercynian forest.  Northern regions, Rhipaean Mountains (Text from Loeb 7,2,4;  7,3,1).  Bk 11 (vol 8, ed: Lasserre 1975):  Maeotic people, Nomads, 11,2;  Sacae, etc 11,8.  For description of Asia, of the Taurus mountains, etc.  Rhoxolani north of the Sea of Azov, Bk 7, page 306.  Crimea *the Tauric, or Scythian, Chersonese+ (7,4,1).  *The Tauri, a Scythian tribe+ (7,4,2;  7,4,5).  *It is because of men’s ignorance of these regions that any heed has been given to those who created the mythical “Rhipaean Mountains” and “Hyperboreans”…+ (Loeb 7,3,1).  Chalybes/Alybes 12,3,20;  12,3,21-23 (citation from Sarah).

Taurus:  one mountain chain which runs like a belt across Asia east and west (11,1,2).  The first portion of Asia *forms, in a way, a peninsula, for it is surrounded on the west by the Tanaïs River and Lake Maeotis [...] and then on the north by the Ocean as far as the mouth of the Caspian Sea…+ (11,1,5).  *the Scyths who are neighbours of the Indians+ (11,1,7).  Third region:  Armenia, Cappadocia, etc (11,1,7).  *Now the Tanais flows from the northerly region [...]  This has caused some to assume that the Tanais has its sources in the Caucasian Mountains [...] and others to assume that it flows from the upper region of the Ister+ (11,2,2).

*The more trustworthy historians of the Mithridatic wars name the Achaei first, then the Zygi, then the Heniochi, and then the Cercetae and Moschi and Colchi, and the Phtheirophagi who live above these three people and the Soanes*, and other small tribes that live in the neighbourhood of the Caucasus+ (Loeb 11,2,14)
________
*Soanas, Tzschucke from conj. of Casaubon for Thoanes;  so the later editions.

Choanes is found in the ms of the Proem, and in ms *w+ for 11,2,14, according to the Budé edition.

*Near them are the Soanes [Thoanes, Choanes], who are no less filthy, but superior to them in power, ‑‑ indeed, one might almost say that they are foremost in courage and power.  At any rate, they are masters of the peoples around them, and hold possession of the heights of the Caucasus above Dioscurias.  They have a king and a council of three hundred men, and they assemble, according to report, an army of two hundred thousand;  for the whole of the people are a fighting force, though unorganized.  It is said that in their country gold is carried down by the mountain torrents…+ (11,2,19).  Other ref:  11,2,14, and lost proem of Book 11.

Straub, Johannes A.  *Romanus et Christianus.  Die gotische Landnahme im Spiegel der christlichen Geschichtsapologetik.+  1939.  Reprinted 1972:296-303.

Straub, Johannes A.  *Die Wirkung der Niederlage bei Adrianopel in der spätrömischen Literatur.+  Philologus 9 (1943) 255-286.  PA 3 P5.

Straub, Johannes A.  *Die christliche Geschichtsapologetik in der Krisis des römischen Reiches.+  Historia 1 (1950) 52-81.  Reprinted 1972:240-270.

Straub, Johannes A.  Regeneratio imperii:  Aufsätze über Roms Kaisertum und Reich im Spiegel der heidnischen und christlichen Publizistik.  2 vols.  Darmstadt:  Wissenschaftliche Buchgt, 1972.  DG 271 S86.

Streitberg, Wilhelm August.  Gotische Bibel.  1908.  B2 Bible Gothic S, Karl.

Struthers, Lester B.  *The Rhetorical Structure of the Encomia of Claudius Claudian.+  Harvard Studies in Classical Philology.  30 (1919) 49-87.  *all the rhetores who follow Isocrates define the panegyric as the laudation of an individual based on his deeds+ (49).  *paraleipsis [...] is the complete omission of things prejudicial to the person praised and the emphatic presentation of his meritorious deeds+ (69).

Stuerenberg, Heinrich.  Relative Ortsbezeichnung zum geographischen Sprachgebrauch der Griechen und Römer.  Leipzig/Berlin:  Teubner, 1932.  WCat 15, Macmaster.

Süss, Wilhelm.  Ethos:  Studien zur älteren griechischen Rhetorik.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1910;  reprint Aalen:  Scientia, 1975.  Study of Claudian’s invectives.

Sullivan, John Patrick.  Propertius:  A Critical Introduction.  Cambridge UP, 1970.  PA 6646 S8.

Sundwall, Gavin A.  *Ammianus geographicus.+  Am J Phil 117 (1996) 619-643.  Maps.

Svennung, Josef Gusten Algot.  Orosiana:  Syntaktische semasiologische und kritische Studien zu Orosius.  Ph. D. diss, Uppsala.  UUA.  1922.  PIMS BQ 6158 Z6 S8;  AS 284 U7.  Rev:  Baehrens PhW 44 (1924) 773-776.  See Marouzeau for CR.  *Kritischer Teil+ (158-179) includes emendations of Zangemeister re geography of Europe and Asia.  Includes ms history.

Swain, Joseph W.  *The Theory of the Four Monarchies:  Opposition History under the Roman Empire.+  Classical Philology.  35 (1940) 1-21.

Syme obituary.  See Mirkovic.  JRS 80 (1990) xi-xiv.  Biblio?

Syme, Sir Ronald.  *The Argonautica of Valerius Flaccus.+  Classical Quarterly.  23 (1929) 129-137.  PA 1 C68.  Sarmatians and Limigantes dwelling between the Danube and the Theiss.

Syme, Sir Ronald.  Review of Octavian und Illyricum by E. Swoboda, Vienna, 1932.  JRS 23 (1933) 66-71.  *It is often very difficult to tell whether certain names are used in a geographical, an ethnical, or a political sense+ (69).

Syme, Sir Ronald.  *The Northern Frontiers under Augustus.+  Chapter 12 of The Augustan Empire, 44 BC — AD 70.  Vol 10 of The Cambridge Ancient History.  Cambridge:  UP, 1934.  340-381, maps.  D 57 C25.  *it was left to Augustus to win for Rome the overland route to the Balkans, the route which was to be the very backbone of the Empire.  It ran from Aquileia to Emona, from Emona down the Save to Siscia, Sirmium, Singidunum and beyond to Naissus, and thence south-eastwards by Serdica to Byzantium+ (352).  *It was Illyricum that held the Empire together and bound East to West+ (354).

Syme, Sir Ronald.  *Augustus and the South Slav Lands.+  Originally published in Belgrade in 1937.  Reprinted in his Danubian Papers.  Bucarest:  Association internationale d’études du sud-est, 1971.  13-25.  DG 59 D43 S5.  Appian’s information on geography *is prior to and independent of Roman provincial boundaries.+  It is *precise and valuable+ on the subject of definite tribal names (16);  contra Niebuhr.  *Jerome happens not to be lavish in allusions to contemporary events in the world+ (1971:24).  *Pliny and the Dacian Wars+ (245-252).  Rhoxolani.

Syme, Sir Ronald.  *Livy and Augustus.+  Harvard Studies in Classical Philology.  64 (1959) 27-87.  PA 25 H28.  Orosius, passim.

Syme, Sir Ronald.  Review of Demandt, Ammianus.  JRS 58 (1968) 215-218.  Reprinted in his Roman Papers, 2:724-731.  *Adversus Jovinianum, which is securely dated to the year 393+ (730).  Jerome’s reference to the Huns may be derived from Ammianus.

Syme, Sir Ronald.  Ammianus and the Historia Augusta.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1968.  PIMS, VUPT, ROBA DG 205 S9.  Rev:  Cameron.  *The composition of his History, so all admit, falls within the limits of 382 and 397+ (1).  In 382, Theodosius *found it necessary to concede the existence of a Gothic state within the boundaries of the Empire+ (1).  *That age depended on words and memory, not books of reference+ (4).  Ammianus could have started writing as early as AD 364.  After the death of Julian he *lapses from mention among the military+ (5).  Ammianus, Jerome and Claudian, 15f.  Digression on the Huns, 17ff.  *Savages seen at their horrid banquets, that is Jerome’s own contribution, and a fraudulent autopsy+ (22).

Syme, Sir Ronald.  Emperors and Biography:  Studies in the Historia Augusta.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1971.  PIMS, VUPT DG 274 S9;  ROBA DG 205 S94.  Compares Zosimus favourably with HA.

Syme, Sir Ronald.  *Propaganda in the Historia Augusta.+  Latomus 37 (1978) 173-192.  Pagan propaganda, issues of dating.

Syme, Sir Ronald.  Roman Papers.  Ed:  Ernst Badian and Anthony R. Birley.  7 vols.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1979-1991.  DG 209 S95.

Syme, Sir Ronald.  *Minor Emendations in Pliny and Tacitus.+  CQ NS 30 (1980) 426-428.  Corrects Pliny a/c misreading by Sidonius Apollinarus.

Syme, Sir Ronald.  *The Career of Arrian.+  Harvard St Cl Phil.  86 (1982) 181-211.

Syme, Sir Ronald.  *The Date of Justin and the Discovery of Trogus.+  Historia 37 (1988) 358-371.

Syme, Sir Ronald.  The Provincial at Rome and Rome and the Balkans 80 BC – AD 14.  Ed:  Anthony R. Birley.  Exeter:  University of Exeter Press, 1999.  DR 20 S95.  This is really two books in one and the second part, pp 127-220, is the one useful for this research.

Symmachus.  Opera.  Seeck, MGH.  Lots on Stilicho.  Victory over the Goths and the Huns.

Symmachus.  Epistulae.  Ltr III,47 to the historian Eutropius.

Symmachus.  Epistulae.  Letter IX,110 to unknown, claimed to be Ammianus (see Cameron 1964).

Synesius of Cyrene.  Opera.  Text:  PG 66:1021-1756, FitzGerald, Lacombrade, Terzaghi.  Studies:  Barnes, Cameron, Coster, Festugière, Grützmacher (bio), Heather, Keydell (Hymns), Kraus, Liebeschuetz, Marrou, Pando, Seeck, Souter.

Synesius of Cyrene.  Catastasis I & II.  Text:  PG 66:1565-1574, Terzaghi.  Studies:  Lacombrade, Mandoul.  PG 1568 for Unnigardae (mercenary cavalry), reference to Marcoman mercenaries, and Thracian cavalry.  Catastasis is rhetorical terminology for *narrative+.  Full title:  Catastasis dicta in maximam barbarorum excursionem, praefecto Gennadio, ac duce Innocentio.  See Letter 78 on same topic.

Synesius of Cyrene.  Epistulae.  Text:  Krabinger (PG), FitzGerald,  Study of text:  Fritz.  Studies:  Hermelin, Kraus, Seeck.  Letter 105:  his marriage in Alexandria blessed by Patriarch.

Synesius of Cyrene.  Epistula 78.  To Duke Anysius.  PG 1443-1444.  Studies:  Lacombrade, Mandoul.  Goes with Catastasis.  Ref to Unnigardae.

Synesius of Cyrene.  Epistula 100.  To Pylaemenes.  Marcian, Periplus?

Synesius of Cyrene.  Oratio de regno ad Arcadium imperatorem.  Ed:  Krabinger, reprinted in PG 66:1053-1108 with notes by Denys Petau (full of mistakes, according to Souter).  Tr, emendations to Krabinger:  Lacombrade.  Engl translation under FitzGerald.

*nonnulli et vultum artificio quodam immutantes, ut novum, et immane genus terra editum videantur+ ’17
———-
(33) Barbaros intelligit, qui Scythae, Gothi, Wisegothi, Ostrogothi, Marcomani, Quadi et Sexcentis aliis nominibus appellat terrori tum erant Romanis, quos et stipendiarios habebant (PG 66:1081-1082).

Synesius of Cyrene.  De Providentia liber, sive Aegyptus.  PG 66:1210-1282.  Studies:  Cameron, Liebeschuetz, Seeck.  Political allegory.

Szumusiak, Jan M.  Athanase:  Apologie à l’empereur Constance.  Paris:  Le Cerf, 1958.  BR 65 A48 A63.  Olympias.

Täubler, Eugen.  *Zur Geschichte der Alanen.+  Klio 9 (1909) 14-28.  Earliest sources, include Lucan on Nero’s Eastern policy;  does not work out if Albani is the correct reading.

Tanz, Sabine.  *Orosius im Spannungsfeld zwischen Eusebius von Caesarea und Augustin.+  Klio 65 (1983) 337-346.  Romanitas = Christianitas (344).  Orosius follows Eusebius (344f);  naturally since he came to know Eusebius through Jerome.

Taqizadeh, S. H.  *Zur Chronologie der Sassaniden.+  ZDMG NS 16 (1937) 673-679.  Shahpur and his father, mid third century.

Tarn, William Woodthorpe.  *Alexander’s hypomnemata and the “World Kingdom”.+  JHS 41 (1921) 1-17.  Not connected to four monarchies.

Tarn, William Woodthorpe.  *Alexander:  The Conquest of Persia.+  Chapter 12 of Macedonia, 401-301 BC.  Vol 6 of The Cambridge Ancient History.  Cambridge UP, 1933.  352-386.  Roba D 57 C25.  Makes Illyrians Albanians.

Tarn, William Woodthorpe.  *Alexander:  The Conquest of the Far East.+  Chapter 13 of Macedonia, 401-301 BC.  Vol 6 of The Cambridge Ancient History.  Cambridge UP, 1933.  387-437.  Roba D 57 C25.  The conquest of Turkestan, 390ff.

Tarn, William Woodthorpe.  The Greeks in Bactria and India.  Cambridge University Press, 1951/1966.  DS 451 T3.

Tarrant, Richard J.  *Propertius.+  In Texts and Transmission:  A Survey of the Latin Classics.  Ed:  Leighton Durham Reynolds.  Oxford:  Clarendon, 1983.  324-326.  PA 6003 T48.

Teitler, Hans C.  See Groningen Commentators.

Teitler, Hans C.  *Ammianus and Constantius:  Image and Reality.+  In Cognitio Gestorum:  The Historiographic Art of Ammianus Marcellinus.  Ed:  Boeft, Hengst and Teitler.  Verhandlingen van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Letterkunde, 148.  Amsterdam, 1992.  117-122.  AS 244 A53.

Telfer, W.  *Was Hegesippus a Jew?+  Harvard TR.  53 (1960) 143-154.  9th Apex.

Terry, Milton Spenser.  The Sibylline Oracles.  New York:  Hunt and Eaton, 1890 or 1899?  PA 4253 O83 E5.  Based on Aloysius Rzach’s edition.

Terry, Milton Spenser.  The Sibylline Oracles.  1890 or 1899?  reprinted AMS Press, 1973.  VUEM PA 4253 O83 E5.

Terzaghi, Nicola, ed.  Synesii Cyrensis opuscula.  Vol 2.  Rome:  Vatican Press, 1944.  Pims BQ 1781 A3;  B2.  Katastasis 285-293.

Teza, Emilio.  *Agathangelos.+  Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica.  10 (1882) 405-417.  PA 9 R55.  Philological notes on Greek text.

Thackeray, Francis St. John, ed.  Prudentius.  1890.

Thalamas, Amédée.  Etude bibliographique de la *Géographie+ d’Eratosthène.  Versailles:  Barbier, 1921a.  Pamphl GT, retr.

Thalamas, Amédée.  La *Géographie+ d’Eratosthène.  Versailles:  Barbier, 1921b.  Pamphl GT, retr.  *Les injures du temps et l’injustice des hommes n’ont laissé subsister du traité de Géographie générale Erathosthénienne que de très maigres restes, dont aucun ne constitue une citation propre de l’ouvrage lui-même.  Nos fragments ne sont que des échos+ (75).  *c’est à travers un véritable maquis de commentaires qu’on pénètre, difficilement d’ailleurs, jusqu’à l’idée ératosthénienne sur la mesure de la terre et jusqu’à son annexe, l’obliquité de l’écleptique+ (81).

Theiler, Willy, ed.  Posidonios:  Die Fragmente.  2 vols.  Berlin:  de Gruyter, 1982.  PA 4399 P2.  No biblio.

Thélamon, Françoise.  Recherches sur la valeur historique de l’Histoire ecclésiastique de Rufin d’Aquilée.  PhD dissertation, Sorbonne, Paris, 1978.  Review in  RH 260 (1978) 522-525.

Thélamon, Françoise.  Païens et chrétiens au IVe siècle:  l’apport de l’*Histoire ecclésiastique+ de Rufin d’Aquilée.  Paris:  Etudes augustiniennes, 1981.  BR 65 R86 T54.

Themistius.  Orationes.  See Croissant, Dagron, Dindorf, Heather & Moncur, Leppin & Portmann, Maisano, Schenkl and Downey, Schneider, Seeck.  Extensive biblio in Nevsky.bib.

Themistius.  Oratio 5.  To Jovian.

Themistius.  Oratio 16.  Theodosius and the Goths.

Theodore the Lector.  Tripartite History.  Text:  ??  Studies:  Bidez, Cameron, Diekamp, Jacob.  Compilation of Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret.

Theodoret of Cyrrhus.  Opera.  Sirmond edition of 1642, revised by Schulze and Noesselt, 1769-74, reprinted PG 80-84.  Text:  Valois, Parmentier (CGS), Jackson (NPNF).  Studies:  Guinot, Penella, Schulte.  Julian’s Persian expedition.  Biblio needed.

Theodoret of Cyrrhus.  Comm Isaiah.  Guinot, Möhle.

Theodoret of Cyrrhus.  Monastic History.  PG 82:1283-1496.

Theodoret.  History of the Church.  Jackson, NPNF.  Scythian missions?  Statues 5,20 (GCS 44:315-3…).

Theophrastus.  Peri lithôn.  PA 4448 D3.  Text:  Caley and Richards, Eichholz, Ross (Loeb).  Amber (’16), coral, lyngurion.  Uncertain value of evidence for geography.

Thesaurus linguae latinae:  Index librorum.  Leipzig, 1990.  For abbreviations.

Thiel, Max.  *Textkritisches zum 3. Buche der oracula Sibyllina.+  Philologus 56 (1897) 182-184.

Thörnell, Gustavus.  Studia Panegyrica.  Uppsala Universitets Aersskrift.  Uppsala, 1905.  AS 284 U7.  Comments on Baehrens’ edition.

Thörnell, Gustavus.  *Analecta critica.+  Eranos …  (1934) 155-158.

Thomas, Paul.  *Notes critiques sur Velleius Paterculus et sur Tacite.+  Bulletin de l’Académie royale de Belgique.  5th series 5 (1919) 305-320.  AS 242 B3413.

Thomas, Paul.  *Ad Ammianum Marcellinum.+  Mnemosyne NS 49 (1921) 68-69.  Emendations 21,13,3, re:  Tigris.

Thomas, Paul.  Bibliographie.  In Mélanges Paul Thomas.  Bruges:  Imprimerie Sainte-Catherine, 1930.  585-593.  PA 26 T5 1930.

Thompson, D’Arcy Wentworth.  *Rose of the Winds.+  Proceedings of the British Academy.  6 (1913/14) 179.  AS 122 L5.

Thompson, D’Arcy Wentworth.  *The Greek Winds.+  Classical Review.  32 (1918) 49-56.  After Capelle, Kaibel, restores Aristotle’s chart from Meteorologica.

Thompson, Edward Arthur.  *Ammianus’ Account of Gallus Caesar.+  A J Phil 64 (1943) 302-315.

Thompson, Edward Arthur.  *Three Notes on Julian in 361 AD.+  Hermathena.  62 (1943) 83-95.  AS 121 H5.

Thompson, Edward Arthur.  *Olympiodorus of Thebes.+  Classical Quarterly.  38 (1944) 43-52.

Thompson, Edward Arthur.  The Historical Work of Ammianus Marcellinus.  Cambridge UP, 1947/1969.  PA 6205 T56.  Geography, 118.  Huns, 119f.  *Ammianus published at a time when successive emperors tried to retard the collapse of the Empire by restricting freedom to an almost unparalleled degree;  this they attempted by means of a code of law unequalled in any age for its savage ferocity+ (109).  *all discussion of religious matters disappears in Book XXVI-XXX1+ (114).

Thompson, Edward Arthur.  *The Passio S. Sabae and early Visigothic Society.+  Historia 4 (1955) 331-338.  Sansalas bears an Asian name (333f).  Th assumes Sabas is a Visigoth, does not establish why.  *There were sharp divisions of wealth in Visigothic society in the days of Ulfila … the Christians in Gothia … seem in general to have been drawn from the humbler strata of society+ (336).

Thompson, Edward Arthur.  *Ammianus Marcellinus.+  In Latin Historians.  London:  Routledge, 1966.  143-157.  DG 206 A2 P6.

Thompson, Edward Arthur.  Bibliography.  Nottingham Mediaeval Studies.  32 (1988) 11-18.  PN 661 N6.

Thompson, Edward Arthur.  *Ammianus Marcellinus and Britain.+  Nottingham Mediaeval Studies.  34 (1990) 1-15.  *No fewer than three authors besides Ammianus and Symmachus mention Theodosius in Britain but say nothing whatever of his victory over the barbarians+ (12).

Thompson, [Sir] Edward Maunde.  Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography.  3rd ed London:  Kegan Paul, 1906.

Thompson, [Sir] Edward Maunde.  An Introduction to Greek and Latin Palaeography.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1912;  reprint 1965.  Z 114 T472.

Thompson, James Westfall.  A History of Historical Writing.  2 vols.  New York:  Macmillan, 1942.  D 13 T56.  Ammianus 1:95ff;  Orosius 1:135f.

Thomson, George.  *The Intrusive Gloss.+  Classical Quarterly.  NS 17 (1967) 232-243.

Thomson, James Oliver.  History of Ancient Geography.  Cambridge UP, 1948;  New York:  Biblo and Tanner, 1965.  G 84 T5.

Thomson, Robert W., tr.  Agathangelos:  *History of the Armenians+.  Albany:  SUNY, 1976.  DS 181 A6313 missing;  PIMS, VUPT.

Thomson, Robert W., tr.  Moses Khorenats’i:  History of the Armenians.  Cambridge:  UP, 1979.  DS 181 M7213.  More UTLink.

Thomson, Robert W.  The Armenian Adaptation of the Ecclesiastic History of Socrates Scholasticus [Commonly Known as *The Shorter Socrates+].  Hebrew University Armenian Studies, 3.  Louvain:  Peeters, 2001.  BR 160 S6 E54.

Thurn, Johann, ed.  Chronographia:  Ioannes Malalas.  CFHB, 25.  Berlin:  de Gruyter, 2000.  Sathas DF 503 C6 vol 35.

Tierney, John Joseph.  *The Map of Agrippa.+  Proceedings of the Classical Association.  59 (1962) 26-27.  PA 11 C6.  Abstract of lecture.

Tierney, John Joseph.  *The Map of Agrippa.+  Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy.  63 (1963) 151-166.  AS 122 D75.  Offprint in Pims AS 122 D 813.

Tiersch, Claudia.  Johannes Chrysostomus in Konstantinopel (398-404).  Studien und Texte zum Antike und Christentum, 6.  Tübingen:  Mohr Siebeck, 2002.  BR 1720 C5 T54.  Nothing much useful for the Huns.

Tonnet, Henri.  *Les notes marginales et leur transmission dans quelques manuscrits de l’Anabase d’Arrien.+  Revue d’histoire des textes.  3 (1973) 39-55.  Z 108 R45.  With editions of marginalia, which are from the 10th century.

Tonnet, Henri.  Recherches sur Arrien, sa personalité et ses écrits atticistes.  PhD dissertation.  2 vols.  Amsterdam:  Hakkert, 1988.  PA 3935 Z5 T65.

Torres [Rodríguez], Casimiro.  *La historia de Paulo Orosio.+  Revista de Archivos, Bibliotecas, y Museos.  61 (1955) 107-135.  Z 671 R41.  *La idea de las cuatro monarquías, o imperios universales, como admirablemente ha expuesto Orta Nadal, arranca del sueño de Nabucodonosor, descrito en el libro de Daniel.  Orosio, siguiendo a San Jerónimo acepta que los reinos simbolizados en la estatua de cobeza de oro…+ (128, emphasis added).

Tournebize, Henri François.  *L’histoire politique et religieuse de l’Arménie.+  Revue de l’Orient Chrétien.  7 (1902) … BR 140 R48, Red Apex.

Tournebize, Henri François.  *L’histoire politique et religieuse de l’Arménie.+  Revue de l’Orient Chrétien.

Tournebize, Henri François.  L’histoire politique et religieuse de l’Arménie depuis les origines des Arméniens jusqu’à la mort de leur dernier roi (1393).  Paris:  Picard, 1910.  WCat 19 + mfm.  Rev:  Zeiller Bull An LAC.  1 (1911) 146-147.  Reprint of articles, with notes.

Traina, Giusto, et al.  Studi sull’XI libro dei *Geographika+ di Strabone.  Università di Lecce, Studi di filologia e letteratura, 6.  2001.  G 87 S95 S88.  Biblio.

Tranoy, Alain, ed.  Hydace:  Chronique.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1974.  DG 319 I314.  For notes, see main entry, Mommsen.

Traube, Ludwig.  *Die Ueberlieferung des Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Mélanges [Gaston] Boissier.  Paris:  Fontemoing, 1903.  443-448.  PA 26 B66.

Traube, Ludwig.  *Nomina sacra:  Versuch einer Geschichte der christlichen Kürzung.+  1907.  Reprinted 1 (1909).

Traube, Ludwig.  Zur Paläographie und Handschriftkunde.  Vol 1 of his Vorlesungen und Abhandlungen.  Ed:  Paul Lehmann.  1909;  Munich:  Beck, 1965.

Traube, Ludwig.  *Ueberlieferungsgeschichte.+  Chapter 3 of his Einleitung in die lateinische Philologie des Mittelalters.  Vol 2 of his Vorlesungen und Abhandlungen.  Ed:  Paul Lehmann.  1911;  Munich:  Beck, 1965.  SMC 27 T7 vol 2;  see also Roba Z 105 T73.  Praised by Lindsay.

Traube, Ludwig.  Kleine Schriften.  Vol 3 of his Vorlesungen und Abhandlungen.  Ed:  Samuel Brandt.  1920;  Munich:  Beck, 1965.

Trever, Kamilla Vasil’evna.  Excavations in Northern Mongolia.  Leningrad:  Nauka, 1932.  ROM DS 793 M7 T7 1932, Far East Coll, ask at Desk.  Hsiung-nu.

Trieber, Conrad.  *Die Idee der vier Weltreiche.+  Hermes 27 (1892) 321-344.  Four monarchies, huge biblio.  Jerome on Daniel, 341.

Trogus Pompeius.  History.  PA 6445 J6.  See Chambry, Eichert, Rühl, Seel.  Contemporary of Augustus, known only through Justin’s Epitome.  Mentions Tocharians in his Prolog (’42).  *Rois asians de Tocharie et ruine des Sarauces.+

Truyol y Serra, Antonio.  *The Idea of Man and World History from Seneca to Orosius and Saint Isidore of Seville.+  Tr:  K N Ogier.  Cahiers d’histoire mondiale / Journal of World History / Cuadernos de historia mundial.  6 (1960/61) 698-713.  Gerstein D 1 C25.  *Hispanic patriotism+ 710.

Tsavari, Isabelle On.  Histoire du texte de la Description de la terre de Denys le Périégète.  Jannina:  Tsolis, 1990.  PA 3968 D4 T734.  Huns?

Tsavari, Isabelle On.  Concordantia in Dionysii periegesin.  Hildesheim:  Olms-Weidmann, …  PA 3968 D4 ???

Tsavari, Isabelle On.  Concordantia in Prisciani periegesin.  Hildesheim:  Olms-Weidmann, 1993.

Tucker, Thomas George.  *Emendations in Strabo and Plutarch’s Moralia.+  Classical Quarterly.  3 (1909) 99-103.

Turcan, R.  *L’abandon de Nisibe.+  In Mélanges d’archéologie et d’histoire offerts à André Piganiol.  Paris:  SEVPEN, 1966.  2:875-890.  CC 65 M44.  Fallout from Persian catastrophe.

Turner, Cuthbert Hamilton.  *Canons Attributed to the Council of Constantinople AD 381.+  JThS 15 (1914) 161-178.  VUEM.  Signatories.  Has written a lot on councils.

Tygcheler, Jo.  Didyme l’Aveugle et l’exégèse allégorique:  Etude sémantique de quelques termes exégétiques importants de son commentaire sur Zacharie.  Nijmegen:  Dekker &vannde Vegt, 1977.  Roba BS 1665 D53 T53;  Pims BQ 1265 Z3 T53.  Rev:  see print-out from AnPhil.

Tzschucke, see Siebenkees.  Strabo.

Uhden, Richard.  *Zur Herkunft und Systematik der mittelalterlichen Weltkarten.+  Geographische Zeitschrift.  37 (1931) 322-340.  G 1 G42.  Biblio.

Uhden, Richard.  *Zur Ueberlieferung der Weltkarte des Agrippa.+  Klio 26/NS 8 (1933) 267-278.  Closely related to Orosius I,2, he claims.

Uhden, Richard.  *Die Weltkarte des Isidorus von Sevilla.+  Mnemosyne 3rd series 3 (1936) 1-28, map.  PA 9 M6.  With facsimile.  The oldest map in the West, mid eight century, contains over 130 geographic names (1).  Part of Codex Vat Lat 6018 fol 63v/64r of the Etymologiae, dated 775 (2).  Oriented to the north (3).  22 names from Orosius’ geography (11).  89 names correspond between this map and Orosius (11).

Uhden, Richard.  *Die Weltkarte des Martianus Capella.+  Mnemosyne 3rd series 3 (1936) 97-124, map.  PA 9 M6.  With facsimile.

Unger, Georg Friedrich.  *Der Periplus des Avienus.+  Phil Suppl 4 (1884) 189-280.

Unger, Eckhard.  *From the Cosmos Picture to the World Map.+  Imago Mundi.  2 (1937) 1-7.  MAPL GA 101 I45.

Unvala, J. M.  *Hephthalite Coins with Pahlavi Legends.+  Journal of the Numismatic Society of India.  4 (1942) 37ff.  MICR CJ N864  1-21 vols.

Ussani, V.  Studio su Valerio Flacco.  Studi e saggi, 6.  Rome:  Signorelli, 1955.  Old Class LL V164 .Yuss.  Flaccus.

Valdenberg, Vladimir.  *Les discours politiques de Thémistius dans leur rapport avec l’antiquité byzantine.+  Byzantion 1 (1924) 557-580.

Valentine, William H.  Sassanian Coins:  Arranged from Works on the Subject by Mordtmann, Stickel, Rawlinson, Thomas and Longpérier.  London:  Spink, 1921.  Plates.  RomU CJ 3764 V24.

Valerius Flaccus, Gaius.  Argonautica.  Text:  Kramer, Liberman (Budé), Schulte.  Comm:  Langen, Ussani.  Articles by Shackleton Bailey, Syme, etc.  Check index for Sarmatians, Celts, Scyths, Alans.  Harmand cites Argonautica 6,42 for Alans.

Valesius, Henricus [Henri de Valois], ed.  Ammiani Marcellini res gestae.  Paris, 1636/1681.  RBSC E-10 06408.

Valesius, Henricus [Henri de Valois], ed.  Socratis scholastici et Hermiae Sozomeni Historia ecclesiastica.  1677.  Roba F-10 00355.  Reprinted Oxford, 1844.  Reprinted in PG 67.

Valesius, Henricus [Henri de Valois], ed.  Ammiani Marcellini res gestae.  With Adrien de Valois.  Paris, 1681.  With commentary, reprinted in Wagner-Erfurdt.  Note on Olympias and Athanasius.

Valesius, Henricus [Henri de Valois], ed.  Theodoreti, episcopi Cyri, et Evagrii scholastici Historia ecclesiastica.  Moguntiae:  Beckenstein, 1679.  RBSC F-10 01594.

Valesius, Henricus [Henri de Valois], ed.  Theodoreti, episcopi Cyri, et Evagrii scholastici Historia ecclesiastica.  Amsterdam, 1695.  Pims G1 V 6 RBR.

Validi, Zeki A.  *Ueber die Sprache und Kultur der alten Chwarzmier.+  ZDMG 90 (1936) 27-30.  Tadjik scholar, is he also Zeki Velidi Togan?

Valk, M. van der.  *Manuscripts and Scholia:  Some Textual Problems.+  GRBS 25 (198) 39-49.  Stephanus Byz, Apol Rh.

Valthaire, J. de.  *Les relations de s. Augustin et de s. Jérôme.+  In A Monument to Saint Augustine.  London:  Sheed and Ward, 1930.  484-499.  Roba BR 1720 A9 M55;  Pims BQ 5737 M8.

van den Ven, Paul.  *Fragments de la recension grecque de l’Histoire ecclésiastique de Rufin d’Aquilée dans un texte hagiographique.+  Le Muséon.  33 (1915) 92-115.  DS 1 M8 APEX.  With edition of fragment.  Cf synoptic historians.

van den Ven, Paul.  *Encore le Rufin grec.+  Le Muséon.  59 (1946) 281-294.

van den Ven, Paul.  *Gélase de Cyzique et Gélase de Césarée.+  In his Saint Spyridon.  Bibliothèque du Muséon, 33.  Brussels, 1953.  195-200.  BR 1720 S85 V4.  Responds to Schneidweiler, and calls his work *fantaisie+.

van den Ven, Paul, FS.  Bibliography.  Byzantion 32 (1962).  Igor.bib.

Vanderspoel, John.  *Claudian, Christ and the Cult of the Saints.+  Classical Quarterly.  NS 36 (1986) 244-255.  Battle with Goths on Easter day.

Vanderspoel, John.  *Themistius, Oration 4.58c:  An Emendation.+  Mnemosyne 40 (1987) 149.  Myrrhina, a semi-precious stone.

Vanderspoel, John.  *Themistius on the Source of Purple (Or. 4.61a).+  Mnemosyne 42 (1989) 492.  Emendation.

Vanderspoel, John.  Themistius and the Imperial Court:  Oratory, Civic Duty and Paideia from Constantius to Theodosius.  Ann Arbor:  University of Michigan Press, 1995.  Pims, Roba B 708 T7 V36.

Van Esbroeck, Michel.  *Un nouveau témoin du livre d’Agathange.+  Revue des études arméniennes.  NS 8 (1971) 13-167.  DS 161 R3.  With edition and transl.  Supplements Garitte.  Alans mentioned, but not the Huns.  *Malgré des inversions, des mutations dans les noms de lieux, malgré l’adjunction de plus d’un détail nouveau, la vie karshûni de Grégoire d’Arménie constitue, dans son ensemble, par le déroulement de ses épisodes, un résumé assez régulier de l’Agathange classique+ (18).

Van Nuffelen, Peter.  *Gélase de Césarée, un compilateur du cinquième siècle.+  Byzantinische Zeitschrift. 95 (2002) 621-639.  Compiled between 439 and 475, must be the same as the Greek Rufinus.

Várady, László.  *Stilicho proditor arcani imperii.+  AAntH 16 (1968) 413-432.

Várady, László.  *Jordanes und das Chronicon des Marcellinus Comes.+  Chiron 6 (1976) 441-487.  Jordanes distorts Marcellinus to exalt the role of the Goths.  Attila, 485.  *Die Technik des Jordanes in der Paraphrasierung, Redaktion, Verkürzung, Erweiterung, Erklärung und Ueberleitung wurde von der bisherigen Forschung kaum gewertet+ (452).  Missed the point about the Goths and the Huns in Pannonia.  Re-read and correct.

Varro, M.  Terentius.  Geographica.  Studies:  Detlefsen, Reitzenstein, Sallmann.

Vasiliev, Alexandre Alexandrovich.  *Agapii Manbidzhskii khristianskii arabskii istorik X veka.+  VV 11 (1904) 574-587.  History of early editions, of mss.

Vasiliev, Alexandre Alexandrovich, ed, tr.  Histoire universelle écrite par Agapius (Mahboob) de Menbidj.  Patrologia Orientalis, 8,3.  Paris:  Firmin-Didot, 1912.  399-550.  PIMS BQ 310 M37.  Edition spread over several volumes of PO 5, 7, and beyond 8;  covers late antiquity and early middle ages.  Vol 7 stops at the death of Valens in battle with the Goths.

Vasiliev, Alexander Alexandrovich.  *Expositio totius mundi:  An Anonymous Geographic Treatise of the 4th Century AD.+  Seminarium Kondakovianum.  8 (1936) 1-39.  Roba N 5950 I56;  PIMS N 17 S4 Mfe Box 1-2 1985.  This vol at PIMS.

Vasiliev, Alexander Alexandrovich.  The Goths in the Crimea.  Cambridge, Mass.:  Mediaeval Academy of America, 1936.  DK 511 C7 V3.  Limes Tauricus, 70-73.

Vasiliev, Alexander Alexandrovich.  Bibliography.  DOP 9/10 (1956) 1-22.  See Slavonic.bib.

Velleius Paterculus, C.  Compendium.  Ed:  Halm, Shipley, Stegmann, Watt.  Studies:  Rau, Thomas, Woodman.  *The races of the Pannonian and the Delmatian tribes…+ (2,96,2).  Cf Jerome.

Vernadsky, George.  *Sur l’origine des Alains.+  Byzantion 16 (1942/43) 81-86.  Biblio.  Has bit on Rhoxolani which is clearly incorrect.  Does link the Hros of Zacharias Rhetor with the Rhoxolani, but makes no mention of the Rha.

Versnel, HS.  *Self-Sacrifice, Compensation and the Anonymous Gods.+  In Le sarifice dans l’antiquité.  Ed: Olivier Reverdin and J. Rudhardt.  Entretiens de la Fondation Hardt, …  Vandoeuvres-Genève, 1981.  365-410.  VUPT BL 570 S25;  ROBA DF 122 S24.  Julian.

Viljamaa, Toivo.  Studies in Greek Encomiastic Poetry of the Early Byzantine Period.  Societas Scientiarum Fennica, Commentationes humanarum litterarum, 42,4.  Helsinki, 1968.  P 9 F5.  Julian?

Vikic-Belancic, Branka.  *Sustavna istrazivanja u Ludbregu od 1968-1979. godine.+  Vjesnik Arheoloskog muzeja u Zagrebu.  3rd series 16/17 1983-1984 (1984) 119-166.  DB 361 Z2.  Gothic remains.

Vilella, Josep.  *Biografía crítica de Orosio.+  Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum.  43 (2000) 94-121.  BR 128 A2 J3.

Vincent, H.  *Chronologie des oeuvres de Josèphe.+  Revue biblique.  NS 8 (1911) 368-383.  *Pour les Antiquités seulement Josèphe a pris soin de mentionner la date explicite … à la fin de 93 ou au début de 94 … règne de Domitien+ (368).  Guerre vers 77 ou 78 (382).  Vie vers la fin de 95, Contre Apion aurait paru en 97 ou 98 (383).  Nouvelle version (palin) de la Guerre après l’AJ (372).

Vivien de Saint-Martin, Louis.  *Etude sur la géographie grecque et latine de l’Inde:  Bassin du Kophès.+  Mémoires présentés par divers savants à l’Académie des inscriptions et Belles Lettres.  First Series 5 (1858) 1-87.  AS 162 P22.

Vivien de Saint-Martin, Louis.  *Le Bassin de l’Indus.+  see above 244-410.

Vivien de Saint-Martin, Louis.  Huns blancs.  Paris:  Imprimerie impériale, 1860.  DS 425 V58.  Géographie du Véda.

Vogel, Fr.  De Hegesippo, qui dicitur Iosephi interprete.  Munich:  Deichert, 1880.  WCat 3.

Vogel, Fr.  *Zu Hegesippus.+  Romanische Forschungen.  1 (1883) 415-17.  P 3 R5.

Vulic, Nikola.  *Cassio Dione XXXVIII,31,3.+  Rivista di storia antica.  FS Theodor Mommsen.  NS 8 (1904) 226-229.  PArchaeol & Philol R.

Waeschke, WH.  CR:  Zosimus by Mendelssohn.  Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift.  10 (1890) 724-278.  P La P.

Wainwright, P.  *The Authenticity of the Recently Discovered Letter Attributed to Cyril of Jerusalem.+  VChr 40 (1986) 286-293.  PIMS.

Wagener, Carl.  *Eutropius:  Jahrbücher.+  Philologus 35 (1874) 102.  Biblio.

Wagener, Carl.  *Eutropius:  Jahrbücher.+  Philologus 39 (1880) 178-180.

Wagener, Carl.  *Eutropius:  Jahrbücher.+  Philologus 42 (1884) 379-402;  511-533.  Orosius, 519.

Wagner, Josef Augustin, and Carl Gottlob Augustin Erfurdt, eds.  Ammiani Marcellini quae supersunt.  3 vols.  Leipzig:  Weidmann, 1808.  PA 6203 A2 1808.  Includes notes by Frid Lindenbrogius, Henri and Adrien de Valois, Jacobus Gronovius.  Note ‘3 on Olympias which confronts AM and Athanasius, 2:385 (taken from Valesius).

Wallace-Hadrill, John Michael.  *The Eusebian Chronicle.+  JTS NS 6 (1955) 28-253.  VUEM.

Walter, Fritz.  *Zu Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Berliner PhW.  33 (1913) 94 (Grumbates, 19,1,17);  541f (Julian 20,8.22);  1662.  Emendations based on Codex Vaticanus 1873.

Walter, Fritz.  *Zu Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Berliner Philol W.  34 (1914) 701-702.  Sarmatians and Limigantes, 19,12,18.

Walter, Fritz.  *Zu Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Berliner PhW.  40 (1920) 715-718.  S/xerox.

Walter, Fritz.  *Zu Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Berliner Philol W.  42 (1922) 382-384.  Book 31.

Walter, Fritz.  *Zu Mela, Florus, Apuleius, Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Berliner PhW.  43 (1923) 164-166.  Fritigern 31,12,14;  Julian’s genius 20,5,10.

Walter, Fritz.  *Zu Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Berliner PhW.  44 (1924) 401-403.  Re 31,8,8.

Walter, Fritz.  *Zu Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Philologus.  80 (1924) 437-438.  Emendations.

Walter, Fritz.  *Zu Ammianus Marcellinus.+  Berliner PhW.  52 (1932) 893-894;  1012.  Emendations.

Walton, Francis K.  *A Neglected Historical Text.+  Historia 14 (1965) 236-251.  John of Antioch.  Republican history.

Wasowicz, Aleksandra.  *Traces de lotissements anciens en Crimée.+  MEFR 84,1 (1972) 199-299.

Wasowicz, Aleksandra.  Olbia pontique et son territoire.  Paris:  Belles Lettres, 1975.  DK 508.95 O5 W378.  Protogenes?

Waszink, Jan Hendrik.  *Propertianum.+  In Hommages à Léon Herrmann.  Collection Latomus, 44.  Brussels, 1960.  786-800.  DE 3 H66.  Not Arethusa.

Watson, Burton, tr.  Ssu-ma Ch’ien:  Records of the Grand Historian of China.  2 vols.  Columbia UP, 1961.  DS 748 S7453.  For corrections, see Du, review of Du and Horvath.  ‘110, Hsiung-nu, 2:155-192;  ‘116 S-W Barbarians, 2:290-296;  ‘123 Inner Asia, 2:264-289.  ‘ 123:  *The Han at this time [140-135 BC] was engaged in a concerted effort to destroy the Hsiung-nu, and therefore, when the emperor heard this he decided to try to send an envoy to establish relations with the Yüeh-chih.  To reach them, however, an envoy would inevitably have to pass Hsiung-nu territory+ (2:264).

Watt, William Smith, ed.  Vellei Paterculi historiarum ad M. Vinicium consulem libri duo.  Leipzig:  Teubner, 1988.  PA 6798 A2.

Watters, .  *Fa Hsien and his English Translators.+  China Review.  8 (1879?) .  MICR DS 701 C2963, tabloid format.

Weber, Leo.  *Analecta Herodotea.+  Philologus Suppl.  12 (1912) 133-231.

Wenger, Antoine.  *Hésychius de Jérusalem.+  RevEtAug.  Mémorial Gustave Bardy.  2 (1956) 460.  Pims BQ 26 B34.  Scyths?

Wenger, Antoine.  *L’homélie de saint Jean Chrysostome A son retour d’Asie.+  REB 19 (1961) 110-123.  Used for chronology by Cameron 1987:350.  With edition of fragment.

Wescher, Carle, ed.  Dionysii Byzantii de Bospori Navigatione.  Paris:  Imprimerie nationale, 1874.  DR 741 B7 D5.

Wesendonk, Otto Günther von.  *Kusan, Chioniten und Hephthaliten.+  Klio 26/NS 8 (1933) 336-346.  Biblio.  Frye calls it confusing 1949:13n49.  Equates Huns with Hiung nu.

Weyman, Carl.  *Zu Gregorius Thaumaturgus.+  Philologus 55 (1896) 462-464.

Wheeler, James Talboys.  The Geography of Herodotus.  London, 1854.  G 87 H43 W45.

White, Hugh G. Evelyn, tr.  Ausonius.  2 vols.  Loeb.  1919-1921.  PA 6221 A25.

Whitby, Michael, tr.  The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius Scholasticus.  Liverpool UP, 2000.  BR 160 E6 W45.  Biblio of sources.  Earliest mention of Huns concerns Attila.

Whitby, Michael, and Mary Whitby, trs.  The Paschal Chronicle, 284-628 AD.  Liverpool UP, 1989.  JC 89 C513 Pims;  Roba JC 89 C57.

Wickham, Lionel R.  Cyril of Alexandria:  Select Letters.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1983.  BR 65 C952 E5.  HX content.  Anything on Julian?

Wiedemann, T. E. J.  *Between Men and Beasts:  Barbarians in Ammianus Marcellinus.+  In Past Perspectives:  Studies in Greek and Roman Historical Writing.  Eds:  I. S. Moxon, J. D. Smart and A. J. Woodman.  Conference in Leeds, 6-8 1983.  Cambridge:  UP, 1986.  189-201.  DG 205 G37.

Wilberg, Friedrich Wilhelm, ed, tr.  Claudii Ptolemaei geographiae libri octo.  Essen:  Baedeker, 1838.  G 87 P8 W5.  With Latin translation.

Wilke, F.  *Das Skythenproblem im Jeremiabuch.+  In Alttestamentliche Studien:  FS Rudolf Kittel.  Leipzig:  Hinrichs, 1913.  222-254.  B2:  Bib Lit K.

Williams, John.  *Isidore, Orosius and the Beatus Map.+  Imago Mundi.  NS 49 (1977) 7-32.  MAPL.

Wilmart, André.  *La collection des 38 homélies latines de saint Jean Chrysostome.+  JTS 19 (1918) 305-327.  VUEM.  Translation into Latin made by Anianus of Celeda in 415.  We have this edition at RBSC.

Wilson, Nigel G.  *Variant Readings with Poor Support in the Manuscript Tradition.+  Revue de l’histoire des textes.  17 (1987) 1-13.  Notes in Paleo file.

Winckelmann, Friedhelm, ed.  De Vita Constantini.  In his Ueber das Leben Constantins, Constantins Rede an die heilige Versammlung, Tricennatsrede an Constantin.  Vol 1 of Eusebius Werke.  Ed:  Ivar A. Heikel.  Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller.  Leipzig:  J. C. Hinrichs, 1902.  BR 160 E37.  With 107 page introduction and detailed index.  1-148;  149-192;  193-259.

Winckelmann, Friedhelm, ed.  De Vita Constantini.  In his Ueber das Leben Constantins, Constantins Rede an die heilige Versammlung, Tricennatsrede an Constantin.  2nd edition by whom?  Berlin, 1975.  I.7-8.  Check out Barnes on value of both editions.

Windberg, Friedrich.  De Herodoti Scythiae et Libyae Descriptione.  Ph D Göttingen:  Dieterich, 1913.  G 87 M43 W5.  Also Pseudo-Scymnus on the Scyths.

Winstedt, Eric Otto, ed.  The Christian Topography of Cosmas Indicopleustes.  Cambridge UP, 1909.  Pims, Roba G 91 C8.  Apparatus page 69, line 18: ‘iounnia, ‘iouuia.

Wirth, Gerhard.  *Arrianos ho philosophos.+  Klio 41 (1963) 221-233.  D 51 K6.  Based on Photius.

Wirth, Gerhard.  *Anmerkungen zur Arrianbiographie:  Appian, Arrian, Lukian.+  Historia 13 (1964) 209-245.  D 51 H5.  Re Anabasis.

Wistrand, Erik Karl Hilding.  Nach innen oder nach aussen?  Zum geographischen Sprachgebrauch der Römer.  Göteborgs Högskolas Aersskrift, 52:1.  Göteborg:  Elanders, 1946.  PA 2347 W47.  Ocean.

Wittfogel, Karl A.  Review of Eberhard, China.  Artibus Asiae.  13 (1950) 103-106.  Roba N 8 A84, per.bib.  *he broadens the scope of his survey by viewing China not as an isolated entity, but in close and portentous interaction with her many neighbors, particularly the “barbarous” peoples of Inner Asia+ (103).  Criticises Eberhard’s excessive interest in the Turkic peoples *requires at the very least careful qualification+ (104).

Wölfflin, Eduard von.  *Aurelius Victor.+  RhM NS 29 (1874) 282-308.  Civil war.  Important for style.

Wölfflin, Eduard von.  *Orosius.+  Archiv für lateinische Lexikographie und Grammatik.  (1896).  Use of infinitive.

Wölfflin, Eduard von.  Review of Lumbroso.  Archiv für lateinische Lexikographie und Grammatik.  13 (1904) 451.  Old Class and VUPT.  See Sinko.

Wölfflin, Eduard von.  *Bemerkungen zu der Descriptio orbis.+  Archiv für lateinische Lexikographie und Grammatik.  13 (1904) 573-578.  Old Class and VUPT.

Woestijne, Paul van de.  *Notes critiques sur la Périégèse de Priscien.+  Revue belge.  25 (1946/1947) 587-596.  Critique of Baehrens who failed to look at other strands of the geographic tradition.  Of the Albanian dog who killed an elephant and a lion.

Woestijne, Paul van de, ed.  La périégèse de Priscien.  Bruges:  De Tempel, 1953.  PA 6642 A6.  Mss History.  *Thynus in der Paraphrase Priscians (v 705:  Thynoi aus Ounoi) zeigt, dass schon im 5. Jhdt die byzantinischen Hss. ‘Ounoi oder ‘Ounnoi lasen+ Kiessling 1913:2593).  Compare with Marcian:  Sinae and Thinae.

Wolska-Conus, Wanda.  La topographie chrétienne de Cosmas Indicopleustes.  Paris:  PUF, 1962.  BR 65 C73 C5.

Wolska-Conus, Wanda.  *La carte de Théodose II:  sa destination.+  T&M 5 (1973) 274-279.  Maps for students.

Woodman, A. J., ed.  Velleius Paterculus:  The Caesarian and Augustan Narrative (2.41-93).  Cambridge University Press, 1983.  PA 6798 A66.

Woods, David.  *Ammianus Marcellinus…+  Hagiographica 2 (1995) 25-55.  PIMS PER, per.bib.  All Woods taken from Barnes, AM.

Woods, David.  *Julian, Arbogastes, and the signa of the Ioviani and Herculiani.+  Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies.  6 (1995) 61-68.  U 805 J68, per.bib.  Biblio.

Woods, David.  *The Early Career of Valentinian I.+  Ancient Society.  26 (1995) 273-288.  D 51 A5, per.bib.

Woods, David.  *Ammianus and Some tribuni scholarum palatinarum c. AD 353-364.+  CQ NS 47 (1997) 269-291.

Woods, David.  *Valens, Valentinian I and the Ioviani Cornuti.+  In Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History.  Ed:  Carl Deroux.  Latomus, 9.  Brussels, 1998.  462-486. PA 6011 S78.  Ammianus’ *work is a masterpiece of irony, insinuation, and, most important of all, skilful omission+ (482f).

Woods, David.  *Ammianus 22.4.6:  An Unnoticed Anti-Christian Jibe.+  JThS NS 49 (1998) 145-148.  VUEM.

Wotke, Friedrich.  *Orosius.+  In Pauly-Wissowa.  1942.  18:1185-1195.  *der Vorname Paulus findet sich zuerst in einem Zitat bei Iordanes (Get IX,58)+ (1185).  Four monarchies, 1189.

Wright, Arthur Frederick.  *Fo-t’u-têng:  A Biography.+  Harvard JAS 11 (1948) 321-371.  Introduction of Buddhism into China (from Khotan).  Contemporary with the fall of Lo-yang, fourth century AD.  Includes early history of the Hsiung-nu.

Wright, David Curtis.  *The Hsiung-nu-Hun Equation revisited.+  Eurasian Studies Yearbook.  69 (1997) 77-112.  Attila.

Wright, William, ed.  The Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite Composed in Syriac AD 507.  Cambridge, 1882.  DS 96 J6.

Wright, Wilmer Cave, ed. tr [Mrs, née France].  The Works of the Emperor Julian.  Loeb.  3 vols.  London, 1913-1923;  1969.  PA 4225 J4 1913.  With biblio by AF Norman in 1969 reprint.  Important intro to historical background of letters.

Wylie, Alexander.  *On an Ancient Buddhist Inscription at Keu-yung-kwan in North China.+  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.  5 (1871) 14-44.  10th Apex.  Polyglot inscription.

Wylie, Alexander.  *History of the Heung Noo in their Relations with China.+  Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute.  3 (1874) 401-452.  GN 2 R63.  Han Annals, translated from the Tseen-Han-shoo, (Szema-Tseen) Book 94ff.  Early period, compare with Parker.  Hsiung-nu king invented a sounding arrow, 408.  Left and Right Officers, 410;  Inner Gentleman Usher, 437 (Boris.bib).

Wylie, Alexander.  *History of the Heung Noo in their Relations with China.+  Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute.  5 (1876) 41-80.  GN 2 R63.  Occasional references to Ouigur, 68.  Hsiung-nu = savage slaves, 74.

Wylie, Alexander.  *Notes on the Western Regions.+  Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute.  10 (1881) 20-48 (App 49-73).  Period of Emperor Woo-te [140-87], 36 Western kingdoms, eventually turning to 50, all west of Hsiung-nu and south of Woo-sun (20).  Ki-pin, 33.  Cf Pliny, Ptolemy, Mela.

Xiphilinus, John the Younger, of Trebizond [fl 1070's].  Epitome of Dio Cassius of Nicaea’s Roman History embracing the reigns of twenty five Caesars from Pompeius Magnus to Alexander son of Mamaea.  Early English translation online, microform.  Studies:  Brunt, Edmondson.  Check biblio of Cassius, AnPhil for more.  Covers from 69 B to AD 229.  Uneven summary.  Check if passage on Alans in this epitome.

Xiphilinus, Joannes.  Dionis Nicaei rerum romanarum a Pompeio Magno ad Alexandrum Mamaeae filium Epitome.  Paris:  Estienne, 1551.  VUCS PA 5395 X5 L4 1551.

Xiphilinus, Joannes.  E Dione excerptae historiae ab Ioanne Xiphilino.  Geneva:  Estienne, 1592.  VUCS PA 3947 A47 1592.

Xiphilin, Jean.  L’histoire de Dion Cassius de Nycaee:  contenant les vies des vingt six empereurs qui ont regné depuis Jules César jusqu’à Alexandre le fils de Mamaee, abbrégée par Xiphilin.  Paris:  Jean Richer, 1610.  VUCS PA 5395 X5 F7 1610.

Yadav, Babu Ram.  A Critical Study of the Sources of Kalidasa.  Delhi:  Aligarh, 1974.  PK 3797 Y3.

Yasodharman, King [fl AD 532].  Inscriptions.  Ed:  Fleet.  Mentions of the Huna in inscriptions 33, 34, 35 by Yasodharman who claims to have conquered lands which even the Guptas and the Hunas could not subdue.  Inscription ‘ 33, pages 142-148, from Dasor, Chief town of the Mandasa District of Central India.  Weathered and hard to read, in Sanskrit, Northern Alphabet.  Not dated but can be shown to be from about AD 532-533.  *those countries [...] which were not enjoyed (even) by the lords of the Guptas whose prowess was displayed by invading the whole (remainder of the) earth, (and) which the command of the chiefs of the Hunas, that established itself on the tiaras of (many) kings, failed to penetrate+ (147f).

Yu Houan.  Wei lio = Tien lio.  Ed:  Chavannes.  Unofficial history closing with Emperor Ming (227-239).  Survives incorporated in later histories.  *le royaume de Yen-ts’ai qu’on appelle aussi A-lan;  ils ont tous les mêmes moeurs que le K’ang-kiu [Sogdiane];  à l’Ouest, ils touchent au Ta-ts’in [Rome];  au Sud-Est, au K’ang-kiu;  dans ces royaumes il y a beaucoup de martres réputées;  (les habitants) sont pasteurs et vont à la recherche des eaux et des pâturages;  ils sont voisins de grands marais;  précédemment ils ont parfois été quelque peu soumis au K’ang-kiu, mais maintenant ils n’en dépendent pas+ (558f).

Zangemeister, Carolus [Karl Friedrich Wilhelm], ed.  Pauli Orosii Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII.  CSEL, 5.  Vienna: Gerold, 1882.  BQ 6158 H4 E5;  BZ 5205 C6 O7 #31.  With apparatus.  For emendations, see Svennung 1922.

Zangemeister, Carolus [Karl Friedrich Wilhelm], ed.  Pauli Orosii Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII.  CSEL, 5.  Vienna: Gerold, 1882;  revised edition Leipzig:  Teubner, 1889.  Where?  Without apparatus, but with corrigenda.

Zangemeister, Carolus [Karl Friedrich Wilhelm], ed.  Pauli Orosii Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII accedit eiusdem Liber apologeticum.  Reprint of 1882 without corrections Hildesheim:  Georg Olms, 1967.  D 17 O65 1882a Roba.

Zehnacker, Hubert, ed, tr.  Pline l’Ancien:  Histoire naturelle.  Livre 3.  Paris:  BL, 1998.  PA 6613 F8 Z4.  *Scardona, située sur ce fleuve [Titius] à 12 milles de la mer, marque la fin de la Liburnie et le commencement de la Dalmatie+ (3,26,141).  *La Pannonie … où les sommets des Alpes se font moins abrupts, traversent le milieu de l’Illyrie du nord au midi et s’abaissent en pente douce vers la droite et la gauche.  La partie qui regarde vers la mer Adriatique s’appelle la Dalmatie et l’Illyrie, dont on a parlé ci-dessus;  quant à la Pannonie, elle est tournée vers le Nord et sa limite est le Danube+ (3,28,147).  *A la Pannonie vient toucher la province appelée Mésie…+ (3,29,149).

Zeiller, Jacques.  *Saint Jérôme et les Goths.+  In Miscellanea Geronimiana.  Rome:  Vatican Press, 1920.  123-130.  PIMS BR 1720 J5 M57.  Gothic philology.  Re:  Letter 106, ed Hilberg.

Zeiller, Jacques.  *L’apparition du mot Romania chez les écrivains latins.+  REL 7 (1929) 194-198.

Zenos, Andrew Constantinides, tr.  Socrates:  Church History from AD 305-439.  In vol 2 of NPNF, second series.  1890;  reprint Grand Rapids, Mi.:  Eerdmans, 1979.  1-178.  BR 60 S46.

Zimmermann, Richard.  *Posidonius und Strabo.+  Hermes 23 (1888) 103-130.  Strabo 3,2,9;  2,3,8;  etc.

Zonaras, John [fl 1118].  Epitome historiarum.  Text:  DuCange, Dindorf, Büttner-Wobst (CSHB, 29-31, with history of early editions).  Studies:  Bleckmann, DiMaio, Mazzarino, Schmidt.  Early source:  Josephus.  *In 1118 … Zonaras used Dio as his main source … to the reign of Nerva … AD 96+ (Edmondson 29).  Note by Bernhardy concerning Carus and the Huns, as reported by Zonaras (was his source Dio, Dexippus?).  Persian wars, his source was Peter the Patrician.  *Sic ille [Jovianus] accepto imperio cum Persis pacem fecit necessariam magis quam decoram.  Nam Nisibi et Singara urbibus illustribus eis cessit, civibus alio translatis…+ (13,14).

Zosimus Comes et exadvocatus fisci.  Recent History.  Text:  Bekker and Reitemeier (CSHB), Buchanan and Davis, Mendelssohn, Paschoud, Ridley.  Studies:  Blockley, Bury, Cameron, Chalmers, DiMaio, Goffart, Herwerden, Höfler, Jeep (date), Kiessling, Leidig, Mommsen, Norman, Olivetti, Rappaport, Rosenstein, Rozental, Rühl (date), Zuckerman.  See Authors file.  Pagan bureaucrat, wrote a history of Rome’s decadence, probably betwen 498 and 581, under Anastasius is the preferred date.  Important for evaluating Julian’s defeat.  *il embrouille la chronologie, ignore la géographie, met ensemble ce qui n’a pas de rapport et dissocie ce qui ne devrait pas l’être, néglige ce qui est important pour s’attacher à des anecdotes controuvées+ (Paschoud lxvi).

Zosimus.  Recent History.  Baynes, battle of Mursa, 2,45-53.  Browning for 4,41 re the Riot of the Statues.  5,29,6-9 for Serena’s execution.  5.3; 8,1:  Eutropius and Stilico eliminated Rufinus, for which see Matthews.  Bastarnae, 1,42,71.

Zosimus.  Recent History.  Boranoi 1,27,1;  *Les Boranes, les Goths, les Carpes et les Urugondes — ces peuplades sont installées autour du Danube+ (1,31,1 with notes in Paschoud).  Studies:  Gaidukevich, Graebner.

Zosimus.  Recent History.  Goths and Huns confused by author, made even worse by scholars;  calls the Goths Scyths following Dexippus, for which see Enmann;  see also Richter.  4,20,3ff:  Huns are introduced;  passage taken from Eunapius, frag 41.  5,22:  Gainas leaves the Empire, crosses the Danube, and is killed by Uldin, the leader of the Huns, who sends his head to Arcadius [death of Gainas Dec 23, 400].  Rufinus and the Huns, 5,4.  5,50:  *Sur ces entrefaites, l’empereur appela à son secours comme alliés dix mille Huns afin de faire la guerre à Alaric+ (note 112, page 313).

Zotenberg, Hermann.  *Mémoire sur la chronique byzantine de Jean, évêque de Nikiou.+  Journal asiatique.  7th series 10 (1877) 451-571;  12 (1878) 245-347;  13 (1879) 291-386.  Extracts.  Composée en Egypte au 7e siècle, traduite en grec, mais connue selon une traduction éthiopienne basée sur une version arabe (1877:451).  L’auteur a suivi la même chronique que Malalas, Jean d’Antioche, la Chronique pascale (1878:245).

Zotenberg, Hermann.  *Chronique de Johannes évêque de Nikiu, texte éthiopien publié et traduit.+  Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale.  24,1 (1883) 125-608, with index.  Z 6620 F8 N78.  Complete text.  A major lacuna occurred in the transmission of the story of Heraclius.

Zuckerman, Constantine.  *Cappadocian Fathers and the Goths.+  TM 11 (1991) 473-486.  See Diekamp, 1908.  St. Basil and St. Sabas:  Acts written by Ascholius, a Cappadocian priest of Roman Scythia.  *Sabas, a middle-aged Goth+ (473).  *Cappadocian dux of Scythia, Junius Soranus+ (475).  Gothic uprising of 379, cf Zosimus 4,25 (479ff).  *Ammianus’ silence+ (482).  *doubts on the veracity of Ammianus+ (485).


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